SDO was first proposed by Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto as part of their Social Dominance Theory (SDT). SDO is the key measurable component of SDT that is specific to it.. SDT begins with the empirical observation that surplus-producing social systems have a threefold group-based hierarchy structure: age-based, gender-based and arbitrary set-based, which can include race, class, sexual orientation, caste, ethnicity, religious affiliation, etc. Age-based hierarchies invariably give more power to adults and middle-age people than children and younger adults, and gender-based hierarchies invariably grant more power to men than women, but arbitrary-set hierarchies though quite resilient are truly arbitrary.. SDT is based on three primary assumptions:. 1. While age- and gender-based hierarchies will tend to exist within all social systems, arbitrary-set systems of social hierarchy will invariably emerge within social systems producing sustainable economic surpluses.. 2. Most forms of group conflict ...
Has male dominance in political life been broken? Will gender balance in elected assemblies soon be reached? This book analyses the longitudinal development of womens political representation in eight old democracies, in which women were enfranchised before and around World War I: Denmark, Iceland, Germany, the Netherlands, New Jersey (USA), New South Wales (Australia), Sweden, and the United Kingdom. These countries/states have all followed an incremental track model of change in womens position in political life, but have followed different trajectories. This slow development stands in contrast to recent examples of fast-track development in many countries from the Global South, not least as a result of the adoption of gender quotas. Furthermore, the book discusses in four separate chapters the common historical development in old democracies, the different trajectories and sequences, the framing of women politicians, and the impact of party and party system change. In this book an innovative model
Theory suggests that living in large social groups with dynamic social interactions often favors the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities. Studies of how animals assess their own contest ability commonly focus on a single cognitive task, and little is known about the diversity or co-occurrence of cognitive abilities in social species. We examined how a highly social cichlid fish Julidochromis transcriptus uses four major cognitive abilities in contest situations; direct experience, winner/loser effects, social eavesdropping and transitive inference (TI). We conducted experiments in which fish assessed the social status of rivals after either direct physical contests or observed contests. Individuals used direct information from a previous physical encounter to re-establish dominance without additional contact, but winner/loser effects were not observed. Social eavesdropping alone was ruled out, but we found that transitive reasoning was used to infer social dominance of other individuals of unknown
A University of Rochester study helps to explain why men get liver cancer more often than women and opens the door for a new treatment pathway, by showing a direct link between the androgen receptor, which is more active in men, and the hepatitis B virus as it relates to the deadly cancer.. The study was published May 19, 2010, in Science Translational Medicine, a new journal from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS.. Primary liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men. It often arises after infection from the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is widespread across the globe and growing in the United States. Other studies of liver cancer have focused on risk factors such as age, family history, and use of alcohol and cigarettes, but those epidemiology studies have not explained the mechanisms driving hepatocellular carcinoma and why men are more susceptible.. Now, corresponding author Chawnshang Chang, Ph.D., the George Hoyt Whipple Distinguished Professor of ...
Animals can be important mediators of resource heterogeneity and fluxes. While the properties of ecosystems generated by animals often result from interactions among multiple taxonomic and functional groups and environmental factors, most studies reduce these processes by examining processes performed by a single animal group under relatively static environmental conditions. Thus, our understanding of how animal-mediated ecosystem processes vary with abiotic and biotic context is limited. I propose a conceptual framework and present empirical evidence for animal-mediated nutrient cycling that considers potential effects of spatially overlapping animal groups within dynamic ecosystems to address this issue. First, I evaluate this framework by testing if biogeochemical hotspots generated by stable aggregations of mussels attract fishes. I quantified how different fish assemblage biomass was distributed between mussel bed reaches and reaches without mussel under different hydrologic conditions. I ...
Researchers have described several reasons why the dominance model is a poor choice for dog training.[75] First, a relationship based on dominance is established to gain priority access to scarce resources, not to impose particular behaviors on the less dominant animal,[76] so the dominance model is irrelevant for most of the behaviors that people want from their dogs, such as coming when called or walking calmly on a leash.[75] Second dominance-submission relationships, once established, are constantly tested and must be regularly reinforced.[77] Thus people, particularly children and the elderly, may not be able to retain their rank and are at risk of being injured if they attempt to do so.[75] Third, dominant individuals gain priority access to resources, but only while they are present, establishing dominance over a dog does not guarantee its behavior when the dominant individual is distant or absent.[75] ...
