Possible new insights into the underlying neurobiology of human social behavior came to light as researchers studied Williams syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that causes hyper sociability, UC San Diego reported Wednesday. The research involved a variety of disciplines at UC San Diego, the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and other organizations. The scientists, whose work […]. ...
Education is a social practice and the ability to interact socially is important to social cognitive learning and social learning. Online education is frequently criticized because it lacks social interaction, a sense of social engagement, and the benefits of learning with others. Social ability with computer-mediated social mechanisms is key to participation and contributions in online learning environments. What is social ability in online education, and can it be measured? The purpose of this study was to explicate and develop an instrument to measure the construct of social ability in online learning. The findings demonstrate construct and predictive validity for a measure of social ability in online learning, indicate that the instrument has power for measuring social ability and underlying factors, and suggests that the instrument may be a valuable tool in technology research for collaborative and networked learning.. ...
The concept of directed social learning predicts that social learning opportunities for an individual will depend on social dynamics, context and demonstrator identity. However, few empirical studies have examined social attention biases in animal groups. Sex-based and kinship-based biases in social learning and social attention towards females have been shown in a despotic and female philopatric primate: the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). The present study examined social attention during the juvenile period. Social attention was recorded through 5-min focal observations during periods of natural foraging. Kin emerged as the most important focus of social attention in juveniles, intensified by biased spatial proximity towards matrilineal related members. The highest-ranking conspecifics were more frequently observed by juveniles than low-ranking ones. Additionally, younger and orphaned juveniles showed higher levels of social attention overall, compared to other age categori
Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms far, the examples in this module have often Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms how people are expected to behave in certain Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms example, when buying food or boarding a Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms. These examples describe the visible and invisible rules of conduct through which societies are structured, or what sociologists call norms. Norms Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms how Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms behave in accordance with what a society has defined as good, right, and important, and most members of the society adhere to them.. Formal norms are established, written rules. They are behaviors worked out and agreed upon in order to suit and serve the most people. Formal norms are the most Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms and clearly stated of the various types of norms, and they are the most strictly enforced. But Sample Soccer Resume Places Visit ...
Social skill and language are known to relate, not least in the example of those with specific language impairment (SLI). However, most of the research examining this trend has been conducted on young primary school age children and the nature of the relationships is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about which young people in general have social difficulties and whether language, social cognition, and social skills are directly associated at this age. In this study, a large cohort made up of young people with a history of SLI (N = 134) and a typically developing (TD) group (N = 124) of the same age were followed up in their final year of compulsory schooling (aged 16). Language, social cognition, social skills, and functional social outcomes (friendships and levels of social activity) were assessed using tasks and questionnaires. Modest associations were found between social cognition, language, and social behaviours, the strongest being between language and social cognition. Regression ...
How can we design systems that encourage better cybersecurity behaviors? Despite important improvements to the usability of cybersecurity systems, much security advice goes ignored and many security systems remain underutilized. I argue that this disconnect can partially be explained by the fact that theres a largely unconsidered cost to engaging in good security behaviors: costs of social face. For example, by using two-factor authentication, one might be perceived as paranoid. By encrypting ones phone, one might be perceived as having something to hide. More generally, by caring too strongly about cybersecurity, one may give off the impression of being shady. In this talk, I present evidence in support of the following claim: Social influences strongly affect cybersecurity behaviors, and it is possible to encourage better cybersecurity behaviors by designing security systems that are more social. First, I empirically modeled how social influences affect the adoption of security behaviors ...
Bob Prechters new science of socionomics explains that stock market fluctuations mirror trends in peoples collective mood. In simple terms, when the market is buoyant, it indicates positive social mood; the opposite when a bear market takes over.. The fascinating part is that because the stock market and social mood trend closely together, a forecaster can apply Elliott wave analysis to both - and predict both.. Generally, widespread brutalities and wars do not follow the first phase of a bear market. Extreme violence, when it does occur, often follows the worst part of the markets downturn - like the end of the Great Depression, a negative social mood period that ultimately ushered in World War II.. But even during the first phase, a negative social mood grows. So, if a forecaster determines correctly where in the wave structure social mood resides, he can make educated forecasts about what will follow in society - given what has happened before under similar social mood ...
