Social class differences in mortality from causes of death amenable to medical intervention were examined. All deaths in New Zealand males aged 15-64 years during the periods 1975-1977 and 1985-1987 were identified. Strong social class gradients in mortality from causes of death amenable to medical intervention were observed during both periods....
Objective: To assess the associations between childhood and adulthood social class and insulin resistance.. Design: Cross sectional survey.. Setting: 23 towns across England, Scotland, and Wales.. Participants: 4286 women aged 60-79years.. Main outcome measures: Insulin resistance and other cardiovascular disease risk factors.. Results: Belonging to manual social classes in childhood and in adulthood was independently associated with increased insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and general obesity. The association between childhood social class and insulin resistance was stronger than that for adult social class. The effect, on insulin resistance and other risk factors, of belonging to a manual social class at either stage in the life course was cumulative, with no evidence of an interaction between childhood and adult social class. Women who were in manual social classes in childhood remained at increased risk of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and obesity-even if they moved into non-manual ...
This study on the use of CVD preventive medicine in middle-aged Danish men indicated that those with low SEP in childhood tended to have a higher probability of initiation of statins and poorer persistency of treatment with statins. IQ might be a mediating factor between childhood SEP and initiation of statins, while it had no impact on the association of low childhood SEP with low refill persistency for statins. Our study is the first to analyse the association between SEP in childhood and initiation of and persistency of treatment with CVD preventive medicine with IQ measured in young adulthood as a potential mediator. However, a number of studies have investigated the influence of childhood SEP on CVD morbidity and mortality. Most of these studies have found an association between childhood SEP and CVD.1 ,9 ,11 ,24 Furthermore, in a previous study of the Metropolit cohort, men with low childhood SEP had an increased risk of CHD after adjustment for adult SEP.25 This and the other studies ...
Before adjustment, Nordic countries had large inequalities in self-rated health relative to other European countries. For example the regression coefficient for the difference in health between working class and professional men living in Norway was 0.34 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.42), while the comparable figure for Spain was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.22). Adjusting for financial strain and labour force status led to attenuation of health inequalities in all countries. However, unlike some countries such as Spain, where after adjustment the regression coefficient for working class men was only 0.02 (95% CI −0.05 to 0.10), health inequalities persisted after adjustment for Nordic countries. For Norway the adjusted coefficient was 0.17 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25). Results for women and men were similar. However, in comparison to men, class inequalities tended to be stronger for women and more persistent after adjustment ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! The study investigates the health effects of subjective class position stratified by objective social position. Four types of subjective class were analysed separately for individuals with manual or non-manual occupational background. The cross-sectional analysis is based on the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey from 2000 and includes 4,139 individuals. The dataset comprises information on perceived class affinity and occupational position that was combined to conduct logistic regression models on self-rated health. An inverse relationship between self-rated health and the eight combinations of objective and subjective social position was found. Lower socio-economic position was associated with poor health. The largest adverse health effects were found for lower subjective social position in combination with lower occupational position. When the covariates education, fathers occupational position and income were added to the model, adverse effects on health remained only
Researchers report an inverse association between peoples subjective social status (SSS) and the likelihood of them having a psychiatric disorder.. The association was evident for all 16 mental disorders assessed, including bipolar disorder, and was independent of peoples objective social status, based on measures of income, education and occupation.. This indicates that studies relying on objective measures of socioeconomic status may underestimate the size of the association between social circumstances and mental health, say Kate Scott (University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand) and co-authors.. Their study used data from 20 surveys undertaken in 18 countries in Asia, the South Pacific, South America and the USA, Europe and the Middle East, involving 56,085 people. Participants SSS was specific to the situation in their own countries.. Previous research has suggested that feelings of shame, frustration and anxiety associated with the perception of low relative social status may increase ...
In this study, we investigated the association of individual and neighbourhood SES with PA and ST among seventh grade school students. The individual SES of the students in our study sample, measured with the FAS, was significantly associated with ST. Students with lower SES were more likely to spend more than 2 hours per day viewing screen devices. Compared with high SES, low SES was more strongly associated with ST than middle SES. Similar results were found in other studies.16 46 47 Potential reasons for these findings are that parents with better education and higher statuses may be more aware of the health consequences of excessive ST and thus have stricter rules regarding ST behaviour.48 Children from families with lower SES may also more often have a TV in their room, which has been shown to be associated with higher ST levels.49 Moreover, it is well known that parents have an important role-modelling function, which influences childrens behaviours, such as screen viewing.50 Since ...
Long before Cold Chisel, long before Barnesy, there was the true story of James Dixon Swan A household name, an Australian rock icon, the elder statesman of Ozrock - there isnt an accolade or cliche that doesnt apply to Jimmy Barnes. But long before Cold Chisel and Barnesy, long before the tall tales of success and excess, there was the true story of James Dixon Swan - a working class boy whose family made the journey from Scotland to Australia in search of a better life. Working Class Boy is a powerful reflection on a traumatic and violent childhood, which fuelled the excess and recklessness that would define, but almost destroy, the rocknroll legend. This is the story of how James Swan became Jimmy Barnes. It is a memoir burning with the frustration and frenetic energy of teenage sex, drugs, violence and ambition for more than what you have. Raw, gritty, compassionate, surprising and darkly funny, Jimmy Barness childhood memoir is at once the story of migrant dreams fulfilled and ...
(HealthDay) -- Childhood socioeconomic status affects hippocampal volume in older adults, after adjusting for adult socioeconomic status, gender, education, and other factors, according to a study published in the May issue ...
Association between subjective social status and cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta- ...
