SDO was first proposed by Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto as part of their Social Dominance Theory (SDT). SDO is the key measurable component of SDT that is specific to it.. SDT begins with the empirical observation that surplus-producing social systems have a threefold group-based hierarchy structure: age-based, gender-based and arbitrary set-based, which can include race, class, sexual orientation, caste, ethnicity, religious affiliation, etc. Age-based hierarchies invariably give more power to adults and middle-age people than children and younger adults, and gender-based hierarchies invariably grant more power to men than women, but arbitrary-set hierarchies though quite resilient are truly arbitrary.. SDT is based on three primary assumptions:. 1. While age- and gender-based hierarchies will tend to exist within all social systems, arbitrary-set systems of social hierarchy will invariably emerge within social systems producing sustainable economic surpluses.. 2. Most forms of group conflict ...
Social dominance has opposing effects on behavior following stress in male vs. female mice indicating an important role in sex differences in the stress response.
Has male dominance in political life been broken? Will gender balance in elected assemblies soon be reached? This book analyses the longitudinal development of womens political representation in eight old democracies, in which women were enfranchised before and around World War I: Denmark, Iceland, Germany, the Netherlands, New Jersey (USA), New South Wales (Australia), Sweden, and the United Kingdom. These countries/states have all followed an incremental track model of change in womens position in political life, but have followed different trajectories. This slow development stands in contrast to recent examples of fast-track development in many countries from the Global South, not least as a result of the adoption of gender quotas. Furthermore, the book discusses in four separate chapters the common historical development in old democracies, the different trajectories and sequences, the framing of women politicians, and the impact of party and party system change. In this book an innovative model
Theory suggests that living in large social groups with dynamic social interactions often favors the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities. Studies of how animals assess their own contest ability commonly focus on a single cognitive task, and little is known about the diversity or co-occurrence of cognitive abilities in social species. We examined how a highly social cichlid fish Julidochromis transcriptus uses four major cognitive abilities in contest situations; direct experience, winner/loser effects, social eavesdropping and transitive inference (TI). We conducted experiments in which fish assessed the social status of rivals after either direct physical contests or observed contests. Individuals used direct information from a previous physical encounter to re-establish dominance without additional contact, but winner/loser effects were not observed. Social eavesdropping alone was ruled out, but we found that transitive reasoning was used to infer social dominance of other individuals of unknown
Evolutionary theory predicts grandmothers to invest more in their daughters children than in their sons children, because of the higher likel
A University of Rochester study helps to explain why men get liver cancer more often than women and opens the door for a new treatment pathway, by showing a direct link between the androgen receptor, which is more active in men, and the hepatitis B virus as it relates to the deadly cancer.. The study was published May 19, 2010, in Science Translational Medicine, a new journal from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS.. Primary liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men. It often arises after infection from the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is widespread across the globe and growing in the United States. Other studies of liver cancer have focused on risk factors such as age, family history, and use of alcohol and cigarettes, but those epidemiology studies have not explained the mechanisms driving hepatocellular carcinoma and why men are more susceptible.. Now, corresponding author Chawnshang Chang, Ph.D., the George Hoyt Whipple Distinguished Professor of ...
Animals can be important mediators of resource heterogeneity and fluxes. While the properties of ecosystems generated by animals often result from interactions among multiple taxonomic and functional groups and environmental factors, most studies reduce these processes by examining processes performed by a single animal group under relatively static environmental conditions. Thus, our understanding of how animal-mediated ecosystem processes vary with abiotic and biotic context is limited. I propose a conceptual framework and present empirical evidence for animal-mediated nutrient cycling that considers potential effects of spatially overlapping animal groups within dynamic ecosystems to address this issue. First, I evaluate this framework by testing if biogeochemical hotspots generated by stable aggregations of mussels attract fishes. I quantified how different fish assemblage biomass was distributed between mussel bed reaches and reaches without mussel under different hydrologic conditions. I ...
Researchers have described several reasons why the dominance model is a poor choice for dog training.[75] First, a relationship based on dominance is established to gain priority access to scarce resources, not to impose particular behaviors on the less dominant animal,[76] so the dominance model is irrelevant for most of the behaviors that people want from their dogs, such as coming when called or walking calmly on a leash.[75] Second dominance-submission relationships, once established, are constantly tested and must be regularly reinforced.[77] Thus people, particularly children and the elderly, may not be able to retain their rank and are at risk of being injured if they attempt to do so.[75] Third, dominant individuals gain priority access to resources, but only while they are present, establishing dominance over a dog does not guarantee its behavior when the dominant individual is distant or absent.[75] ...
The last experiment is the most relevant for animal behaviour. Just like the previous experiment, female mice were exposed to a mix of dominant and subordinate male odors for 2 days to establish memories (again, no increased neurogenesis in this time frame). The females were then exposed to either one of the types of male odors for 7 days. The females were later put in a box with 3 compartments side by side (see figure below). The female was in the middle compartment, a subordinate male was on one side and a dominant male on the other. The mice could smell each other but not touch. The purpose of the experiment was to see which of the males would be more interesting to the female (which male shed choose as a mating partner). Almost without fail, the females previously exposed to a dominant male (those females with increased neurogenesis) preferred the dominant male, while the ones previously exposed to a subordinate male (no increase in neurogenesis) had no preference. But heres the really ...
Civilization cannot exist without a strong state. Even hunter-gatherer bands have leaders; even chimpanzee groups have leaders. Dominance hierarchies are a distinctive feature of all primate social groups. When dominance hierarchies break down, the result is escalating violence, not greater freedom. The simpler forms of social organization in primitive pre-state societies dont allow much personal freedom in practice, since in those societies human behavior is strongly constrained by the expectations of tradition; and as we now know, levels of violence in such societies are staggeringly high by our standards. Also, such systems only work for small population sizes. If a society has a population above a few tens of thousands, in practice the only workable form of organization is the state. Historically, most states have not provided much freedom because doing so hasnt been a priority (in fact, historically one of the features of the state is large-scale slavery), but they do at least usually ...