Image from article: Early puberty for girls is raising health concerns) Welcome to Wopulars coverage of Social Behavior. Wopular aggregates news headlines from the top newspapers and news sources. To the right are articles about Social Behavior that have been featured on main sections of the site.. Below are topics about Social Behavior. (Click on all to view all articles related to the topic, including articles NOT about Social Behavior.. Click here to search news sites, aggregators, and blogs as well as videos, photos, and websites about Social Behavior.. ...
Influence Social Distancing - Part 5 - Government Guidelines - Influence Social Distancing - Part 5 - Government Guidelines to encourage the switch to more Hygienic Non-Contact solutions |img
Play is a complex social behavior that is highly conserved across mammals. In most species, males engage in more frequent and vigorous play as juveniles than females, which reflects subtle yet impactful sex differences in brain circuitry and development. In this protocol, we describe a behavioral testing paradigm to assess social play in male and female juvenile rats. We highlight the behavior scoring criteria for distinguishing rough-and-tumble play from other play-related social behaviors. By analyzing both sexes, play behavior can be leveraged as a powerful tool to understand the sex-specific development and expression of social behavior., 游戏是一种复杂的社会行为,在哺乳动物中高度保守。在大多数物种中,雄性幼鱼比雌性更频繁,更有活力,这反映出大脑回路和发育中的细微但有影响的性别差异。在此协议中,我们描述了一种行为测试范式来评估雄性和雌性幼鼠的社交游戏。我们重点介绍了行为评分标准
Women have a very important hormone named oxytocin that is found to play a huge role in building social interaction and relationships in mammals, especially humans. This hormone is also found to help connect us to others. The trust, closeness, pleasant touch, eye contact, and empathy are all triggered in an individual with the help of the hormone. The oxytocin levels in the mother are found to have an impact on the childs behavior and also help mothers build a stronger bond with their baby. According to Tobias Grossmann from the Max Planck Institute and Jessica Connelly and Kathleen Krol from the University of Virginia, the development of oxytocin system in a child is found to rely on the mothers behavior.. During childhood, an individual has his/her systems maturing either physiologically or behavior-wise as a step to adulthood. Oxytocin plays an important role in early social, perceptual, & cognitive functions and even complex social behaviors also depend on the hormone. The recent study has ...
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication. Skill deficits are most noticeable in social behavior and these deficits may be related to atypical responsiveness to social stimuli. The current study sought to examine how individuals with an ASD allocated their behavior in the presence of others pre and post social exchange training and to evaluate the qualitative changes in social behavior following training. One adult and three children with an ASD participated. Relative preference for social interaction and the qualitative state of social engagement during social interaction were measured. Participants then received training to initiate and sustain a social exchange. Prompting and reinforcement, in the form of preferred social consequences, were provided. Following social exchange training, the results suggested an increased preference for social interaction for some participants and a qualitatively richer state of social engagement ...
Funder: Ford Foundation Partner: CERISE The Project Goal The Social Performance Fund promotes the broad adoption of the Universal Standards for Social Performance Management. Our aim is to promote SPM implementation by building the capacity of national associations and MFIs to use the SPI4 tool to manage and report on their social performance. Geography: Global Status: Finished Social Performance Reports Social Performance in Europe, .... Read More ...