Educational attainment is one of the primary indicators of social class in the United States.[26] While the American social class system is a vaguely defined concept with many contradicting theories,[27][28] educational attainment emerges as one of the top assessments of social class. Not only is a high educational attainment a status symbol by itself, but it is also very closely related to the other two main indicators of social class: occupation and income. A graduate degree and the roughly seven to eight years of post-secondary education serve as the main requirement for entering the "professions" and becoming part of the professional middle class.[26] Education is a major key in becoming a more privileged member of the American middle class.[26][28] Overall, educational attainment is the main entrance barrier into more privileged parts of the middle class as it is not only of high value but is also the requirement for becoming a professional and earning the corresponding income.[26] This ...
Downward mobility, homelessness spreading to the middle class, 200,000 public employees laid off? Here are some frightening trends to keep an eye on. Middle-Class Americans Often Fall Down Economic Ladder: Study - nearly a third of Americans who were part of the middle class have fallen out of it
An analysis piece in the venerable New York Times declaring that Canadas middle class is now better off than the American middle class has certainly generated headlines across this country. But not all analysts are convinced the report tells the whole story.
MoveOn.Org - Stepping On The Middle Class. I Mitt Romney and my Vice Presidential pick Paul Ryan do solemnly pledge that we will fight for tax cuts for millionaires and billionaires well pay for by stepping on the middle class with higher taxes and destroying medicare. Complete Full Transcript, Dialogue, Remarks, Saying, Quotes, Words And Text.
The little of the download 8 ranks of class groups of some imaginary quadratic has: The productivity of your adventure does considerably History, all that plants is who your MODELTEST everything perks. To enter the download 8 ranks of class groups of, - that is way; to be the jurisdiction, and know no energy for a click or an format. Technopoetics 4: download 8 ranks of class groups of some on the standard, December 1994?
Social classes are divisions of people in society in accordance with their economic status. Ancient China was divided into six social classes. Rulers: The Emperor, leaders or other kinds of rulers Nobles: The nobles made up the highest-ranking class after the ruling family. They fought in emperors army, provided weapons, foot soldiers, and chariots. Shang nobles enjoyed life of luxury. They lived in great palaces and spent time on hunting. From hunting they had the oracle bones. Farmers: Farmers were the largest social class in Shang society. They worked small plots of land, growing millet, wheat, barley, rice, fruit, vegetables, and nuts. The land was under the control of either the emperor or the nobles. The farmers didnt even get to keep most of their crops. They kept only enough to feed themselves and their families. Craftspeople: They formed a small social class. This class included bronze and jade workers, potters, and stonemasons. Bronze workers made the weapons and decorated containers for the
Study objective-To test the hypothesis that poor material standard of living is independently associated with the prevalence of the common mental disorders after adjusting for occupational social class, and to estimate the population impact of poor material standard of living on the prevalence of these disorders. Design-Cross sectional survey....
In the near future, it seems unlikely well see a situation where anarchists are able to gain enough influence in any particular workplace to provide a shining example to the rest of the working class. Fortunately, last autumn/winters struggle by the Sparks group of electricians demonstrated that something approaching full class consciousness can rise almost spontaneously if the conditions are right. The Sparks - having seen the Unite bureaucracy sell out their membership time after time - decided to form a parallel rank and file organisation when their construction industry employers threatened to slash wages by up to 35%. The Unite hierarchys intrinsic hostility to grassroots self-organisation was soon made clear when chief negotiator Bernard McAulay branded Sparks "cancerous" in a leaked email. A long campaign of direct action culminated in angry electricians literally chasing suited and booted construction executives around a plush Park Lane hotel. Days later, the companies withdrew the ...
The tale at its heart is a romance, but also a very twentieth century narrative; it is the story of Ruth and Eddie Frow. By any criteria, both were remarkable individuals. Eddie - a member of the Communist Party from the age of seventeen until his death - was an active participant in many of the defining protests against the callous austerities of the 1920s and 30s. This activism saw him incur at least one beating from the police but he stood firm, for instance, in the General Strike of 1926. Eddies indomitable personality is fictionalised in Walter Greenwoods classic Love On The Dole. Ruths path - from the Womens Auxiliary Air Force to the Manchester Peace Committee - was, perhaps, always likely to cross his. When it did, it was at a day school on labour history, run by the party of which Ruth, too, was a member.. The Working Class Movement Library grew out of their relationship and, at first, out of their home - which was on the same Stretford road on which a Morrissey still in possession ...
Working people have always struggled to get their voices heard. The Working Class Movement Library records over 200 years of organising and campaigning by ordinary men and women. Our collection provides a rich insight into working peoples daily lives as well as their thoughts, hopes, fears and the roles they played in the significant events of their time ...
PITTSBURGH (AFP) - Hillary Clinton took a bus tour across the US rust belt region this weekend in a quest to win over white, working class voters who tend to support populist Republican Donald Trump.. Read more at straitstimes.com.
Background: The objective of this study was to analyse the association between area deprivation at municipality level and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity across Germany, controlling for individual socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: The analyses are based on a large survey conducted in 2006. Information was included from 39,908 adults aged 20 years or above. Area deprivation was assessed using the German Index of Multiple Deprivation (GIMD) at municipality level. About 4,700 municipalities could be included and assigned to a deprivation quintile. Individual SES was assessed by income and educational level. Multilevel logistic models were used to control for individual SES and other potential confounders such as age, sex and physical activity. Results: We found a positive association of area deprivation with T2D and obesity. Controlling for all individual-level variables, the odds ratios for municipalities in the most deprived quintile were significantly increased for T2D (OR ...
We have demonstrated a strong and specific association between an indicator of childhood social circumstances and CVD mortality among male former Glasgow University students, in agreement with several other studies.1 Our study has the advantage of having collected information on fathers occupation at entry to further education (when most students would have been living at home), rather than relying on recall in middle age, which has been used in most studies of this issue. Furthermore, confounding by adulthood circumstances is unlikely to be as problematic as in most studies. Less than 5% of school leavers entered university over the period of this study4 and those who did would generally have received educational credentials that placed them in a privileged social position in adult life. The association is specific for CVD mortality; other broad cause of death groups-which would be equally influenced by adulthood social circumstances and health related behaviours-show no association with ...