Civilization cannot exist without a strong state. Even hunter-gatherer bands have leaders; even chimpanzee groups have leaders. Dominance hierarchies are a distinctive feature of all primate social groups. When dominance hierarchies break down, the result is escalating violence, not greater freedom. The simpler forms of social organization in primitive pre-state societies dont allow much personal freedom in practice, since in those societies human behavior is strongly constrained by the expectations of tradition; and as we now know, levels of violence in such societies are staggeringly high by our standards. Also, such systems only work for small population sizes. If a society has a population above a few tens of thousands, in practice the only workable form of organization is the state. Historically, most states have not provided much freedom because doing so hasnt been a priority (in fact, historically one of the features of the state is large-scale slavery), but they do at least usually ...
A. Human infants face the formidable challenge of learning the structure of their social environment. Previous research indicates that infants have early-developing representations of intentional agents, and of cooperative social interactions, that help meet that challenge. Here we report five studies with 144 infant participants showing that 10- to 13-month-old, but not 8-month-old, infants recognize when two novel agents have conflicting goals, and that they use the agents relative size to predict the outcome of the very first dominance contests between them. These results suggest that preverbal infants mentally represent social dominance and use a cue that covaries with it phylogenetically, and marks it metaphorically across human cultures and languages, to predict which of two agents is likely to prevail in a conflict of goals. Science 331, 477-480 (2011) ...
This is your stop for learning resources, extra info and essential dates and documents. Ive scoured the world just to bring you, the A Level biologists, all you need to succeed and enjoy your Biology A Level.
Male dominance isnt just about beating the competition to a pulp: When a male house mouse conquers new territory, it releases come-hither pheromones
Using HR-MRI, we examined the vessel wall status in young adult patients with unilateral MCA disease who had minimal risk factors. HR-MRI including black-blood precontrast and postcontrast T1-weighted sequences with fat suppression image can delineate the arterial wall from the lumen and the surrounding perivascular structures,18 and postcontrast T1-weighted sequences can be used to identify the contrast enhancement of the arterial wall.12. We found that only 26 of the 95 (27.4%) patients showed HR-MRI findings compatible with atherosclerosis. Other nonatherosclerotic findings included HR-MMD (29 patients), HR-dissection (22 patients), and HR-vasculitis (18 patients). The HR-athero patients were more often male and smokers. Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for cerebral infarction in young adults.19 The male dominance in the HR-athero group may in part be because of the different smoking prevalence between males and female. There also is a tendency for HR-athero patients to be older ...
But there are at least two exceptions to the European male dominance "rule": in the samples of Oriente (Guatemala) and Salta (Argentine, near Bolivia) the European ancestry bars are about the same, what actually translates as Native American male ancestry larger than the female one, and European female ancestry unusually large. The same is true for the samples of Pasto and Peque (both in rural Colombia), though maybe not as exageratedly. So there are 4/14 where the standard machista Eurocentric mestizaje was modified up to inversion. Why? Dont know yet but a clue may be in the rural nature of these mestizo samples, as well as in the fact that they are among the 5 samples that have highest Native American blood overall. Probably European immigration was low in those areas and therefore Mestizo women (rather than purely European, who were always few) may have no choice but marrying natives (I mean it was, and surely still is, socially less favorable - I naturally do not oppose that personally, ...
lots of other things are happening. *A note about bitch. In the UK today, bitch is considered a taboo word, as it is used insultingly of women to suggest ideas of male dominance and ownership of sexually available women. Fifty years ago it was also used insultingly, but with a different sense - then a bitch was a bad-tempered or wilful woman. (And in between, as in the 1984 film, The Bitch, starring Joan Collins, it suggested both independence and promiscuity.) But for a writer born in the 19th century, it has no such overtones - it is just the usual noun for a female of the dog species. (We can still see bitch used in this way in advertisements placed by dog-breeders.) The themes of this story Like several of the authors, Joyce Cary chooses a title that suggests one of the themes of the story - that of growing up. This appears to refer mostly to the two sisters, Kate and Jenny. Later we see that it may also apply in a way to their father, Robert, who has been able to play with them for ...