Mir Saeed Moosavi & Zhila Darvishi Postin Doz, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran, ID CLEaR2017-408; Abstract: The changing conditions within cities over time and differences in living conditions between cities suggest that at best these studies provide a crude snapshot of how the mass of urban living conditions at one point in time may be affecting population health, social behavior and communication. Urban green spaces are an integral part of any urban area and their importance is very well known for maintaining the environmental quality, sustainability, social communication as well as population health and wellbeing. Urban green spaces constitute parks, gardens and recreation venues, informal green spaces such as river or sea fronts, green spaces surrounding historical sites, railway corridors and indigenous vegetation types.. The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between green space and community attachment in urban areas including metropolitan areas in Iran. The detailed ...
Project Summary/AbstractThe brain neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important roles in altering neuralcircuits that regulate social behavior. These ligands regulate normative social function in a host of areas,including social attachment, parental behavior, aggression, and complex social cognition. In pathologicalbrain/behavior conditions, many disorders are characterized by dramatic deficits in the social realm.Knowledge of the way OT and AVP alter cellular function in neurons has the potential to both identifymechanisms that produce social dysfunction and to design compounds that normalize cellular function andbehavior. The present project takes advantage of the discovery of novel OT ligand structure, and variation incellular receptors for OT and AVP in the marmoset, a species that exhibits social monogamy, infant care bymales, and a family-like social structure. The first aim will characterize the effects of ligand diversity on thealteration of behavior in a ...
Primates live in highly social environments, where prosocial behaviors promote social bonds and cohesion and contribute to group members fitness. Despite a growing interest in the biological basis of nonhuman primates social interactions, their underlying motivations remain a matter of debate. We report that macaque monkeys take into account the welfare of their peers when making behavioral choices bringing about pleasant or unpleasant outcomes to a monkey partner. Two macaques took turns in making decisions that could impact their own welfare or their partners. Most monkeys were inclined to refrain from delivering a mildly aversive airpuff and to grant juice rewards to their partner. Choice consistency between these two types of outcome suggests that monkeys display coherent motivations in different social interactions. Furthermore, spontaneous affilitative group interactions in the home environment were mostly consistent with the measured social decisions, thus emphasizing the impact of ...
Research in my laboratory broadly focuses on understanding the neural circuit mechanisms underlying social behaviors and their dysregulations in neuropsychiatric disorders. Humans are an exquisitely social species; we live in a world that is largely socially constructed, and are constantly involved in and fundamentally influenced by a broad array of complex social interactions. Social behaviors among conspecifics, either conflictive or cooperative, are exhibited by a wide range of animal species and are of ubiquitous adaptive value; many social behaviors, such as aggression, pair bonding, and mating, are essential for the health, survival, and reproduction of animals. Conversely, social behaviors displayed at inappropriate time or place or of inappropriate intensity can have detrimental effects on both the individuals and a social group as a whole. Impairment in social function is a prominent feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Despite its importance, ...
Sociability is the disposition to interact with one another. Rodents have a rich repertoire of social behaviors and demonstrate strong sociability. Various methods have been established to measure the sociability of rodents in simple and direct ways, which includes reciprocal social interaction, juvenile social play, and three-chamber social tests. There are possible confounding factors while performing some of these tasks, such as aggression, avoidance of interaction by the stimulus mouse, exposure to a new environment, and lengthy procedures. The present study devised a method to complement these shortcomings and measure sociability as a group in the home cage setting, which prevents group-housed mice from isolation or exposure to a new environment. The home cage social test can allow high-throughput screening of social behaviors in a short amount of time. We developed two types of home cage setup: a home cage social target interaction test that measures sociability by putting the wire cage in ...