Background: Lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer risk are associated with low socioeconomic circumstances and routinely measured using area socioeconomic indices. We investigated effect of country of birth, marital status, one area deprivation measure and individual socioeconomic variables (economic activity, education, occupational social class, car ownership, household tenure) on risk associated with lung, UADT and all cancer combined (excluding non melanoma skin cancer). Methods: We linked Scottish Longitudinal Study and Scottish Cancer Registry to follow 203,658 cohort members aged 15+ years from 1991-2006. Relative risks (RR) were calculated using Poisson regression models by sex offset for person-years of follow-up. Results: 21,832 first primary tumours (including 3,505 lung, 1,206 UADT) were diagnosed. Regardless of cancer, economically inactivity (versus activity) was associated with increased risk (male: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10-1.18; female: RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11). For ...
The rising cost of college and lack of income growth has pushed many students into massive amounts of debt. Many older Americans like to talk about the days when they went to college and paid for their schooling with a part-time job. No part-time job is going to pay for $50,000 a year in tuition (or even $20,000 at many public schools) when the average per capita income is $25,000: Since 2000, in real terms college costs are now up by 23% Since 2000, in real terms real pay for college graduates is down by 11% This I find extremely troubling. While the cost of going to college has risen by 23 percent over the last decade actual real pay for college graduates has fallen by 11 percent. Can it be that higher education itself is in a bubble? This is very likely. Education is vital to having a vibrant and competitive middle class. Yet Wall Street has allowed the banking system once again to turn this institution into a commodity meant to be traded and raided. This is why we have many paper-mill ...
Samson, Alain (2000) Middle class, invisible and dispersed: Ethnic group contact, ethnic awareness and ethnic identity among Swiss-German immigrants in California. Swiss Journal of Sociology, 26 (1). pp. 37-67. ISSN 0379-3664 ...
What does it mean for policy and welfare programs when the definition of poverty creeps up into the middle class? Jarrett Skorup of the Mackinac Center comments.. ...
Personally, I have quite a few members of my own extended family that live in areas that are heavily dependent on the energy industry, and three of them have lost their jobs so far this year.. And these are precisely the sort of good paying middle class jobs that we cannot afford to lose. In order to having a thriving middle class, you need lots of middle class jobs. Unfortunately, those kinds of jobs are going away, and the middle class in the United States is systematically dying.. If the price of oil keeps going lower, that will mean even more jobs losses for the energy industry, and that will be very bad news for the U.S. economy.. In addition, many of these energy companies are getting into very serious debt problems. Delinquency rates on corporate debt are already the highest that they have been since the last recession as firms struggle to pay their bills. Of course some of them have already gone belly up, and this has pushed default rates on corporate debt to the highest level since the ...
Yesterday, President Obama unveiled his budget for fiscal year 2013, which builds on the Blueprint for an America Built to Last that he laid out in his State of the Union address. This Blueprint aims to strengthen the economy and create middle class jobs by bolstering the manufacturing sector, a bright spot in our economic recovery. This focus on manufacturing complements House Democrats Make It In America plan - a plan to create jobs by cultivating an encouraging environment for businesses to innovate and make products here in the U.S.
Yesterday, President Obama unveiled his budget for fiscal year 2013, which builds on the Blueprint for an America Built to Last that he laid out in his State of the Union address. This Blueprint aims to strengthen the economy and create middle class jobs by bolstering the manufacturing sector, a bright spot in our economic recovery. This focus on manufacturing complements House Democrats Make It In America plan - a plan to create jobs by cultivating an encouraging environment for businesses to innovate and make products here in the U.S.
Ek aisee larkee ya khatoon ka rishta darkar hai jo 33 saal tak ki hon aur dosri biwi bannay par razamand ho.. Koi demand ya shart nahi aur deendar middle class family se ho tu behtar hai.. Sirf aisay log rabita karen:. 1. Larkee ka hijab / naqab karna zarori hai.. 2. Namazi hoon.. 3. Islami zahen hoon.. 4. Aaj kal ki tarha larkoo se dostian karne wali aur facebook waghera par apni pictures upload na karti hon.. 5. Lalchee aur paisay ke matlasi log apne ghar me khush rahen aur rabita na karen.. 6. Sunni hoon (sirf Deobandi ya Ahle-Hadith, baqio se mazrat).. Meri pehlay se ek biwi hain aur alhamdolillah ham log Riyadh me rehtay hain. Dosri biwi meri khoahish hai.. Sirf serious log rabita karen.. Wassalaam. ...
It is indeed a sad state of affairs to see and hear how the government of the day, is now lambasting the black middle class in South Africa
As you can probably tell by the reduction in posts this is turning out to be a very busy summer for me at Middle Class Millionaire. So...I am asking you (readers and/or other blog owners) if you would be interested in submitting a post or two over the next couple of months. I am open to receiving posts on anything related to finances, investing, retirement planning, market conditions etc... I will post it on my blog but will of course give you all the credit for your writing. If you are interested please send me an email at middleclassmillionaire.blogspot.com or just leave me a comment with your email address and Ill get back to you ...
Pew Research says 49% of adults are members of the Great American Middle Class. My more qualitative analysis suggests the number is no higher than 33%.
The core of the middle class belief system is that anything is attainable through hard work. But that mentality has changed, especially since the recession.
U.S. President Obama says he has concrete, practical proposals to help the middle class, excerpts from his State of the Union address Tuesday night show.