Ecologists attempt to name and classify ecosystems in a manner similar to the way that taxonomists name and classify species. Ecosystems may be named according to their dominant plants, such as deciduous forests, prairies, and evergreen forests. Others, such as coral reefs, are named according to their dominant animals. Physical factors are used to name deserts, ponds, tidal pools, and other ecosystems ...
Japanese macaques, an old world primate, illustrate this principle perfectly. Macaque society revolves around females, who form intricate dominance hierarchies within a given group. Males are transient. To help maintain the necessary social networks, female macaques engage in rampant lesbianism. These friendly copulations, which can last up to four days, form the bedrock of macaque society, preventing unnecessary violence and aggression. Females that sleep together will even defend each other from the unwanted advances of male macaques. In fact, behavioral scientist Paul Vasey has found that females will choose to mate with another female, as opposed to a horny male, 92.5% of the time. While this lesbianism probably decreases reproductive success for macaques in the short term, in the long run it is clearly beneficial for the species, since it fosters social stability. "Same-sex sexuality is just another way of maintaining physical intimacy," Roughgarden says. "Its like grooming, except we have ...
She said: This research begins to tease apart the trade-offs in both high and low status in primates, including ourselves, which may lead to understanding the effects of social status on death and disease - not inconsequential for society as a whole. ...
A similar premise was used in Life from the Ashes in X-Files fandom in the 1990s. In that story, a virus biologically changes half of the male population into breeding partners who emit sex pheromones. Social differentiation between the biologically determined groups is not explicit, although by the end of the story, it is implied. You also see many of the same elements in Indago[1], a Harry/Draco story from the skyehawke archive published in 2005. Draco, Harry, and Snape turn out to be magical creatures called Indago, who are genderless but fall into categories of Supero and subicio, who are extremely similar to alphas and omegas, except for knotting. There is still scenting, heat, self-lubrication, mpreg, use of Supero pheromones to control or placate subicios, and Superos establish a dominance hierarchy and use the terms alpha and beta. In March 2011, the NCIS Gibbs/DiNozzo Centaur-fic Heat was posted by Kathana-grey, positing many of the same concepts used in early Omegaverse works but ...
Social Status News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Social Status From The tribunedigital-sunsentinel
Are you a plugin novice or a true audio expert? Take this quiz to test your knowledge of all things audio and see how you rank on the pro audio scale.
Why do rich people live longer and have less disease than poor peopleeven when access to health care is equal?The answer may surprise you.A new baboon
Hello: I know on this site many feel that it is pretty much impossible to get too much progesterone. From my own experience, I disagree. At different
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of natal male alliances on aggression and power dynamics in rhesus macaques. AU - Beisner, B. A.. AU - Jackson, M. E.. AU - Cameron, A.. AU - Mccowan, B.. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - In the wild, male rhesus macaques disperse at sexual maturity. In captivity, however, males cannot disperse from their natal groups. Thus, the presence of natal males in captive rhesus social groups is unnatural and has the potential to negatively influence group dynamics and stability. A primary difference between natal males and non-natal (immigrant) males is that natal males have the opportunity to form long-term alliances with their maternal kin as well as nonkin. We investigated the factors associated with natal males kin alliances and the impact of these alliances on measures of natal male behavior, group dynamics, and group stability. We found that natal males more frequently formed alliances with maternal kin when they were from high-ranking matrilines, had more siblings, and were ...
Dominance rank in female chimpanzees correlates positively with reproductive success. Although a high rank obviously has an advantage for females, clear (linear) hierarchies in female chimpanzees have not been detected. Following the predictions of the socio-ecological model, the type of food competition should affect the dominance relationships among females. We investigated food competition and relationships among 11 adult female chimpanzees in the Taï National Park, Côte dIvoire (West Africa). We detected a formal linear dominance hierarchy among the females based on greeting behaviour directed from the subordinate to the dominant female. Females faced contest competition over food, and it increased when either the food was monopolizable or the number of competitors increased. Winning contests over food, but not age, was related to the dominance rank. Affiliative relationships among the females did not help to explain the absence of greetings in some dyads. However comparison post hoc ...