Despite growing interest in integrating people׳s daily mobility into contextual studies of social inequalities in health, the links between daily mobility and health inequalities remain inadequately conceptualised. This conceptual proposal anchors the relationship between daily mobility and contextual influences on social inequalities in health into the concept of mobility potential, which encompasses the opportunities and places individuals can choose (or are constrained) to access. Mobility potential is realized as actual mobility through agency. Being shaped by socially-patterned personal and geographic characteristics, mobility potential is unequally distributed across social groups. Social inequalities in realized mobility may thus result. We discuss pathways by which these may contribute to contextual influences on social inequalities in health. One pathway is reflected in disadvantaged groups encountering more fast-food outlets during their daily activities, which may relate to their higher risk
Human social behavior develops under the influence of genetic, environmental, and cultural factors. Social cognition comprises our ability to understand and respond appropriately to other peoples social approaches or responses. The concept embraces self-knowledge and theory of mind, or the ability …
What are social cues? How do these stimuli determine specific social actions? Classical studies by ethologists point to a general rule, in which animals use a rather simple set of discrete stimuli to trigger complex social behaviours such as aggression and mating. In fact, rodents use special scents known as pheromones as signals carrying information such as species, sex, and social status. Our research takes advantage of a large collection of pheromonal compounds - those identified by pioneers of this field as well as ones newly identified by us - to understand how information carried by single or multiple monomolecular pheromones is processed and in turn yields specific social behaviours.. We combine in vivo physiology with molecular methods such as single-cell transcriptomics and genomics to define the functions of specific neurons in social circuits. Our research so far has defined specific social cues, both olfactory and non-olfactory, and corresponding neural pathways for specific controls ...
Social inhibition can be lowered by a few different factors, one of them being alcohol. Alcohol consumption can be seen to lower inhibitions in both men and women. Social inhibitions generally act to control or affect the way that one conducts themselves in a social setting. By lowering inhibitions alcohol can work to increase social behaviors either negatively or positively. Importantly, one must remember that the higher the dosage of alcohol, the greater the damage it will cause to inhibitory control.[55] By lowering inhibitions, alcohol can cause social behaviors such as aggression, self disclosure, and violent acts.[55] Researchers have suggested that situational cues used to inhibit social behaviors are not perceived the same way after someone consumes enough alcohol to qualify them as drunk: interacting parties who are impaired by alcohol are less likely to see justifications for the others behavior, are thus more likely to interpret the behavior as arbitrary and provocative, and then, ...
Among the problems people with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle with, are difficulties with social behavior and communication, ISNA wrote.. That can translate to an inability to make friends, engage in routine conversations, or pick up on the social cues that are second nature to most people. Similarly, in a mouse model of ASD, the animals, like humans, show little interest in interacting or socializing with other mice.. One drug, risperidone, works in both humans and mice with ASD to treat other symptoms of the disorder-including repetitive behaviors--but no medication has been found to help socialization.. Now the researchers have treated ASD mice with a neuropeptide, molecules used by neurons to communicate with each other, called oxytocin, and have found that it restores normal social behavior.. In addition, the findings suggest that giving oxytocin as early as possible in the animals life leads to more lasting effects in adults and adolescents. This suggests there may be critical ...
Our lab studies mechanisms of social disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Some of our work investigates social cognition, a term that refers to the perceptual and processing abilities that facilitate social interaction. These include a wide range of skills such as emotion recognition, theory of mind and attribution biases, and we examine relationships between social cognition in ASD to general cognition, social behavior, and social functioning. Our studies utilize a variety of different neuropsychological methods, including eye tracking to monitor and quantify perceptual patterns, computerized testing of social cognitive abilities, and video analysis of social functioning.. Our lab also studies face processing, non-social motivation (i.e., circumscribed interests), and the Broad Autism Phenotype. More recently, we have been examining how social interaction difficulties for adults on the spectrum are often a relational rather than an individual impairment, and how the perceptions, ...
Convergent evidence shows that alcohol exerts its effects on social behavior via modulation of amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli. Given that affective processing involves dynamic interactions b
Children with craniofacial anomalies, such as microtia, experience significant teasing, rejection, and other negative social responses, such as social avoidance from others. These occurrences show trends toward social withdrawal, likely as a reaction to the negative reactions of others (Snyder, 2005). Children with craniofacial anomalies are treated differently than children without such defects; the affected children consequently have been shown to be more introverted and to express a more negative self-concept than unaffected children (Weinstein, 2005). These negative events may also result in decreased self-esteem, increased anxiety, behavioral problems, and difficulty with social integration. The patients who request ear reconstruction often complain of diminished self-consciousness and being teased by peers. Children born with microtia tend towards social isolation, they play less with other children, meet less people, and hide more commonly from certain people, and avoid school. The longer ...