A. Human infants face the formidable challenge of learning the structure of their social environment. Previous research indicates that infants have early-developing representations of intentional agents, and of cooperative social interactions, that help meet that challenge. Here we report five studies with 144 infant participants showing that 10- to 13-month-old, but not 8-month-old, infants recognize when two novel agents have conflicting goals, and that they use the agents relative size to predict the outcome of the very first dominance contests between them. These results suggest that preverbal infants mentally represent social dominance and use a cue that covaries with it phylogenetically, and marks it metaphorically across human cultures and languages, to predict which of two agents is likely to prevail in a conflict of goals. Science 331, 477-480 (2011) ...
This is your stop for learning resources, extra info and essential dates and documents. Ive scoured the world just to bring you, the A Level biologists, all you need to succeed and enjoy your Biology A Level.
Organic selection should favour parents that are able to adjust their offsprings life-history strategy and resource allocation in response to changing environmental and sociable conditions. in acquisition of sociable dominance, which in natural systems would reduce access to mating opportunities. In doing so, however, they steer clear of the reduced disease resistance associated with improved testosterone and dominance. The benefits of accelerated clearance of illness and reduced weight loss during illness may outweigh costs associated with reduced social dominance in an environment where the risk of disease is definitely high. Dawkins [46]) across two sponsor generations. In contrast, however, mite-infected female lizards (varieties are tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites that infect virtually all mammalian varieties, with significant economic consequences in home animals and human being health implications, particularly in the USA [52,53]. In mice, induces high but transient parasitaemias, ...
Social definitions of he woman have in the past held the feminine gender as victims. The women have been subjected to inhuman treatment by their male counterparts simply because they were too weak to rise up to the abusive male dominance. Yet it was the same society that required them to remain weak so as to look attractive and or sexy. In essence therefore, feminine appeal rested purely on their feebleness, subjectivity and helplessness. A model figure has been for a long time been conceived as thin arms and legs, non-existing waits, protruding, sharp shoulder blades and knee or elbow joints sticking out disproportionately. Most online and offline fashion magazines parade waif-like women figures in their pages while most ads feature these unhealthy, mouse-size looking women. If women strive to achieve such model looks, then we will be right in declaring the feminine gender as an endangered species ...
Male dominance isnt just about beating the competition to a pulp: When a male house mouse conquers new territory, it releases come-hither pheromones
I saw a headline Tuesday describing Donald Trumps debasing of Dr. Christine Blasey Fords testimony with a picture of white women, strategically placed behind the podium, cheering him on as he did so. How to explain this? An uninformed position would suggest that everyone is entitled to their opinions, but of course its not that easy. Scratch beneath the surface and you see the fingerprints of sexism, gender oppression, male dominance, patriarchy and whiteness all over that deeply problematic display.. But, how does this happen? How did we get to a place where (mostly white) women will support an admitted sexual harasser and someone who constantly demeans women? The answer can be found in a deeper question - How does a dominant group who is the numeric minority (men) maintain control over the numeric majority (women and trans* folks)? Two central methods - socialization into an ideology that makes it seem normal, and/or state-sponsored violence. These are not mutually exclusive, of course, ...
This point of view of the device and returning at a time frame of reference when it persists into older age. Gene transfer was achieved by adding table 17. However, it was agreed upon, in which couples are taught the proper and early tumescence when intracorporeal pressure declines rapidly and penile structure may not need genital sex together but are nongeneric: Zoloft 50290 mg/day and cymbalta 2090 mg/day are dual action antidepressants, serotonergic antidepressants is accepted widely, but there are important in determining the underlying disease state or that the information they receive blood from the endothelial cells, especially those who did not work. J steroid biochem 1978; 6(5):285392. J neurosci 1991; 12:74657491. The patient will be seen when either young or old men are cognitively and behaviorally more sexually expressive. Studies with male dominance behavior, however, seems to be vulnerable to penile vibrotactile stimulation in order to accomplish sex. Htm needymeds offers ...
Using HR-MRI, we examined the vessel wall status in young adult patients with unilateral MCA disease who had minimal risk factors. HR-MRI including black-blood precontrast and postcontrast T1-weighted sequences with fat suppression image can delineate the arterial wall from the lumen and the surrounding perivascular structures,18 and postcontrast T1-weighted sequences can be used to identify the contrast enhancement of the arterial wall.12. We found that only 26 of the 95 (27.4%) patients showed HR-MRI findings compatible with atherosclerosis. Other nonatherosclerotic findings included HR-MMD (29 patients), HR-dissection (22 patients), and HR-vasculitis (18 patients). The HR-athero patients were more often male and smokers. Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for cerebral infarction in young adults.19 The male dominance in the HR-athero group may in part be because of the different smoking prevalence between males and female. There also is a tendency for HR-athero patients to be older ...
But there are at least two exceptions to the European male dominance rule: in the samples of Oriente (Guatemala) and Salta (Argentine, near Bolivia) the European ancestry bars are about the same, what actually translates as Native American male ancestry larger than the female one, and European female ancestry unusually large. The same is true for the samples of Pasto and Peque (both in rural Colombia), though maybe not as exageratedly. So there are 4/14 where the standard machista Eurocentric mestizaje was modified up to inversion. Why? Dont know yet but a clue may be in the rural nature of these mestizo samples, as well as in the fact that they are among the 5 samples that have highest Native American blood overall. Probably European immigration was low in those areas and therefore Mestizo women (rather than purely European, who were always few) may have no choice but marrying natives (I mean it was, and surely still is, socially less favorable - I naturally do not oppose that personally, ...
lots of other things are happening. *A note about bitch. In the UK today, bitch is considered a taboo word, as it is used insultingly of women to suggest ideas of male dominance and ownership of sexually available women. Fifty years ago it was also used insultingly, but with a different sense - then a bitch was a bad-tempered or wilful woman. (And in between, as in the 1984 film, The Bitch, starring Joan Collins, it suggested both independence and promiscuity.) But for a writer born in the 19th century, it has no such overtones - it is just the usual noun for a female of the dog species. (We can still see bitch used in this way in advertisements placed by dog-breeders.) The themes of this story Like several of the authors, Joyce Cary chooses a title that suggests one of the themes of the story - that of growing up. This appears to refer mostly to the two sisters, Kate and Jenny. Later we see that it may also apply in a way to their father, Robert, who has been able to play with them for ...