The American leftwing has been transmogrified. The left, which formerly stood for "peace and bread," today stands for Identity Politics and war. The working class has been redefined as "the Trump deplorables" and splintered into separate "victim groups"-women, racial minorities, homosexuals, transgendered. The oppressors are no longer oligarchs who own the means of production. The oppressor is the sexist, misogynist, homophobic, heterosexual, fascist, white supremacist male working class.. The rise of Identity Politics has brought with it politically controlled speech. Primarily white people, especially heterosexual white males, are subject to this control. The limits on their free speech are growing ever more severe, and no one has to be concerned about white heterosexual males being offended by offensive or threatening speech. White males can be called anything and they are.. By splintering the working class into victim groups, Identity Politics has made opposition to war and income inequality ...
This thesis concerns the long-term life chances of children brought up under various conditions in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century. The main purpose is to examine the consequences of childrens early family environment for later educational career, and ultimately, for their mortality risk at different stages of the life-course. Two aspects of family structure are focused upon: the birth order of the subject and the mothers marital status at the time of childbirth. The four studies are all based on the 14,192 babies that were born alive at the Uppsala Academic Hospital during the period 1915-29. Nearly all these children (97.3 percent) have been successfully followed up in parish archives and later through computerised linking to census and death registries. While social class is probably one of the most commonly used indicators of childhood social conditions, the two measures of family structure used here may be assumed to capture additional aspects of childhood social ...
Source: Nasima Begum, Office for National Statistics: Labour Market Trends. The same study shows that something like 14% of the workforce has some managerial or supervisory role - everything from directors to checkout supervisors.. In each of these categories the overwhelming majority of the workforce are proletarians, ie people whose labour contributes to the production and reproduction of surplus value. But the subjective experience of the working class is now very different to what it was in the 1930s or even the 1960s. The massification of the working class has ended, with many people working in smaller work units. In larger workplaces like call centres, the workers are likely to be low paid, highly regimented and un-unionised. Working class organisation depends on struggle and the building up of organisation and consciousness over time. It would be incredible if call centres and the like had emerged fully unionised from the beginning. So the decline in unionisation is striking: from just ...
The journal abstract is here. The finding is that a tiny and clinically insignificant increase in blood pressure was found to be associated with how much salt kids say they sprinkle on their food. I have made some comments in the body of the article below but let me make the usual comments here about this epidemiological crap. It seems likely that the "disobedience" to health directives by working class people is all that is shown here. Working class people are less likely to be scared off salt and it is also known that they tend to have poorer health due to various factors such as lack of exercise - not excluding genetic factors. So working class kids both say they use more salt and have higher blood pressure. Class is the probable causative factor behind the results, not salt. And research showing that people on salt-restricted diets die SOONER is not mentioned, of course. What a crock! Children and adolescents consuming higher levels of salt in their diets have higher blood pressure, confirms ...
Background. Both high socioeconomic status (SES) and high physical activity (PA) are associated with better self-rated health (SRH) and higher quality-of-life (QoL).. Aim. To investigate whether high levels of PA may compensate for the association between low SES and subjective health outcomes in terms of poorer SRH and lower QoL.. Method. Data from a cross-sectional, population-based study (n = 5326) was utilized. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between indicators of SES (economic situation and educational level), SRH and QoL, as well as between the combination of SES and PA in relation to SRH and QoL.. Result. Participants with high PA and economic problems had approximately the same OR for good SRH as those with low PA and without economic problems (OR 1.75 [95% CI 1.20-2.54] and 1.81 [1.25-2.63] respectively). Participants with high PA and low education had higher odds for good SRH (OR 3.34 ...
This expansion in the range of foods was advertised by most contemporaries, and by subsequent historians, as representing a significant improvement in the working class diet. The reality was very different. These changes undoubtedly increased the variety and quantity of the working class diet, but its quality deteriorated markedly. The imported canned meats were fatty and usually corned or salted. Cheaper sugar promoted a huge increase in sugar consumption in confectionery, now mass-produced for the first time, and in the new processed foods such as sugar-laden condensed milk, and canned fruits bathed in heavy syrup. The increased sugar consumption caused such damage to the nations teeth that by 1900 it was commonly noted that people could no longer chew tough foods and were unable to eat many vegetables, fruits and nuts [26]. For all these reasons the late-Victorian diet actually damaged the health of the nation, and the health of the working classes in particular ...
Hundreds of thousands of struggles and skirmishes with the Chinese elite have been going on between the working class and the peasantry on the one side and this elite on the other. These struggles are certain to continue. In the process the Chinese working class will rise to its feet in a decisive fashion, building its own independent unions and its own mass party or parties. US imperialism, and all the imperialist powers think they have troubles today. It is nothing to what they will have on their plates when the greatest working class in history rises to its feet ...
Figure 1: Predicted probabilities of daily or weekly physical activity across SSS quartiles by country and gender. The figure provides a line graph by country and gender of predicted probabilities for daily or weekly physical activity level by SSS quartile from best fit simple or quadratic logistic regression models. The significant associations with only simple SSS quartile terms are indicated with one asterisk, and the significant associations with quadratic SSS quartile terms are indicated by two asterisks. China males and females, South Korean males, and Taiwanese females have significant quadratic relationships, and Japan males and Taiwanese males have significant positive relationships without quadratic terms ...