Enterprise 3 Your Business and the Triple Bottom Line Economic, Environmental, Social Performance The Sustainable Business Network and the Ministry for the Environment have developed this guide in partnership.
This paper sets out to review the influence of social processes on the timing of the diagnosis of cancer and to explore the potential for promoting earlier diagnosis by addressing social factors that influence symptom recognition and the diagnostic process. Social processes refer to the means by which culture and social organisation may impact on timely cancer diagnosis. The paper calls for concerted action around an important and developing research agenda that may prove highly valuable in the quest to secure prompt diagnosis for cancer and through it improved outcomes for individuals. ...
The depression-prone mice displayed higher concentrations of engram cells compared to the less susceptible mice, and the density of the cells correlated with the level of social avoidance behavior. Activating the engram cells increased social avoidance behavior while suppressing the cells decreased it, suggesting a role in the cognitive symptoms of depression ...
p,This international, peer-reviewed journal aims to advance knowledge in the growing and strongly interdisciplinary area of Interaction Studies in biological and artificial systems. Understanding social behaviour and communication in biological and artificial systems requires knowledge of evolutionary, developmental and neurobiological aspects of social behaviour and communication; the embodied nature of interactions; origins and characteristics of social and narrative intelligence; perception, action and communication in the context of dynamic and social environments; social learning, adaptation and imitation; social behaviour in human-machine interactions; the nature of empathic understanding, behaviour and intention reading; minimal requirements and systems exhibiting social behaviour; the role of cultural factors in shaping social behaviour and communication in biological or artificial societies.,/p,,p,The journal welcomes contributions that analyze social behaviour in humans and other ...
Rhonda Charles is a 2010 ASF Grant Winner and a PhD Student in the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. Ms. Charles work focuses on the AVPR1A gene, which affects social behavior and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. Her ASF- funded study puts the human AVPR1A gene into a mouse model, a key step that must occur before we can introduce pharmacological treatments for individuals with autism affected by AVPR1A gene mutations.. ...
This paper tracks the consequences of individuals desire to align their location with their social preferences. The social preference studied in the...
The Journal of the Royal Society Interface has published my paper with Ben Althouse on how social dynamics may hold the key to understand the unique cycling ...
In a recent study with potential wide-reaching influence, Edsinger and Dolen (2018) tested for the first time, the effect of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in octopus. In their main experiment (Experiment 2), the authors placed octopuses in the central compartment of a three-chambered arena and allowed them to freely explore the lateral chambers, one containing an object and the other containing a social stimulus (a familiar male conspecific), both isolated through a perforated plastic container. All subjects first received a pre-trial to establish a baseline for the social response toward the conspecific, and following the administration of MDMA, they were given a post-trial with the same individual. According to the authors, the results demonstrate that MDMA induces both quantitative (i.e. longer intervals spent in the social stimulus chamber) and qualitative (i.e. different behaviors) acute prosocial responses in octopus. Here we highlight fundamental flaws in the study, thus challenging the
Behavior and Social Issues is a peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal which serves as a primary scholarly outlet for articles that advance the analysis of human social behavior, particularly with regard to understanding important social problems.
Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize peoples appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals perception of others as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflict noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner give money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bear
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Living in a large social group is thought to increase disease risk in wild animal populations, but comparative studies have provided mixed support for this prediction. Here, we take a social network perspective to investigate whether patterns of social contact within groups influence parasite risk. Specifically, increased modularity (i.e. sub-grouping) in larger groups could offset the increased disease risk associated with living in a large group. We simulated the spread of a contagious pathogen in random social networks to generate theoretically grounded predictions concerning the relationship between social network connectivity and the success of socially transmitted pathogens. Simulations yielded the prediction that community modularity (Q) negatively impacts parasite success. No clear predictions emerged for a second network metric we considered, the eigenvector centralization index (C), as the relationship between this measure and parasite success depended on the transmission probability ...
We have shown that the behavior of individuals in a social sequential decision-making task can be described by an evidence accumulation process whereby personal and social information is integrated until a decision is made, formalized by the social DDM. The model accurately predicts decision time and choice by taking personal information, social information, and the willingness to wait for social information into account. It successfully captured all the interrelationships of the key behavioral results of the social phase, thereby revealing the cognitive underpinnings of the group-level self-organization according to information quality. Measuring how individuals process personal and social information affords a deeper understanding of how individuals in a social environment cope with the complex problem of evaluating personal information and how they time their decision and incorporate social information.. During the social decision-making process, individuals incorporated personal information ...
There is provided a system and method for transmitting social communication data across at least one social communication channel. The method is performed by a computing device for communicating social data, comprising: receiving a composed social data object; integrating at least one tracker object within the social data object; transmitting the social data object comprising said tracker object to at least one destination target; obtaining a response from said tracker object indicating target feedback, wherein the target feedback indicates at least one of: subsequent transmission of the social data object to additional destination targets and feedback parameters from at least one of: said at least one destination target and said additional destination targets.
Get this from a library! Siblings of Children with Autism: Social Behavior in Early Childhood. [Tremaine, Emily A.] -- Siblings of Children with Autism: Social Behavior in Early Childhood
This is a somewhat challenging book to review for Sociological Research Online because it is not sociological. The book, an edited collection, reflects the work of a cluster of educational and developmental psychologists with a particular interest in the influence of peers and teachers on pupil motivation. Engagement with related social factors promises to lead towards better understanding of childrens adjustment in school.. In principle I would argue, greater exploration of overlaps in psychological and sociological disciplines is to be greatly welcomed, for far too many issues have been colonised by particular disciplines only to be doomed to a lack of holistic validity. A book on social motivation thus generates very positive expectations. Indeed, for Bernard Weiner, writing the Forward, it is a landmark volume for the way in which it gives affiliative motivation its proper role and respect and for signalling the potential for a general theory of motivation.. In structure the ...
The model and results presented here demonstrate how asocial organisms that reproduce parthenogenetically and grow within somewhat isolated colonies can evolve to social organisms that invest in the common good. The effect of clonal mixing on the level of sociality can be quantified with a relatedness measure. This demonstrates how social behaviour is not precluded by clonal mixing and may evolve without the need for some form of kin recognition.. The relatedness measure we have used quantifies assortment in the population. Our derivation of this measure and the costs and benefits came from a detailed ecological model. By demonstrating how inclusive fitness arguments follow from the ecology, without the need to invoke other mechanisms such as group selection, our work contributes to a growing body of literature that highlights the usefulness of inclusive fitness in complex ecological scenarios (e.g. Lehmann et al. 2007; Taylor et al. 2007).. Interestingly, as shown by equation (2.2), both ...
Search +Network science -Ron Burt -Animal social network -Community structure -Link community +Temporal network -Innovation -Sinan Aral -Albert-László Barabási ...
Search +Network science -Ron Burt -Animal social network -Community structure +Industry-Academic Partnership -Elizabeth Leicht -Adrien Friggeri +Science of science -modularity +Interdisciplinary research -Ecology -Community formation ...