Sex chromosomes change more frequently in fish than in mammals or birds. However, certain chromosomes or genes are repeatedly used as sex determinants in different members of the teleostean lineage. East African cichlids are an enigmatic model system in evolutionary biology representing some of the most diverse extant vertebrate adaptive radiations. How sex is determined and if different sex-determining mechanisms contribute to speciation is unknown for almost all of the over 1,500 cichlid species of the Great Lakes. Here, we investigated the genetic basis of sex determination in a cichlid from Lake Tanganyika, Astatotilapia burtoni, a member of the most species-rich cichlid lineage, the haplochromines. We used RAD-sequencing of crosses for two populations of A. burtoni, a lab strain and fish caught at the south of Lake Tanganyika. Using association mapping and comparative genomics, we confirmed male heterogamety in A. burtoni and identified different sex chromosomes (LG5 and LG18) in the two
In insect societies, only one to few individuals members of a colony can reproduce, whereas the other colony members have their reproductive capabilities suppressed. This conflict over reproduction in some cases results in a dominance hierarchy. Dominant individuals in this case are known as queens and have the obvious advantage of performing reproduction and benefiting from all the tasks performed by their subordinates, the worker caste (foraging, nest maintenance, nest defense, brood care and thermal regulation). According to Hamiltons rule, the reproduction costs of the worker caste are compensated by the contribution of workers to the queens reproductive success, with which they share genes. This is true not only to the popular social insects (ants, termites, some bees and wasps), but also for the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber. In a laboratory experiment, Clarke and Faulkes (1997)[18] demonstrated that reproductive status in a colony of H. glaber was correlated with the individuals ...
Fine Art Photography: Yellow Paper Wasp Polistes dominulus Author: Alfred Schauhuber Date: 2006-08-21 Maximum available size: 18. DOWNLOAD
Our research program uses fishes, and specifically the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni (see Model System page), as models to study how the brain processes information, how sensory systems contribute to behavior, and how natural plasticity in an animals internal hormonal or nutritional state can influence neural function and behavioral outcomes. Fishes are the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, which provides us with ideal organisms to study basic neuron and sensory function, and how it relates to proximate and ultimate behavioral mechanisms in comparative and evolutionary contexts. ...
Adults are territorial, and mark their territory by loudly slapping their head down on the water or snapping their jaws on the surface of the water. Dominant animals tend to swim higher in the water; other crocodilians of the same species communicate their submission by swimming lower in the water. Dominant animals control access to mates, choice nesting sites, food, basking sites, and living space. During drought, territories are forgotten as crocodilians crowd into the smaller remaining inhabitable area, although hierarchies are still observed. In some species and in some areas, territories are only maintained by males or only during mating season. Combat between crocodilians is rare, but does sometimes occur between animals of the same size competing for dominance. They bang the sides of their heads together or sometimes bite each other, but in either case they rarely cause any lasting damage. Crocodilians communicate with each other by means of sounds, postures, motions, odors released by ...
Changes in a female monkeys social status lead to changes in her immune system, and researchers writing in this weeks edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) Early Edition suggest that the findings may be applicable to humans as well.. The research, which was led by Jenny Tung, currently a visiting assistant professor in Duke Universitys evolutionary anthropology department and a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Chicago at the time of the study, is said to be the first to utilize an experimental approach to analyze how gene expression patters across a range of genes correlates with the social dominance of an animal, the Durham, North Carolina-based school said in a press release on Monday.. Emory University, home of the Yerkes National Primate Research Center (where the research was conducted), said that Tung and her colleagues studied 49 female rhesus macaques and could determine the social rank of each macaque, without looking at the animal itself, ...
For the first time, scientists have directly linked social cues to an immediate genetic response in the brain, according to a new study in PloS Biology. Only minutes after subordinate male cichlid fish sense an opportunity to become socially dominant, they display dominant characteristics such as changes in color and behavior, and express egr-1, encoding a transcription factor that likely triggers enhanced fertility and other long-term dominance traits.. "People forget that social influences are pretty important," said study co-author Russell Fernald at Stanford University in California. "Heres the case where the social is everything. [It] regulates brain structure in a very direct way.". Characterized by a dynamic social hierarchy, the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis) burtoni can readily alter sexual capacities, and only dominant males are physiologically able to reproduce. "We were interested in understanding how this occurred at a mechanistic level, uncovering earliest steps that ...