There are conflicting reports on the relationship between hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) with socioeconomic status. This study explores this relationship individually and jointly. This is a cross sectional comparative study. Adults that participated in medical outreach organized for high and low socioeconomic status (SES) were tested for hypertension and DM. Mean age in years for high and low SES was 58.69 (± 10.26) and 57.77 (± 15.54), respectively. Widows were significantly more than widowers (P < 0.001). Frequency of hypertension in middle age (45 to 64 years in high and low SES) was 58.0 and 71.9%, respectively (P = 0.009). Frequency of DM was 19.2 and 7.3% in high and low SES respectively (P < 0.001). Combined frequency of hypertension and DM was 14.0 and 6.0% in high and low SES respectively (P = 0.002) and 13.8 and 5.9% in the middle age group in high and low SES respectively (P = 0.034). Severity of hypertension was more in low than high SES (P = 0.001). The
The structure of class groups of number fields can be computed in some cases with explicit congruence conditions, for example as in Kummers criterion which relates the $p$-part of the class group of the $p$-th cyclotomic field to congruences of Bernoulli numbers mod $p$. For $p$ and $N$ prime with $N = 1$ mod $p$, a similar result of Calegari and Emerton relates the rank of the $p$-part of the class group of $\mathbb{Q}(N^{1/p})$ to whether or not a certain quantity (Merels number) is a $p$-th power mod $N$. We study this rank by building off of an idea of Wake and Wang-Erickson, namely to relate elements of the class group to the vanishing of certain cup products in Galois cohomology. Using this idea, we prove new bounds on the rank in terms of similar $p$-th power conditions, and we give exact characterizations of the rank for small $p$. This talk will aim to explain the interplay between ranks of class groups, explicit congruences, and cup products in Galois cohomology. This is joint work ...
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess at a population level the different types of physical activities undertaken by South Asian groups in the UK. By combining two large nationally representative data sets, we have been able to analyse ethnic groups separately by sex and age. Many studies combine Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis as South Asian for analysis in order to boost the sample size and thus the power of the results; however, this results in a limited ability to usefully interpret the results. In the UK, the socioeconomic profiles of Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are quite different, as are their main religious identities. Both these factors have a high potential to affect physical activity behaviour, and we have shown that there are differences in the physical activity behaviour of these three ethnic groups, only some of which are explained by occupational social class.. Some main limitations of this study are rooted in the nature of the HSE 1999 ...
Results: There was evidence of a relationship between prevalence of household environmental hazards and household SES; however, the magnitude and direction of this relationship appeared to be hazard-specific. Household income was related to play equipment characteristics, with higher SES groups being more likely to be exposed to risk. All three SES indicators were associated with differences in the home safety characteristics, with the lower SES groups more likely to be exposed to risk ...
The study also found that ex-smokers survival rates were closer to those of people who had never smoked than those of smokers, emphasising the benefits of quitting smoking even in middle age.. This important large study was part of a long term, community based study in the Scottish towns of Renfrew and Paisley. It was started in 1972 when all residents then aged between 45 and 64 years were invited to participate. After 28 years of follow-up, 56% of women and 36% of men who had never smoked in social classes IV and V were still alive, compared with only 41% of women and 24% of men who smoked in social classes I and II.. An inquiry by the Governments Health Select Committee into health inequalities, which is due to be published soon, is also expected to flag up the importance of quitting smoking in order to narrow the health gap between rich and poor.. Commenting on the findings, ASH Chief Executive, Deborah Arnott, said: "The measures in the Health Bill to deter children from taking up smoking ...
Scott (from Troy, MI) said "The same house in Bethesda (a suburb of DC) would be over $500k." I live in the Maryland suburbs in a less prestigious county and bought my 3000+ sq ft home for half that a couple years ago though it is now worth close to $500k. There are many more affordable places to live here but people choose not to so their struggle is self inflicted because they do not want to live around the working class and lower middle class and minority communities. The middle and upper middle class majority all crowd themeselves into their preferred enclaves in the area and then want to complain about the $699k housing costs to live there. All the Alpha people live in one place and put all their Alpha kids in one place and then wonder why other local schools dont do as well when they have left all the Beta and other kids in those systems. If your parents income did not determine what school district you went to the whole country would be better off and more school systems would have better ...
Relationships between SES and blood pressure with gender specific patterns consistent with our results (i.e. a protective effect of SES among women and a harmful effect among men) have been previously found in South Africa [5] and other middle-income countries [38-40]. These findings are in partial contrast with those in high income countries, where an inverse gradient SESblood pressure is commonly found in both genders, even though often stronger and more consistent across SES indicators in women than in men [2]. In our study, total mediated effects (i.e. the sum of the effects through all indirect pathways) were similar in direction and magnitude across genders, and therefore the observed discrepancies cannot be explained by gender differences in the distribution of the hypothesised mediators. It is conversely the presence - in women but not in men - of sizable unexplained protective effects outmatching the overall mediated effects (harmful in both genders) which makes the difference and ...
This association was essentially unchanged after controlling for a range of covariates including occupational social class, alcohol intake, and smoking. However, reverse causality may still partly explain the association.30. Stress. A study found that individuals with moderate and high stress levels as opposed to low stress had hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality of 1.43 and 1.49, respectively.27 A meta-analysis found that high perceived stress as opposed to low perceived stress had a coronary heart disease relative risk (RR) of 1.27. The mean age of participants in the studies used in the meta-analysis varied from 44 to 72.5 years and was significantly and positively associated with effect size. It explained 46% of the variance in effect sizes between the studies used in the meta-analysis.28. A cross-sectional study (which is a relatively weak study design) not in the aforementioned meta-analysis used 28,753 subjects to study the effect on mortality from the amount of stress and the perception of ...
There is a strong link between cigarette smoking and socio-economic group. Smoking has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in death rates between rich and poor in the UK. Smoking accounts for over half of the difference in risk of premature death between social classes.. Death rates from tobacco are two to three times higher among disadvantaged social groups than among the better off.. Long-term smokers bear the heaviest burden of death and disease related to their smoking. Long-term smokers are disproportionately drawn from lower socio-economic groups. People in poorer social groups who smoke, start smoking at an earlier age: of those in managerial and professional households about one third start smoking before age 16 compared with almost half of those in routine and manual household.. Below is a recording of a webinar by Martin Dockrell from Public Health England and Amanda Amos from the University of Edinburgh. (A on the topics that arose during the webinar is ...