The increasing importance of corporate social responsibility with practitioners is having huge attention in the academic literature. A growing study examines the reasons why firms engage in corporate social responsibility, and how it relates to financial performance of firms. Yet, the link between market performance of a firms stock and its social performance is under researched compared to that of the environment and economic perspectives. Therefore, this study adds insights to CSR-financial performance debate by focusing on the concept of social performance. Social performance refers to the firms product responsibility, community involvement, health and safety, diversity, training and development, human right, and employment quality. Using Thomson Reuters database social performance scores, we conduct a descripto-explanatory analysis to examine whether the Swedish stock market responds to social performance over the years 2010 to 2014 for a sample of 66 Swedish firms listed at OMX ...
Autism spectrum disorders are a developmental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior. Those with autism have problems with social interactions, repetitive behaviors, and both verbal and non-verbal communication. While the cause of autism is not yet know, studies have shown that there are both genetic and environmental factors linked with autism. The amygdala is considered to be part of the
The Department of Social Neuroscience investigates human social behaviour. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, we study the neuronal, hormonal, and developmental foundations of human social cognition, social and moral emotions such as empathy and compassion, envy, revenge, fairness as well as emotion regulation capacities and their role in social decision making and communication.
Social deficit is one of the core symptoms of neuropsychiatric diseases, in which immune genes play an important role. Although a few immune genes have been shown to regulate social and emotional behaviors, how immune gene network(s) may jointly regulate sociability has not been investigated so far. To decipher the potential immune-mediated mechanisms underlying social behavior, we first studied the brain microarray data of eight inbred mouse strains with known variations in social behavior and retrieved the differentially expressed immune genes. We then made a protein-protein interaction analysis of them to find the major networks and explored the potential association of these genes with the behavior and brain morphology in the mouse phenome database. To validate the expression and function of the candidate immune genes, we selected the C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J strains among the eight inbred strains, compared their social behaviors in resident-intruder and 3-chambered social tests and the mRNA levels of
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute administration of ketamine attenuates the impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles via activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. AU - Hasegawa, Sho. AU - Yoshimi, Akira. AU - Mouri, Akihiro. AU - Uchida, Yoji. AU - Hida, Hirotake. AU - Mishina, Masayoshi. AU - Yamada, Kiyofumi. AU - Ozaki, Norio. AU - Nabeshima, Toshitaka. AU - Noda, Yukihiro. PY - 2019/4. Y1 - 2019/4. N2 - The impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles is resistant to some antidepressants and an antipsychotic, although the underlying mechanisms and/or therapeutic target are not yet clear. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the glutamatergic neuronal system in the impairment of social behaviors in this model, as this system is known to be involved in many central pathologies. Acute administration of ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ...
Playing Online games are one of the medium of entertainment especially in the student of (Holy cross of Davao College). Theoretically, games in which game characters help and support each other in nonviolent ways should increase both short-term and long-term prosocial behaviors. Social isolation can be an immediate consequence of continuous and ceaseless gaming. If players take the role of pro-social characters in violent or gory games then this will tend to influence them to behave in a pro-social fashion, he added. The impact of video games on a childs social well-being is modest at best, Przybylski says, accounting for only 2 percent of a childs psychological and social function. A number of experiments show that adults feelmore hostile after playing violent games--especially games that simulate real-life situations (Bartlett et al 2007; Bartlett and Rodeheffer 2009; Bartlett et al 2009). In fact, given that not only players of violent video games but also their social network respond ...
In vertebrates, the early social environment can persistently influence behaviour and social competence later in life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in animal social competence are largely unknown. In rats, high-quality maternal care causes an upregulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (gr) and reduces offspring stress responsiveness. This identifies gr regulation as a candidate mechanism for maintaining variation in animal social competence. We tested this hypothesis in a highly social cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher, reared with or without caring parents. We find that the molecular pathway translating early social experience into later-life alterations of the stress axis is homologous across vertebrates: fish reared with parents expressed the glucocorticoid receptor gr1 more in the telencephalon. Furthermore, expression levels of the transcription factor egr-1 (early growth response 1) were associated with gr1 expression in the telencephalon and ...