Black-capped ( Poecile atricapillus ) and Carolina ( P. carolinensis ) chickadees hybridize extensively in a long and narrow contact zone, but mechanisms of mate choice remain incompletely understood. I investigated nonbreeding social relationships, which may affect pairing, in southeastern Pennsylvania. During my study, irrupting Black-capped Chickadees joined local hybrid residents, so I also investigated their relationships. Males participated in more social interactions than did females, but there was no difference in average dominance rank. Older birds were not more dominant than younger birds. Known social pairs did not have high association index values during the winter months. Sex or dominance rank did not affect distance moved between breeding season and winter months. Irruption Black-capped Chickadees did not become integrated within local hybrid flocks. This study suggests that flock structure in local flocks maybe less tightly structured and more difficult to study than in regions ...
The selfish herd theory states that individuals within a population attempt to reduce their predation risk by putting other conspecifics between themselves and predators. A key element in the theory is the domain of danger, the area of ground in which every point is nearer to a particular individual than to any other individual. Such antipredator behavior inevitably results in aggregations. The theory was proposed by W. D. Hamilton in 1971 to explain the gregarious behavior of a variety of animals. It contrasted the popular hypothesis that evolution of such social behavior was based on mutual benefits to the population. The basic principle governing selfish herd theory is that in aggregations, predation risk is greatest on the periphery and decreases toward the center. More dominant animals within the population are proposed to obtain low-risk central positions, whereas subordinate animals are forced into higher risk positions. The hypothesis has been used to explain why populations at higher ...
A study of rhesus macaque monkeys may have solved a long-standing puzzle on a link between social rank and health. A study of 10 social groups of macaque females showed that the activity level of an individuals immune genes was an accurate predictor of her social rank.. In a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the research team also showed that the monkeys immunity changed when social rank was altered. The work suggests that status drives immune health, rather than vice-versa. A great many studies have shown associations in both humans and non-human primates between social environment and biological markers of health.. ...
Chapter 1 ("Womens Opportunities & the Social Organization of Writing") investigates literatures social organization and the basis of women writers legitimacy and the structure of their opportunity to engage in literary activity. Chapter 2 ("History of the Present and the Presence of History: Traffic in Symbols, Knowledge, and Experience") focuses on three writers. Poet Fowziyha Abu-Khalid, is interested in the relationship of literature and religion. She believes "that the right of discussion and of participation in discourse should be accorded to everybody." Change, she believes, depends on the masses, not intellectuals. Ruqayya Ash-Shabib, best known as a short story writer, focuses on ordinary women who profoundly changed history. Two examples are Sheherazade and Balqees, the Queen of Sheba. She believes "that the problem is not male dominance, but rather female submission." Rajaa Alem, a pioneering playwright, thinks literatures primary function is "liberation of the individual." ...
As he describes in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, the responders who rejected a low final offer had an average testosterone level more than 50% higher than the average of those who accepted. Five of the seven men with the highest testosterone levels in the study rejected a $5 ultimate offer but only one of the 19 others made the same decision.. What Dr Burnhams result supports is a much deeper rejection of the tenets of classical economics than one based on a slight mis-evolution of negotiating skills. It backs the idea that what people really strive for is relative rather than absolute prosperity. They would rather accept less themselves than see a rival get ahead. That is likely to be particularly true in individuals with high testosterone levels, since that hormone is correlated with social dominance in many species.. Economists often refer to this sort of behaviour as irrational. In fact, it is not. It is simply, as it were, differently rational. The things that money can buy are ...
In all taxa where sexes were known, d15N data implied that males foraged at a higher trophic level. We believe this latter result is linked to a dual foraging strategy among females. With South Georgian shags we found the sex-related dietary differences persisted for long periods (inferred from stable isotope analyses of feathers and blood). We suggest that the trophic differences are driven by differences in physiological performance, with males tending to dive deeper than females because of their size and accessing higher trophic level prey items. Moreover male and female shags tend to forage at different times of day and so the observed differences are unlikely to be driven by the social dominance of males. Highly significant relationships between stable isotope signatures in blood (representing the breeding season diet) and those in feathers (mostly representing the non-breeding season diet) in both the South Georgian and Kerguelen shags suggests that these two taxa comprise individuals that ...
The article is a perspective on utilization of microorganisms and chemosignals in studying human economic behavior. Research in biological roots of economic development has already confirmed that parasitic pressure influenced the creation and development of cultural norms and institutions. However, other effects of microorganisms on human groups and individual decision-making and behavior are heavily understudied. The perspective discusses how parasitic infections, sexually transmitted organisms and microbiota (i.e., "human holobiont") could causally influence risk-seeking behavior, impulsivity, social dominance, empathy, political views and gender differences. As a case study, the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and its influence on economic preferences, personal characteristics and human appearance are examined. I also briefly review how chemosignals influence decision-making, particularly in the social preferences domain. I mention some predictions that arise from the paradigm of economic ...