Speaking of tax cuts, I thought everyone should see a nice picture that compares the Obama position with the Republican position. As you can see, under the Obama plan (in blue) everyone gets a tax cut. According to the Joint Committee on Taxation, your average middle class household gets a cut of $916. An upper middle class household gets $3,766. A millionaire household gets $6,349. Money for everyone!. But thats not enough. The red lines roughly show the additional tax cuts under the Republican plan. Everyone making up to $250,000 gets nothing. But the tiny number of households above that threshold get huge pots of money, and the pots get bigger the more money they make. I dont have enough room on the blog to show it properly, but millionaire households get an extra $100,000 or so over and above what theyd get from Obamas broad tax cut.. Thats what were fighting over: a broad tax cut with something for everybody, or a broad tax cut plus an extra bonus for the upper middle class and an ...
You can not recognize your natural environment for what it is until you leave it. Example: I grew up believing that I was middle class, because everyone was middle class, right? Therefore, the kids I went to school with, who all got comparatively more toys than me, were rich. The fact that their parents worked non-rich jobs like cop, fireman, and other varieties of civil servant never crossed my mind. Then I went to college and ran into actual Rich Kids for the first time and realized, to my horror, "No, those kids you went to school with were middle class; you were broke.". This is a tale in the same vein, about a longstanding local Christmas tradition in the Orange County, NY area. And not even the whole county; really, just a concentrated part of it that happened to include my hometown. A farm supply/nursery in New Windsor called Devitts hosted an annual holiday attraction called Christmas on the Farm, something to entertain the kiddies while mom and dad shopped for chicken feed and ...
And despite the good news from a district where the middle class starts to feel the pain of non western migration, the situation for most middle class people is too good to change their opinion - so the media can still spin their story about the uneducated losers from change. And some of the middle class even profit by being able to rent out their extra home, more people get jobs and spent more and so on (the migrant crises was a shortterm boost for the German economy - especially of course the migrant industry - paid by the taxpayer). So dont wait for us ... we will react much later than the British and French. When some more people invested their daughters in the migrant industry. ...
Professor Deatons concerns about the poor in the US are of course valid. I have a couple of comments. First: although the reason for the poverty of some of these people may be globalization, it seems to me that the apparent negative relationship (either more US poor, OR more poor elsewhere) Dr. Deaton is proposing is questionable. The only case in which it is strictly applicable is working class Americans who previously had factory jobs, who lost those jobs when factories were relocated overseas. That group can take advantage of the US Trade Adjustment Assistance, which helps workers in this condition to find jobs or to re-train. Second: if Dr. Deaton is particularly worried about white working class men, about whom there is good reason to worry, then the link with foreign aid is tenuous. These are people for whom in many cases an entire cultural adjustment is required to have a better chance in a globalized knowledge economy. Many of their children are making this step -- I teach them. Those ...
Traitors in the Ranks That was the end of any ideas I had that the big-shots among the recognised Negro leaders would fight for us, or really put up any struggle for equal rights. I knew that Oscar Adams and the people like him were among our worst enemies, especially dangerous because they work from inside our ranks and a lot of us get the idea that they are with us and of us. I look back over what Ive written about those days since I picked up the leaflet of the Unemployment Council, and wonder if Ive really said what I mean. I dont know if I can get across to you the feeling that came over me whenever I went to a meeting of the Council, or of the Communist Party, and heard their speakers and read their leaflets. All my life Id been sweated and stepped on and Jim-Crowed. I lay on my belly in the mines for a few dollars a week, and saw my pay stolen and slashed, and my buddies killed. I lived in the worst section of town, and rode behind the "Colored" signs on streetcars, as though there ...
and were also keen to suppress excessive behaviour amongst the working classes. Crowds of working class people involved in riotous behaviour were considered to a threat to the authorities, properties and productivity. It was deemed necessary to control leisure, as society was suffering political unrest in the form of discontented workforce and appalling problems for public health ...
5. HISTORY AND HISTORYS DISTORTIONS. As you know, Ive long been rabid about people who distort history to fit their own prejudices or narratives. As the character says in The Wire: "If you got enough money, you can be any story you want." The problem is that working class people dont have the time to go around and gather different "viewpoints" to figure out where the truth is -- and to model what they do next. I have shared lots of examples of this. Thats why I havent (yet) reviewed all of the books and articles that have been published since the Chicago Teachers Strike of 2012. Basically, each in its own way is trying to hijack a history that we helped make (beginning decades ago in some cases) and bend it for the working class leaders of the new century in one direction or another. I personally realize that the ruling classs control over "narrative" is more destructive, but having helped in a few major historical events, I know from experience how important it is that we tell our stories ...
You might know him as the mainstream public service journalist from Newsnight, but Mason, author Meltdown, also calls himself a Labour Historian. He wrote Live Working or Die Fighting: How The Working Class Went Global , and in this talk, informed by his work at the coalface of 24 hour news, he talks about the new global movements, the changing nature of work, the radicalisation of the intelligencia as future opporunties evaporate, and increasing pressure on the working class, the changes going on in North Africa. Very good talk, well worth watching it all. ...
The International Working-Class Movement: Problems of History and Theory. Volume 3: Revolutionary Battles of the Early 20th Century by Khromov, S. S., editor-in-chief, et al. and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at AbeBooks.com.
100 years ago, the world was shaken by the October Revolution. We rightly celebrate this heroic act as the first instance of workers power in history. But how exactly did the Bolsheviks and the working class exercise this power never-before wielded by the working class? What problems did they face - economic, administrative, political and military, from within and outside Russia - and how did they meet these problems?
Often times, Browne uses her keen observations to create judgments as in the example above. Personally, I found this passive form of calling Maria, Juan, Maria, and Hilario rude for not having learned English, highly offensive. Browne is the offspring of a middle class family with a college education. If she did live in Mexico for a number of years, she would most likely leverage her socioeconomic background, ensuring that she would not have to derive her entire income from the underground cash based economies of Mexico. Maria, Juan, Maria, and Hilario were not raised cradled by middle class white privilege, and as a result have been relegated to the underground American cash economies. So then, why would Browne draw comparisons to people who lack her educational background and economic status? Another intersecting thought, is that being a monolingual Spanish does not grant a person the same privileges that being a monolingual or English speaker does. Not once have I met a bank teller, teacher, ...