Reproductive skew theory is a mathematical approach to understanding how reproduction is partitioned among members of social groups by taking into account the ecological, social, and genetic factors within animal societies. In particular, it attempts to explain the degree to which dominant and subordinate breeders bias the total reproductive output of the group in favor of themselves. High skew groups are those in which dominant breeders obtain a large proportion of the reproduction, whereas low skew groups are those where reproduction is more evenly distributed among group members. ...
Ecologists attempt to name and classify ecosystems in a manner similar to the way that taxonomists name and classify species. Ecosystems may be named according to their dominant plants, such as deciduous forests, prairies, and evergreen forests. Others, such as coral reefs, are named according to their dominant animals. Physical factors are used to name deserts, ponds, tidal pools, and other ecosystems ...
Japanese macaques, an old world primate, illustrate this principle perfectly. Macaque society revolves around females, who form intricate dominance hierarchies within a given group. Males are transient. To help maintain the necessary social networks, female macaques engage in rampant lesbianism. These friendly copulations, which can last up to four days, form the bedrock of macaque society, preventing unnecessary violence and aggression. Females that sleep together will even defend each other from the unwanted advances of male macaques. In fact, behavioral scientist Paul Vasey has found that females will choose to mate with another female, as opposed to a horny male, 92.5% of the time. While this lesbianism probably decreases reproductive success for macaques in the short term, in the long run it is clearly beneficial for the species, since it fosters social stability. Same-sex sexuality is just another way of maintaining physical intimacy, Roughgarden says. Its like grooming, except we have ...
She said: This research begins to tease apart the trade-offs in both high and low status in primates, including ourselves, which may lead to understanding the effects of social status on death and disease - not inconsequential for society as a whole. ...
A similar premise was used in Life from the Ashes in X-Files fandom in the 1990s. In that story, a virus biologically changes half of the male population into breeding partners who emit sex pheromones. Social differentiation between the biologically determined groups is not explicit, although by the end of the story, it is implied. You also see many of the same elements in Indago[1], a Harry/Draco story from the skyehawke archive published in 2005. Draco, Harry, and Snape turn out to be magical creatures called Indago, who are genderless but fall into categories of Supero and subicio, who are extremely similar to alphas and omegas, except for knotting. There is still scenting, heat, self-lubrication, mpreg, use of Supero pheromones to control or placate subicios, and Superos establish a dominance hierarchy and use the terms alpha and beta. In March 2011, the NCIS Gibbs/DiNozzo Centaur-fic Heat was posted by Kathana-grey, positing many of the same concepts used in early Omegaverse works but ...
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Why do rich people live longer and have less disease than poor peopleeven when access to health care is equal?The answer may surprise you.A new baboon
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of natal male alliances on aggression and power dynamics in rhesus macaques. AU - Beisner, B. A.. AU - Jackson, M. E.. AU - Cameron, A.. AU - Mccowan, B.. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - In the wild, male rhesus macaques disperse at sexual maturity. In captivity, however, males cannot disperse from their natal groups. Thus, the presence of natal males in captive rhesus social groups is unnatural and has the potential to negatively influence group dynamics and stability. A primary difference between natal males and non-natal (immigrant) males is that natal males have the opportunity to form long-term alliances with their maternal kin as well as nonkin. We investigated the factors associated with natal males kin alliances and the impact of these alliances on measures of natal male behavior, group dynamics, and group stability. We found that natal males more frequently formed alliances with maternal kin when they were from high-ranking matrilines, had more siblings, and were ...
Dominance rank in female chimpanzees correlates positively with reproductive success. Although a high rank obviously has an advantage for females, clear (linear) hierarchies in female chimpanzees have not been detected. Following the predictions of the socio-ecological model, the type of food competition should affect the dominance relationships among females. We investigated food competition and relationships among 11 adult female chimpanzees in the Taï National Park, Côte dIvoire (West Africa). We detected a formal linear dominance hierarchy among the females based on greeting behaviour directed from the subordinate to the dominant female. Females faced contest competition over food, and it increased when either the food was monopolizable or the number of competitors increased. Winning contests over food, but not age, was related to the dominance rank. Affiliative relationships among the females did not help to explain the absence of greetings in some dyads. However comparison post hoc ...
Sex chromosomes change more frequently in fish than in mammals or birds. However, certain chromosomes or genes are repeatedly used as sex determinants in different members of the teleostean lineage. East African cichlids are an enigmatic model system in evolutionary biology representing some of the most diverse extant vertebrate adaptive radiations. How sex is determined and if different sex-determining mechanisms contribute to speciation is unknown for almost all of the over 1,500 cichlid species of the Great Lakes. Here, we investigated the genetic basis of sex determination in a cichlid from Lake Tanganyika, Astatotilapia burtoni, a member of the most species-rich cichlid lineage, the haplochromines. We used RAD-sequencing of crosses for two populations of A. burtoni, a lab strain and fish caught at the south of Lake Tanganyika. Using association mapping and comparative genomics, we confirmed male heterogamety in A. burtoni and identified different sex chromosomes (LG5 and LG18) in the two
In insect societies, only one to few individuals members of a colony can reproduce, whereas the other colony members have their reproductive capabilities suppressed. This conflict over reproduction in some cases results in a dominance hierarchy. Dominant individuals in this case are known as queens and have the obvious advantage of performing reproduction and benefiting from all the tasks performed by their subordinates, the worker caste (foraging, nest maintenance, nest defense, brood care and thermal regulation). According to Hamiltons rule, the reproduction costs of the worker caste are compensated by the contribution of workers to the queens reproductive success, with which they share genes. This is true not only to the popular social insects (ants, termites, some bees and wasps), but also for the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber. In a laboratory experiment, Clarke and Faulkes (1997)[18] demonstrated that reproductive status in a colony of H. glaber was correlated with the individuals ...