A blend that strives to help women to really connect and resonate with people - whether it be their loved one, or just with good friends. Feminine, attractive and alluring, Heart & Soul works its magic on everyone, inviting deep communication, an air of social dominance, and makes people just
Embedded within the educational discourse is a romanticised notion of heterosexuality that effectively trains an individual to adhere to the idealised roles of male dominance and female domesticity and places boundaries around individual emotional and sexual expression.(8) Educational institutions operate under the assumption that young adult sexuality, particularly homosexuality, is something dangerous that requires control, yet at the same time particular (hetero)unions are encouraged.(9) The encouragement is not a particular event; but rather how heterosexuality as the expected normal influences the discourse of the school environment. School rules, uniform and social events prescribe different standards for the sexes and are encouraged, while deviations from gender expectations are devalued. Often those who deviate are given a derogatory term, such as fag, which then becomes a label that can be applied to any individual as a threat to the rule of masculinity and heterosexuality.(10) ...
Brenna Rushing said it best when she wrote "The SMU womens basketball team wins games; the mens team wins fans" in an article that appeared in the Daily Campus in April of 2009. At that time the womens basketball team had a record of 20 -11, compared to the mens nearly inverse final record of 9 - 21. Despite the discrepancy in athletic accomplishment, the mens basketball team averaged nearly 2,000 more fans a game than the womens team (Rushing, 2009). This phenomenon is not unique to SMUs campus. Nationwide, at both the professional and the collegiate level, mens basketball grosses more fans than womens basketball. What accounts for this disparity? Research suggests that the male dominance of sports significantly undermines the legitimacy of the female athlete (Messner, 1988; Smith, 2001). Furthermore, I propose that the difference in fan support may be a consequence of the strong association of female basketball players with gender nonconformity by virtue of their basketball player ...
The Data obtained was statistically analyzed using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS Statistics software (Version 23). The data was summarized using percentages, mean and standard deviation. Difference in distribution of cases was analyzed using chi square test of goodness of fit. Chi square test of association was used to study association of qualitative data such as fracture type, category of oxford score and range of motion. Difference in average final outcome in terms of MPTA and PPTA with respect to range of motion was studied using unpaired t test at 95% confidence interval. Pearsons Correlation coefficient was used to study various correlations among data obtained.. Results. In this prospective study, 30 patients of fresh Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures satisfying study criteria were included. The mean age of the patients was observed to be 31.7 years (range 19-50 years) with a male dominance (93%). The most common mode of injury observed in our study was road traffic ...
OBJECTIVES We focus on a hypothesized mechanism that may underlie the well-documented link between social status and health-behavioral health risks. METHODS We use longitudinal data from representative samples of 6,106 middle-aged and 3,636 older adults from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the relationships between social status-including early life social status (e.g., parental schooling), ascribed social status (e.g., sex, race-ethnicity), and achieved social status (e.g., schooling, economic resources)-and behavioral health risks (e.g., weight, smoking, drinking, physical activity) to (1) assess how early life and ascribed social statuses are linked to behavioral health risks, (2) investigate the role of achieved factors in behavioral health risks, (3) test whether achieved status explains the contributions of early life and ascribed status, and (4) examine whether the social status and health risk relationships differ at midlife and older age. RESULTS We find that early life, achieved
Simply being at the bottom of the social heap directly alters the body," BBC News reports. The headline is based on a study in which researchers used female monkeys to simulate social hierarchies.. Monkeys of low social status were found to have biomarkers indicating poor immune function and possible increased vulnerability to infection.. The researchers arranged the monkeys into social groups and observed behaviours for two years to determine the social hierarchy. They then "mixed-up" the groups so that some of the monkeys were introduced into other groups as the "new girl". This effectively meant that the "newbie monkey" was stripped of all social status.. They then took blood samples to look at any effect this had on the immune system. The study found that social rankings in the monkey groups had an effect on white blood cells involved in fighting off disease. These findings suggested that the stress of a lower social ranking may increase inflammation and reduce resistance to infection and ...