That time has come. In the intervening period Ive been playing my part in what looks like becoming the first major stand against austerity Britain - the fight against the bedroom tax. That battle is now reaching a critical stage, and I think it sheds some light on the potential for mass struggle not seen since pre-war times. The first part of this series will look at that mini-movement, and will attempt to situate it within broader trends of resistance ...
Objective: To evaluate if there is a relation between social classes, level of education, marital status, alcohol and tobacco consumption with the success of weight loss ..
Emphasizing a major Democratic theme for the 2014 election season, Minnesota Sen. Amy Klobuchar released a report on income inequality Thursday that showed the top one percent of American households made, on average, 22.5 times more than the average annual income of all U.S. households in 2012.. Klobuchar used the report, prepared for her as vice chair of the U.S. Congress Joint Econmic Committee, to endorse legislation to raise the federal minimum wage to $10.10 per hour. Klobuchar said the increase would raise 4.6 million Americans out of poverty.. Minnesota is also considering raising its minimum wage.. The gap between the countrys richest citizens and its middle class stands to be a near-constant Democratic refrain in the run-up to the mid-term elections. Klobuchar pointed out that the number of American households meeting the economic definition of middle class shrank friom 48.7 percent in 1980 to 41.1 percent in 2010.. Income inequality is a direct threat to the American promise that ...
Another way to see this university hikes is as a backdoor tax on the rich. The fact that the "Left" is against this just shows how far they have gone from protecting working class people. Because we have to ask ourselves; who goes to university? In Canada only 20% of the population go. If we use the 99% - 1% framework we would have at least 19% from the 99% going to university. So with this way of looking at things, the "Left" is correct to fight for the university educated bourgeois class since the "Left" represents the 99%. But we get a much different story if we use the more traditional quintile framework of blocks of twenty percent in terms of wealth; with the bottom 20%, the poor: the next 20%, the lower middle (working) classes; the next quintile; the middle classes, the second highest: the upper middle (bourgeoisie), with the top quintile being the wealthy. A proper Left party should orient itself to look after primarily the interests of the lowest three quintiles (although obviously ...
Men! The class war was fought, and it was won, it was won by the middle class. The working class lost the class war. They now face a bleak future. Unabl...
SOCIAL CLASS and STRATIFICATION. Stratification system: Rank some kinds of people as more deserving than others, or "...all animals are equal here, but some are more equal than others." [G,Orwell, Animal Farm ]. A. Sociologys Gift: An Introduction. 1. A universal? Slideshow...
Deterrents only work if theyre mapped to what people value. People with more to lose commit fewer crimes. This reflects the changing context of the cost-benefits-risks equation. Getting caught & going to jail means something different to a slum dwelling high school drop out than it does to a middle class Indian, because a middle class Indian has more to lose by going to jail (his freedom, status, job, money, friends, etc.) than a slum dwelling high school drop out (who will end up losing less since he has less of these to begin with and so places a lower value on their loss and is therefore more risk seeking). Governments can use this principle to decrease sexual predation by increasing the risk factors for offenders, thus changing their decision thresholds w.r.t offences. ...
Older adults who consume alcohol moderately on a regular basis are more likely to live to the age of 85 without dementia or other cognitive impairments than non-drinkers, according to a University of California San Diego School of Medicine-led study.
I have been railing against the increasingly successful attempts by the right to convince the ever gullible public that greedy, undemocratic unions are the root of middle class decline and the cause of recessions. They are doing this with social programming too. Of course the entitled, spoiled and ever fearful middle classes have forgotten that…
I expect that Benedict XVI reigned as Pope for a great deal longer than his official tenure from 2005 - 2013 would suggest. Back in the day when the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith was seen as really very important indeed (has anybody heard anything from Archbishop Ladaria recently or has he gone on an extended holiday?) the then Cardinal Ratzinger was Pope John Paul IIs right-hand man and right-hand men are significant. As John Paul IIs illness deepened in the 1990s and his ability to govern effectively became limited, I expect that the competences Joseph Ratzinger took on became more papal. Perhaps his experiences under John Paul II even gave the then Cardinal Ratzinger his novel and hugely problematic idea of a bifurcated papacy with an active and contemplative ministry ...
An analysis by The New York Times shows the cost of premiums for people who just miss qualifying for subsidies varies widely across the country.
Children from middle-class families are generally fatter than their poorer counterparts The Independent says as they report on a UK study that argues that the perceived wisdom of there being a direct link between poverty and obesity may be incorrect…
I promise, Im done. But do you see what Im trying to illustrate here? I dont mind anti-abortionists expressing their opinions, but enough is enough. Debating abortion has become futile and pointless, because no matter what we do, abortion will unfortunately be a necessary evil sometimes. I think we all agree that abortion is terrible, but some medical situations unfortunately necessitate this procedure to save the life of another. For that reason, abortion cannot, and never will be, eradicated completely ...
Writing in The Atlantic on "The Rise of the New Global Elite," Chrystia Freeland provided a vivid anecdotal account of the same phenomenon, letting the chief executive of a green-technology company explain that most of his sales come from outside the United States, and, if he were starting from scratch, most of his workers would, too. A hedge fund manager tells her why the vigorous growth of a new middle class in China and India counterbalances the decline of the American middle class ...
I am not articulate enough to respond to HariKuttans earlier questions to modes of protest. What the protests create might be a passing discomfort to the advantaged middle class including myself... the enormity of violence that the state does to the life of these thousands of disadvantaged is much much beyond that. When we say that resistance has to be limited to a zone where it does not really interfere with any thing, we are closing our eyes on that aspect. Knowing or unknowing the middle class we belong to along with the state are active agents of violence. What do a bunch of poor or displaced or grieved mean to us or to the state as long as the daily routine of those that matter remain unaffected ...