Additionally, we compared cortisol levels of privately-owned cats with those of shelter cats. Results showed that basal urinary cortisol levels of cats in private households are neither influenced by housing style (single cat vs multi cat) nor by individuals dominance status. Correlations indicated a positive influence of human density, number of persons per household, and number of m2 available to cats on basal urinary cortisol levels, whereas cat-related parameters such as number of cats per household, number of m2 per cat, and number of persons per cat, did not have any significant influence on basal urinary cortisol levels. A comparison of basal urinary cortisol levels of privately-owned and shelter cats revealed no influence of location (private household, shelter) and group type (single, group [dominant or subordinate]) on basal urinary cortisol levels. This study is the first to investigate basal urinary cortisol levels of domestic cats in private households and an animal shelter ...
Fine Art Photography: Yellow Paper Wasp Polistes dominulus Author: Alfred Schauhuber Date: 2006-08-21 Maximum available size: 18. DOWNLOAD
Social hierarchy formation is strongly evolutionarily conserved. Across species, rank within social hierarchy has large effects on health and behavior. To investigate the relationship between social rank and stress susceptibility, we exposed ranked male and female mice to social and non-social stressors and manipulated social hierarchy position. We found that rank predicts same sex social stress outcomes: dominance in males and females confers resilience while subordination confers susceptibility. Pre-existing rank does not predict non-social stress outcomes in females and weakly does so in males, but rank emerging under stress conditions reveals social interaction deficits in male and female subordinates. Both history of winning and rank of cage mates affect stress susceptibility in males: rising to the top rank through high mobility confers resilience and mice that lose dominance lose stress resilience, though gaining dominance over a subordinate animal does not confer resilience. Overall, we ...
Our research program uses fishes, and specifically the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni (see Model System page), as models to study how the brain processes information, how sensory systems contribute to behavior, and how natural plasticity in an animals internal hormonal or nutritional state can influence neural function and behavioral outcomes. Fishes are the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, which provides us with ideal organisms to study basic neuron and sensory function, and how it relates to proximate and ultimate behavioral mechanisms in comparative and evolutionary contexts. ...
Most socially living species are organized hierarchically, primarily based on individual differences in social dominance. Dominant individuals typically gain privileged access to important resources, such as food, mating partners and territories, whereas submissive conspecifics are often devoid of s …
Adults are territorial, and mark their territory by loudly slapping their head down on the water or snapping their jaws on the surface of the water. Dominant animals tend to swim higher in the water; other crocodilians of the same species communicate their submission by swimming lower in the water. Dominant animals control access to mates, choice nesting sites, food, basking sites, and living space. During drought, territories are forgotten as crocodilians crowd into the smaller remaining inhabitable area, although hierarchies are still observed. In some species and in some areas, territories are only maintained by males or only during mating season. Combat between crocodilians is rare, but does sometimes occur between animals of the same size competing for dominance. They bang the sides of their heads together or sometimes bite each other, but in either case they rarely cause any lasting damage. Crocodilians communicate with each other by means of sounds, postures, motions, odors released by ...
Changes in a female monkeys social status lead to changes in her immune system, and researchers writing in this weeks edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) Early Edition suggest that the findings may be applicable to humans as well.. The research, which was led by Jenny Tung, currently a visiting assistant professor in Duke Universitys evolutionary anthropology department and a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Chicago at the time of the study, is said to be the first to utilize an experimental approach to analyze how gene expression patters across a range of genes correlates with the social dominance of an animal, the Durham, North Carolina-based school said in a press release on Monday.. Emory University, home of the Yerkes National Primate Research Center (where the research was conducted), said that Tung and her colleagues studied 49 female rhesus macaques and could determine the social rank of each macaque, without looking at the animal itself, ...
For the first time, scientists have directly linked social cues to an immediate genetic response in the brain, according to a new study in PloS Biology. Only minutes after subordinate male cichlid fish sense an opportunity to become socially dominant, they display dominant characteristics such as changes in color and behavior, and express egr-1, encoding a transcription factor that likely triggers enhanced fertility and other long-term dominance traits.. People forget that social influences are pretty important, said study co-author Russell Fernald at Stanford University in California. Heres the case where the social is everything. [It] regulates brain structure in a very direct way.. Characterized by a dynamic social hierarchy, the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis) burtoni can readily alter sexual capacities, and only dominant males are physiologically able to reproduce. We were interested in understanding how this occurred at a mechanistic level, uncovering earliest steps that ...
Black-capped ( Poecile atricapillus ) and Carolina ( P. carolinensis ) chickadees hybridize extensively in a long and narrow contact zone, but mechanisms of mate choice remain incompletely understood. I investigated nonbreeding social relationships, which may affect pairing, in southeastern Pennsylvania. During my study, irrupting Black-capped Chickadees joined local hybrid residents, so I also investigated their relationships. Males participated in more social interactions than did females, but there was no difference in average dominance rank. Older birds were not more dominant than younger birds. Known social pairs did not have high association index values during the winter months. Sex or dominance rank did not affect distance moved between breeding season and winter months. Irruption Black-capped Chickadees did not become integrated within local hybrid flocks. This study suggests that flock structure in local flocks maybe less tightly structured and more difficult to study than in regions ...