Being at the very top of a social hierarchy may be more costly than previously thought, according to a new study of wild baboons led by a Princeton University ecologist. A new study has found that in wild baboon populations, the highest-ranking, or alpha, males have higher stress-hormone levels than the highly ranked males below them, known as beta males -- even during periods of stability.
Observe one group of animals housed together for 40 minutes. Make a chart with those 10 interactions across the top and the list of animals in the cage down one side. Note dominance interactions as they occur, under type of interaction and animals involved, e.g. under supplanting you might have a d for animal 4 and an s for animal 6, indicating that animal 4 spatially supplanted animal 6. Any given interaction may fall into more than one type: mark it under as many types as relevant but indicate that it is one behavior sequence (for instance, you might number interactions sequentially ld-ls, 2d-2s, 3d-3s, etc.).. Rank animals in order of number of ds. Rank in order of number of ss. What do you perceive to be the rank order of the animals in this group? What kind of interaction is most closely correlated (by eye) with your rank order? Is the rank order of some animals (e.g., very young juveniles) improved by their association with a more dominant animal? Hand in notes and chart along with ...
Labyrinthodont is a term which was used for fossil amphibia. Although it is no longer a formal term in taxonomy, it is still useful as an evolutionary grade, a kind of catch-all term. Labyrinth mean a maze and dont means tooth.. Labyrinthodonts are often called Temnospondyls.[1] The Labyrinthodontia is not a clade, because it is not monophyletic. It has been replaced in the classification by more correct terms.. The labyrithodonts were some of the dominant animals from the Devonian to the Lower Triassic (about 390 to 210 million years ago). The group is an evolutionary grade (a polyphyletic or paraphyletic group) of species which look rather similar.. The name describes the pattern of infolding of the dentine and enamel of the teeth, which often fossilise. They are also have a heavily armoured skull roof (so they also have an even older name "Stegocephalia"), and complex vertebrae.. ...
When you start a new job, its normal to spend the first day working out whos who in the pecking order, information that will come in handy for making connections in the future. In an fMRI study published in Neuron, researchers at DeepMind and UCL provide insights into how we acquire knowledge about social hierarchies, and reveal the specific mechanisms at play when that hierarchy is our own (as compared to that of another person).
In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that enzyme-producing alleles usually show complete dominance. For genes producing nonenzymatic proteins such as collagen or hemoglobin, the amount of product matters, and dominance relationships are more complicated. Furthermore, with hemoglobin, dominance can change depending on what aspect of the phenotype is being studied and on the environmental conditions. X-linked genes are a special case, whether enzymatic or not. Because of X-chromosome inactivation, only one X-linked allele can be active in a cell, which means that the concept of dominance cannot be applied at the cellular level. Instead, a type of dominance is demonstrated at the individual level; but even ...
From Agonistic Behavior to Dominance Hierarchy: An Evolutionary Parable. Picture a wild animal of your morphological choosing. Its solitary and highly territorial. Outside the mating season most of its encounters with conspecifics take the form of agonistic clashes over resources. It has consequently evolved some fairly simple neurocognitive machinery for dealing effectively in these encounters. What it does, briefly put, is first assess the size of any competing conspecific relative to itself and then do one of two things: If the conspecific is clearly bigger, the animal flees; if it is roughly the same size or smaller, the animal attacks and attempts to drive it off.. Now, suppose the habitat of this animal shrinks dramatically, squeezing the entire population into a very limited (but still survivable) space and greatly increasing the encounter rate between individuals. This solitary species, in other words, is forced into a kind of impromptu sociality. Now, under these new conditions a ...
This study showed that an individuals propensity to adjust contest decisions after wins and losses depends on its hormonal state: individuals with lower levels of F, T and KT were more receptive to the influence of recent contest experiences and retained the influence for longer than individuals with higher levels of the hormones. In this study, KT was the only hormone that had a significant positive correlation with the probabilities of behaving aggressively and of winning the size-matched contests. In past studies, however, T correlated positively with winning contests[23] and both T and F correlated positively with the fishs aggressiveness towards its mirror image[22]. Taking together the findings that individuals with a losing experience one month previously[9] and those with lower levels of F, T or KT (this study) were more prone to changing contest behaviours after a recent win or loss, the evidence seems to indicate that, in this fish, less aggressive individuals (because of previous ...