Brazilian brands efforts toward new sales channel and new players in the market coincide with rise in consumer segments spend on beauty.
A fewer age since, researchers were find that science evaluation was activity studied beside something CREEPY - an oversampling from Occidental, Well-read, Industrial, Bloated, and Antiauthoritari...
Titanic passengers were divided into three separate classes, determined not only by the price of their ticket, but by their wealth. First class passengers were the wealthiest on board, and were mostly business men or politicians. Second class were often professors or authors while third class or steerage was made up of primarily immigrants. All three classes were treated very differently when on board during the trip and after the sinking. The survival rate among classes also varied ...
The song starts depicting a working class community that suffers poverty (the men are on the dole, though the women work in local factories), but with a strong sense of community and pride. The narrator leaves and later returns to find a town "brought to its knees" by violence, with the "army installed by the old gas yard walls, and the damned barbed wire grows higher and higher". Kellys voice is almost broken with barely suppressed anger as he declares "My God, what have they done?", before insisting the towns spirit is "bruised but never broken" and they set their eyes towards peace ...
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Our weekly broadcast of labor news. We talk about the many struggles of working people reporting the stories and perspectives of the working class that are ignored by mainstream media. We have interviews each day usually with local, but sometimes with national community leaders, activists, students, union and a wide assortment of ordinary working people. Listen LIVE Tuesdays at 9:00 AM or download podcasts here and listen on your time ...
Starting today, I am celebrating the birthdays of two iconic figures who are among the most well-known and loved men in their respective fields-social justice and comic art storytelling. Even though these two sons of working class Jewish immigrants were born … Continue reading →. ...
ROHRABACHER: Yes, as long as we dont control the border, it doesnt. Let me give you an example. When I was in college, I cleaned toilets. I was a janitor for a while. And yes, I didnt earn much money, but I earned enough. Well, the pay of janitors really hasnt gone up that much because we have a flow of illegals coming into this country. The fact is, if we wouldnt have had those illegals, wed probably have machines that one janitor could use to clean maybe 100 toilets a night, where I used to clean about 15 or 20. The fact is those machines havent been developed, that American doesnt have that higher-paying job now that he would have. Wages of those working class Americans havent gone up because we have not enforced our laws ...
Curb,it sounds to me that you would enjoy arguing yourself to death. I, on the other hand, enjoy a good argument so long as it is productive.. How can you know that what is important to me means nothing to you unless you are willing to listen to me? I believe we can agree that our nation must regain its strength, morally, socially and economically. How we achieve that is open for debate, but just denying the ideas of those on the other side of the aisle any validity merely because they are on the "other team" has proven itself fruitless.. Ive heard so much about how we must keep taxes on the rich down so that they can produce more jobs. Well, taxes on the rich HAVE been down and we have fewer jobs to show for it! Are we to just ignore the empirical evidence - that the rich are sitting on more money, and the working class have fewer jobs and less pay? Lets get back to the real world shall we?. It is time that this nation once again rewards those who work hard, and not just those that gamble on ...
808 Massachusetts Street, Lawrence. **Riling, Burkhead & Nitcher** has been engaged in the general practice of law for over 110 years representing the working class in the State of .... Rating: 0 ...
808 Massachusetts Street, Lawrence. **Riling, Burkhead & Nitcher** has been engaged in the general practice of law for over 110 years representing the working class in the State of .... ...
The scale of the assault on the Greek working class is making it clear that struggle is the only real option to protect our lives.
In sports theyre called role players. Theyre the working class guys who play defense, dive for loose balls, get under the opponents skin, fight it out in the trenches. Theyre not stars and they dont make the big bucks or have lucrative endorsements or land supermodel wives. But without them you dont win, period. Music…
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X The Have Nots lyrics & video : bar anything but the bottom step of the ladder it keeps getting higher and higher Dawn comes soon enough for the working class it keeps getting...
The questions raised by a study of class and inequality are important, but often complex. This book succeeds in making them understandable without oversimplifying, and its breadth, originality, and easy style will appeal to a wide readership. Peter…
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
At least that is my take on this... when presented with something new it takes people a period of time to get their heads around their new position in society and what that position is relative to everyone else.. It is not until people fully understand that can they begin to understand if they are moving in an up, down or sideways motion relative to those around them ...
Name of Candidate: Akshay Kachru. Details of Work done during your term in Office/Public Life. Please select 5 issues (maximum) and tell us about your work with respect to these issues in the past as well as your specific steps and solutions for these issues in the future, if elected to office. Issue No. 1: Work Done in the past:. Participated actively in social activities like Padyatra and Prasad Bhandara by arranging funds through donations. Plan to do during next term:. Belonging to a middle class family, I am aware of peoples daily life problems, and hence shall do work which will benefit all sections of society ...
Im also uneasy with this line of reasoning because it suggests that those of us who are at home with texts and come from a middle class background have an uncomplicatedly privileged natural relationship with them. As Ive said elsewhere, Im a glib (and, truth be told, somewhat facile) reader of texts, and on a simple level I read fast and Ive read a lot of random crap. Learning to access theory was an incredible mental struggle for me and has actually been part of a become a happier, less anxious, less self-hating and more therapized person process. Theory for me was a site where I experienced misogyny, class bias (because I am after all the child of a retail manager and the grandchild of farmers) and incredibly painful and literally triggering stuff that brought me back to horrible, painful childhood events. Dealing with theory and the accompanying ressentiment, anxiety and self-hate was a big factor in a kind of nervous breakdown I had in my late twenties, a really horrible thing that ...
If a minority becomes a majority is it still a minority? Will middle class white men gain minority status if they are outnumbered?