The selfish herd theory states that individuals within a population attempt to reduce their predation risk by putting other conspecifics between themselves and predators. A key element in the theory is the domain of danger, the area of ground in which every point is nearer to a particular individual than to any other individual. Such antipredator behavior inevitably results in aggregations. The theory was proposed by W. D. Hamilton in 1971 to explain the gregarious behavior of a variety of animals. It contrasted the popular hypothesis that evolution of such social behavior was based on mutual benefits to the population. The basic principle governing selfish herd theory is that in aggregations, predation risk is greatest on the periphery and decreases toward the center. More dominant animals within the population are proposed to obtain low-risk central positions, whereas subordinate animals are forced into higher risk positions. The hypothesis has been used to explain why populations at higher ...
A study of rhesus macaque monkeys may have solved a long-standing puzzle on a link between social rank and health. A study of 10 social groups of macaque females showed that the activity level of an individuals immune genes was an accurate predictor of her social rank.. In a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the research team also showed that the monkeys immunity changed when social rank was altered. The work suggests that status drives immune health, rather than vice-versa. A great many studies have shown associations in both humans and non-human primates between social environment and biological markers of health.. ...
Chapter 1 (Womens Opportunities & the Social Organization of Writing) investigates literatures social organization and the basis of women writers legitimacy and the structure of their opportunity to engage in literary activity. Chapter 2 (History of the Present and the Presence of History: Traffic in Symbols, Knowledge, and Experience) focuses on three writers. Poet Fowziyha Abu-Khalid, is interested in the relationship of literature and religion. She believes that the right of discussion and of participation in discourse should be accorded to everybody. Change, she believes, depends on the masses, not intellectuals. Ruqayya Ash-Shabib, best known as a short story writer, focuses on ordinary women who profoundly changed history. Two examples are Sheherazade and Balqees, the Queen of Sheba. She believes that the problem is not male dominance, but rather female submission. Rajaa Alem, a pioneering playwright, thinks literatures primary function is liberation of the individual. ...
As he describes in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, the responders who rejected a low final offer had an average testosterone level more than 50% higher than the average of those who accepted. Five of the seven men with the highest testosterone levels in the study rejected a $5 ultimate offer but only one of the 19 others made the same decision.. What Dr Burnhams result supports is a much deeper rejection of the tenets of classical economics than one based on a slight mis-evolution of negotiating skills. It backs the idea that what people really strive for is relative rather than absolute prosperity. They would rather accept less themselves than see a rival get ahead. That is likely to be particularly true in individuals with high testosterone levels, since that hormone is correlated with social dominance in many species.. Economists often refer to this sort of behaviour as irrational. In fact, it is not. It is simply, as it were, differently rational. The things that money can buy are ...
In all taxa where sexes were known, d15N data implied that males foraged at a higher trophic level. We believe this latter result is linked to a dual foraging strategy among females. With South Georgian shags we found the sex-related dietary differences persisted for long periods (inferred from stable isotope analyses of feathers and blood). We suggest that the trophic differences are driven by differences in physiological performance, with males tending to dive deeper than females because of their size and accessing higher trophic level prey items. Moreover male and female shags tend to forage at different times of day and so the observed differences are unlikely to be driven by the social dominance of males. Highly significant relationships between stable isotope signatures in blood (representing the breeding season diet) and those in feathers (mostly representing the non-breeding season diet) in both the South Georgian and Kerguelen shags suggests that these two taxa comprise individuals that ...
The article is a perspective on utilization of microorganisms and chemosignals in studying human economic behavior. Research in biological roots of economic development has already confirmed that parasitic pressure influenced the creation and development of cultural norms and institutions. However, other effects of microorganisms on human groups and individual decision-making and behavior are heavily understudied. The perspective discusses how parasitic infections, sexually transmitted organisms and microbiota (i.e., human holobiont) could causally influence risk-seeking behavior, impulsivity, social dominance, empathy, political views and gender differences. As a case study, the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and its influence on economic preferences, personal characteristics and human appearance are examined. I also briefly review how chemosignals influence decision-making, particularly in the social preferences domain. I mention some predictions that arise from the paradigm of economic ...
A blend that strives to help women to really connect and resonate with people - whether it be their loved one, or just with good friends. Feminine, attractive and alluring, Heart & Soul works its magic on everyone, inviting deep communication, an air of social dominance, and makes people just
Embedded within the educational discourse is a romanticised notion of heterosexuality that effectively trains an individual to adhere to the idealised roles of male dominance and female domesticity and places boundaries around individual emotional and sexual expression.(8) Educational institutions operate under the assumption that young adult sexuality, particularly homosexuality, is something dangerous that requires control, yet at the same time particular (hetero)unions are encouraged.(9) The encouragement is not a particular event; but rather how heterosexuality as the expected normal influences the discourse of the school environment. School rules, uniform and social events prescribe different standards for the sexes and are encouraged, while deviations from gender expectations are devalued. Often those who deviate are given a derogatory term, such as fag, which then becomes a label that can be applied to any individual as a threat to the rule of masculinity and heterosexuality.(10) ...
Within this article, the authors explore the extent to which the administrative and governance hierarchies, rules, and processes of two English national governing bodies (NGBs) reproduce or resist gender segregation and male dominance within their leadership and governance. Drawing on Bourdieus theory of practice, the authors expand upon current literature to better understand the workings of gender power relations at the structural level of organizational practice. Semistructured interviews with male and female leaders were supplemented by an analysis of formal documents. The authors found that gender power relations privileging men were simultaneously conserved and resisted within the two NGBs. While resistance to male-dominated leadership and governance was evident, transformational organizational change was lacking. This highlighted the limitations of strategies being primarily driven through top-down, policy-based approaches. The authors end the article by emphasizing the importance of a ...
In a paper published December 11 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers found strong links between status and how genes turn on and off in baboon males, but not females.. To be sure, status is linked to health and quality of life in both sexes: High-ranking females enjoy better access to resources like food and grooming than their low-ranking counterparts. And males who rise to the top and stay there generally have better mating success than those that dont.. But when the researchers analyzed the animals immune cells for differences in gene activity, they identified more than 2,200 genes whose activity varied with status in males, but only 25 status-linked genes in females.. Genes related to inflammation were more active in high- than low-ranking males. But previous research in humans and macaque monkeys found the opposite pattern in females, whose status isnt determined by fighting ability.. The best explanation, Lea said, is that the molecular signature of ...
Brenna Rushing said it best when she wrote The SMU womens basketball team wins games; the mens team wins fans in an article that appeared in the Daily Campus in April of 2009. At that time the womens basketball team had a record of 20 -11, compared to the mens nearly inverse final record of 9 - 21. Despite the discrepancy in athletic accomplishment, the mens basketball team averaged nearly 2,000 more fans a game than the womens team (Rushing, 2009). This phenomenon is not unique to SMUs campus. Nationwide, at both the professional and the collegiate level, mens basketball grosses more fans than womens basketball. What accounts for this disparity? Research suggests that the male dominance of sports significantly undermines the legitimacy of the female athlete (Messner, 1988; Smith, 2001). Furthermore, I propose that the difference in fan support may be a consequence of the strong association of female basketball players with gender nonconformity by virtue of their basketball player ...
Compared, 25% of men decreased their daily life actions and only 47% in the reduction of on free time. Where males have been comparatively able to make more time was by way of lowered work-related hours due to modifications of their job scenario, akin to a shift to working from residence, with forty four% of men saying this was the case, however only 9% of women.. Change doesnt transfer in simple ways. Despite new opportunities in education and politics in the postwar period, Barbara Molony writes that by 1975, the repeated message that women should return to the house had lastly taken root. 9 Nonetheless the feminist movement in Japan in the 1960s and 1970s would problem male dominance in the public realm. As elsewhere, some feminists centered on ladiess equality with men whereas others targeted on their distinction, a maternalist strand of feminist thought. The vast majority of ladies did not identify themselves as feminist, but a lot of them still advocated for womens points.. Great ...
The Data obtained was statistically analyzed using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS Statistics software (Version 23). The data was summarized using percentages, mean and standard deviation. Difference in distribution of cases was analyzed using chi square test of goodness of fit. Chi square test of association was used to study association of qualitative data such as fracture type, category of oxford score and range of motion. Difference in average final outcome in terms of MPTA and PPTA with respect to range of motion was studied using unpaired t test at 95% confidence interval. Pearsons Correlation coefficient was used to study various correlations among data obtained.. Results. In this prospective study, 30 patients of fresh Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures satisfying study criteria were included. The mean age of the patients was observed to be 31.7 years (range 19-50 years) with a male dominance (93%). The most common mode of injury observed in our study was road traffic ...
OBJECTIVES We focus on a hypothesized mechanism that may underlie the well-documented link between social status and health-behavioral health risks. METHODS We use longitudinal data from representative samples of 6,106 middle-aged and 3,636 older adults from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the relationships between social status-including early life social status (e.g., parental schooling), ascribed social status (e.g., sex, race-ethnicity), and achieved social status (e.g., schooling, economic resources)-and behavioral health risks (e.g., weight, smoking, drinking, physical activity) to (1) assess how early life and ascribed social statuses are linked to behavioral health risks, (2) investigate the role of achieved factors in behavioral health risks, (3) test whether achieved status explains the contributions of early life and ascribed status, and (4) examine whether the social status and health risk relationships differ at midlife and older age. RESULTS We find that early life, achieved
Simply being at the bottom of the social heap directly alters the body, BBC News reports. The headline is based on a study in which researchers used female monkeys to simulate social hierarchies.. Monkeys of low social status were found to have biomarkers indicating poor immune function and possible increased vulnerability to infection.. The researchers arranged the monkeys into social groups and observed behaviours for two years to determine the social hierarchy. They then mixed-up the groups so that some of the monkeys were introduced into other groups as the new girl. This effectively meant that the newbie monkey was stripped of all social status.. They then took blood samples to look at any effect this had on the immune system. The study found that social rankings in the monkey groups had an effect on white blood cells involved in fighting off disease. These findings suggested that the stress of a lower social ranking may increase inflammation and reduce resistance to infection and ...
Being at the very top of a social hierarchy may be more costly than previously thought, according to a new study of wild baboons led by a Princeton University ecologist. A new study has found that in wild baboon populations, the highest-ranking, or alpha, males have higher stress-hormone levels than the highly ranked males below them, known as beta males -- even during periods of stability.
Observe one group of animals housed together for 40 minutes. Make a chart with those 10 interactions across the top and the list of animals in the cage down one side. Note dominance interactions as they occur, under type of interaction and animals involved, e.g. under supplanting you might have a d for animal 4 and an s for animal 6, indicating that animal 4 spatially supplanted animal 6. Any given interaction may fall into more than one type: mark it under as many types as relevant but indicate that it is one behavior sequence (for instance, you might number interactions sequentially ld-ls, 2d-2s, 3d-3s, etc.).. Rank animals in order of number of ds. Rank in order of number of ss. What do you perceive to be the rank order of the animals in this group? What kind of interaction is most closely correlated (by eye) with your rank order? Is the rank order of some animals (e.g., very young juveniles) improved by their association with a more dominant animal? Hand in notes and chart along with ...
Labyrinthodont is a term which was used for fossil amphibia. Although it is no longer a formal term in taxonomy, it is still useful as an evolutionary grade, a kind of catch-all term. Labyrinth mean a maze and dont means tooth.. Labyrinthodonts are often called Temnospondyls.[1] The Labyrinthodontia is not a clade, because it is not monophyletic. It has been replaced in the classification by more correct terms.. The labyrithodonts were some of the dominant animals from the Devonian to the Lower Triassic (about 390 to 210 million years ago). The group is an evolutionary grade (a polyphyletic or paraphyletic group) of species which look rather similar.. The name describes the pattern of infolding of the dentine and enamel of the teeth, which often fossilise. They are also have a heavily armoured skull roof (so they also have an even older name Stegocephalia), and complex vertebrae.. ...
When you start a new job, its normal to spend the first day working out whos who in the pecking order, information that will come in handy for making connections in the future. In an fMRI study published in Neuron, researchers at DeepMind and UCL provide insights into how we acquire knowledge about social hierarchies, and reveal the specific mechanisms at play when that hierarchy is our own (as compared to that of another person).
In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what dominance means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that enzyme-producing alleles usually show complete dominance. For genes producing nonenzymatic proteins such as collagen or hemoglobin, the amount of product matters, and dominance relationships are more complicated. Furthermore, with hemoglobin, dominance can change depending on what aspect of the phenotype is being studied and on the environmental conditions. X-linked genes are a special case, whether enzymatic or not. Because of X-chromosome inactivation, only one X-linked allele can be active in a cell, which means that the concept of dominance cannot be applied at the cellular level. Instead, a type of dominance is demonstrated at the individual level; but even ...
From Agonistic Behavior to Dominance Hierarchy: An Evolutionary Parable. Picture a wild animal of your morphological choosing. Its solitary and highly territorial. Outside the mating season most of its encounters with conspecifics take the form of agonistic clashes over resources. It has consequently evolved some fairly simple neurocognitive machinery for dealing effectively in these encounters. What it does, briefly put, is first assess the size of any competing conspecific relative to itself and then do one of two things: If the conspecific is clearly bigger, the animal flees; if it is roughly the same size or smaller, the animal attacks and attempts to drive it off.. Now, suppose the habitat of this animal shrinks dramatically, squeezing the entire population into a very limited (but still survivable) space and greatly increasing the encounter rate between individuals. This solitary species, in other words, is forced into a kind of impromptu sociality. Now, under these new conditions a ...
This study showed that an individuals propensity to adjust contest decisions after wins and losses depends on its hormonal state: individuals with lower levels of F, T and KT were more receptive to the influence of recent contest experiences and retained the influence for longer than individuals with higher levels of the hormones. In this study, KT was the only hormone that had a significant positive correlation with the probabilities of behaving aggressively and of winning the size-matched contests. In past studies, however, T correlated positively with winning contests[23] and both T and F correlated positively with the fishs aggressiveness towards its mirror image[22]. Taking together the findings that individuals with a losing experience one month previously[9] and those with lower levels of F, T or KT (this study) were more prone to changing contest behaviours after a recent win or loss, the evidence seems to indicate that, in this fish, less aggressive individuals (because of previous ...
When males reach sexual maturity, they move to a neighboring group. Often, males will move with a brother or peer, presumably for protection against aggression by males and females of the resident group. Groups that had previously transferred males show significantly less aggression upon the arrival of another male. In almost every case, males migrate to adjacent groups. This obviously increases benefits in regard to distance traveled, but also reduces the amount of genetic variance, increasing the likelihood of inbreeding.[15]. Females remain in their groups throughout life. Separate dominance hierarchies are found for each sex. Male hierarchies are determined by age, tenure in the group, fighting abilities, and allies, while female hierarchies are dependent on maternal social status. A large proportion of interactions occur between individuals which are similarly ranked and closely related. Between unrelated individuals, there is female competition for grooming members of high-ranking ...
FORT WORTH, TX, September 9, 2016 - Vetoquinol, a veterinary pharmaceutical company dedicated to animal health for over 80 years with veterinarian-approved formulas for pet healthcare products, is encouraging cat owners to consider their felines long-term health with daily use of L-Lysine and at the same time, help support Best Friends Animal Society, the nations largest sanctuary for homeless animals. For every bag of Vetoquinols Enisyl-F® Chews purchased at participating veterinary offices, one dollar will be donated to Best Friends Animal Society through the end of 2016.. L-Lysine supplementation is commonly recommended to help support normal respiratory and eye health in kittens and cats, including the many strays and those in shelters.. As the trusted pioneer in the L-Lysine supplement category, Vetoquinol offers a variety of L-Lysine products to support conditions responsive to L-Lysine, explains Brian McLaughlin, DVM. It is recommended that felines with conditions responsive to ...
We found a hint that EBPI may be less effective when applied to individuals with low education compared to those with average or high education. However, there was no significant impact of the socioeconomic variables education, vocational training, employment or by the subjective social status on the EBPI effect on knowledge. A systematic review about complex interventions to improve the health of people with limited literacy [1] found that several interventions have been less suitable in individuals with lower literacy or education. However, results are conflicting: Trevena et al. [6] and Smith et al. [5] evaluated a decision aid for colorectal cancer screening and found it effective in people with lower education levels, too. Trevena et al. found no evidence of any interaction when adequate knowledge was significantly improved by the decision aid across all groups with different educational statuses. Kellar and Mason [12] stated that even an informed choice invitation for Type 2 diabetes ...
Why would undeserving powerful people be harsher on themselves than others? That is the opposite of the usual reaction to having power.. The answer to that question provides an elegant explanation for the whole set of results.. Humans evolved living in smallish groups with dominance hierarchies. In such hierarchies all of the experimental results make sense.. Powerful (dominant) members of the band can get away with bending the rules (judging themselves more leniently). They should also deal harshly with anyone lower in the hierarchy taking a chance (judging others more harshly).. Powerless group members should be submissive - they should judge others (normally more dominant) leniently and themselves harshly.. When people from low in the hierarchy find themselves temporarily in powerful positions they are in danger of attracting punishment from the true dominants.. So they act extra-submissively by judging themselves extra harshly and being extra lenient on others.. It all makes sense!. ...
Self-incompatibility in plants of the Brassicaceae family is controlled by a highly diversified molecular lock-and-key system consisting of a large set of specific haplotypic combinations of only two genes. This system has been a textbook example of natural (balancing) selection, in the form of a strong reproductive advantage for individuals expressing rare alleles. These haplotypes also form a striking linear dominance/recessivity hierarchy, whereby most heterozygote combinations express only one self-incompatibility specificity at the phenotypic level. In this seminar, I will detail how we recently identified the molecular determinants of this dominance hierarchy and showed that it is based on a complex regulatory network based on the interactions between a dedicted set of small non-coding RNAs produced by dominant alleles and their target sites in recessive alleles. I will review several key features of the topology of these interactions and combine theoretical modelling and functional ...
28) The bow is a sign of submission that indicates to the animal receiving it that he or she is dominant. Most primate groups have a dominance hierarchy. Lower ranking animals can avoid fights with higher ranking animals by performing a formal sign of submission, such as a bow, when tensions are high ...
Forty-six undergraduates (mean age = 23 years, s.d. = 2.71; 30 females) from the University of Padova participated as volunteers. All had normal or corrected-to-normal vision. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.. Sixteen full-colour photos of adult males bearing a neutral expression were used as stimuli (half depicting younger adults, half depicting older adults; see electronic supplementary material, text S1). In order to induce an association between faces and social status, participants were asked to read fictive CVs associated with each face. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In condition 1, the CVs of older adults emphasized that they had a relative high social status (e.g. Dean of a Faculty of Architecture. President of the European Eco-Sustainable Constructions Society), while younger adults had a relative low social status (e.g. He would like to attempt the test for being admitted to the Faculty of Pharmacy). In ...
Abstract -- Establishment medicine is sustained by a triad of core deceptions: (1) An apical lie by omission which does not admit that the predominant causal determinant of an individuals health is the individuals real and perceived place in the societys dominance hierarchy, (2) the voodoo lie of the false scientific foundation of its professional practice which does not admit that most of medical research used to justify the recommended treatments is wrong and that consequently the treatments are ineffective at best, and (3) the dirty secret that establishment medicine (in North America) is itself the third leading cause of death, after cancer and cardiovascular failures for which medicine is of little use. All three core deceptions have been decisively exposed by leading-edge mainstream researchers whose works have had virtually no impact in reforming the profession ...
Ant queens may bury other queens -- a task normally performed by workers -- to avoid infection when co-founding a new colony, according to a study published in the open-access journal BMC Evolutionary Biology.
Simulations enabled us to test the relative importance of individual aspects of the melanistic phenotype (such as a mating advantage for melanistic individuals) in facilitating gene flow between host plants. Indeed, the simulations found that the presence of melanistic T. cristinae reduced adaptive differentiation between populations on different hosts and increased rates of inter-host mating (see figure below). These results show how the melanistic phenotype acts as an anti-speciation phenotype, mitigating the effects of divergent selection acting on the stripe phenotype. Moreover, we found that these results were robust to removing individual factors attributed to the melanistic phenotype, such as their mating advantage or their propensity to disperse. The one factor that, when removed from the model, did reduce the anti-speciation effect of melanistic individuals was the genetic architecture of the colour and pattern traits: when we removed dominance relationships among alleles at the ...
Instead, we need to ensure our text is easily understood by NLP algorithms; the more complex our sentences and the more we deviate from the main purpose of the text, the more confused the algorithm becomes as to what the page is about. Less certainty means lower rankings.. Here are some practical tips to write for NLP. Firstly, connect questions to answers by writing a one or two-sentence answer that youd expect to hear from a voice assistant. Secondly, be clear what youre referring to. 200 degrees Celsius is clear, 200 degrees is not.. In the same vein, keep sentence structures as simple as possible. Check these using Googles tool described above; the more hops there are, the more convoluted your sentence. Clarity also comes by being specific and absolute. NLP has a hard time understanding it depends answers; direct and specific answers are likely to be rewarded.. Be careful that meaning cannot be misinterpreted. The cat was often in the tree, but now its dead could have two ...
May 19, 2008 - Number of Comments » 1. Paper Wasp - Polistes sp. - I believe this particular Paper Wasp is Polistes fuscatus, but it…. ...
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The eager-but-pwned net menace behind the JigSaw ransomware has been found targeting Reddit users with multiple malware in a bid to snare victims.. The VXer is thought to be behind three ransomware variants, including the well-known Jigsaw which sports iconography from the Saw film, each lurking behind websites that foist the malware to visitors.. The actor using the handle minercount on a forum had built and sold ransomware on crime forums and deploy it themselves in a successful bid to infect victims.. Attribution is difficult at best, but the Cisco Talos intelligence boffins have laid out their chains of evidence that indicate one scumbag is behind Jigsaw, Ranscam, and the AnonPop ransomware forms.. Scores of low-ranking posts were made to the Bitcoin and related subreddits pointing those who click to the sites which downloaded an AutoIT executable that deployed their ransomware.. One post was made purporting to be a cache of online anonymity tools, including the Tor browser. It contained the ...
Wow! So I just went on one of those 6 degrees type of internet hunts sparked by your blog. I watched the clip you posted about fat dogs from Dogs Secret Lives or whatever its called and then went to the next in the series which is about aggression. (My little guy Max is occasionally dog-aggressive.) Anyway on Secret Lives... Part 2 they talk about how the whole dominance theory is outdated and how even L. David Mech has recanted. Their expert is some dog behaviorist named John Bradshaw who says Dominance Is Dead (basically). From that show I looked him ( John Bradshaw) up and found a site which linked to L. David Mechs recantation ( a paper called:Alpha Status, Dominance, and Division of Labor in Wolf Packs and found that as you say it is a mess and he does renounce alphaness but he constantly descrines dominance behavior controlling wolf packs interactions. I really think that although he and others expounding this deny it it is really a form of Political Correctness and wild ...