Definition of social perception in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of social perception. What does social perception mean? Information and translations of social perception in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Factors influencing supportive social networks of people with schizophrenia are little understood. Data from 46 outpatients with schizophrenia were analysed using structural equation modelling to test plausible sets of inter-relationships between social skill, social networks, and social support. The data supported a tentative model about the causal relationships between variables. Paths showed that people with greater social skill had larger social networks, but did not necessarily perceive greater support from these networks. Negative symptoms accounted for some of the effect of social skill on social networks. Whereas groups of single-admission and multiple-admission participants did not differ in terms of social skill, social networks, or support, the age of the participants influenced their social skill and the size of their social networks. Younger participants had greater social skill and larger social networks. The results appear to suggest the importance of early intervention for young ...
Researchers have discovered that a form of oxytocin-the hormone responsible for making humans fall in love-has a similar effect on fish, suggesting it is a key regulator of social behavior that has evolved and endured since ancient times.. The findings, published in the latest edition of the journal Animal Behaviour, help answer an important evolutionary question: why do some species develop complex social behaviors while others spend much of their lives alone?. We know how this hormone affects humans, explains Adam Reddon, lead researcher and a graduate student in the Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour at McMaster University. It is related to love, monogamy, even risky behaviour, but much less is known about its effects on fish.. Specifically, researchers examined the cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, a highly social species found in Lake Tanganyika in Africa.. These cichlids are unusual because they form permanent hierarchical social groups made up of a dominant breeding ...
Social systems encompass individual components that come together and interact. How these interactions and resulting group-level phenomena unfold depends on the properties of the individuals, their experience, ambient conditions, as well as the interactions themselves. How evolution shapes social interactions and social behavior, and how social behavior plays out on a mechanistic level are questions of great general importance. These questions touch on sensitive issues related to human psychology and cognitive abilities, as well as how humans differ in these respects from other animals (Wilson, 1975; de Waal and Ferrari, 2010), but they also relate to fundamental aspects of evolutionary processes. In particular, social evolutionary theory provides a unifying framework in which social behavior and the evolutionary dynamics between interacting components can be understood at a variety of organizational levels, ranging from genes in a genome, to cells in multicellular organisms, individuals in a ...
Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain ... read more polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites ...
Research suggests an overrepresentation of autism spectrum diagnoses (ASD) or autistic traits in gender diverse samples, particularly in children and adolescents. Using data from the GENTLE (GENder identiTy Longitudinal Experience) Cohort at the Gender Diversity Service at the Perth Children’s Hospital, the primary objective of the current retrospective chart review was to explore psychopathology and quality of life in gender diverse children with co-occurring ASD relative to gender diverse children and adolescents without ASD. The Social Responsiveness Scale (Second Edition) generates a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) score indicating a likely clinical ASD diagnosis, which was used to partition participants into two groups (indicated ASD, n = 19) (no ASD indicated, n = 60). Indicated ASD was far higher than would be expected compared to general population estimates. Indicated ASD on the Social Responsiveness Scale 2 (SRS 2) was also a significant predictor of
Social plasticity is a pervasive feature of animal behavior. Animals adjust the expression of their social behavior to the daily changes in social life and to transitions between life-history stages, and this ability has an impact in their Darwinian fitness. This behavioral plasticity may be achieved either by rewiring or by biochemically switching nodes of the neural network underlying social behavior in response to perceived social information. Independent of the proximate mechanisms, at the neuromolecular level social plasticity relies on the regulation of gene expression, such that different neurogenomic states emerge in response to different social stimuli and the switches between states are orchestrated by signaling pathways that interface the social environment and the genotype. Here, we test this hypothesis by characterizing the changes in the brain profile of gene expression in response to social odors in the Mozambique Tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. This species has a rich repertoire of
Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task. We found that goats relied more on personal than social information, when both types of information were available and in conflict. No effect of social rank was found on the occasions when goats followed other demonstrator goats. Goats are selective browsers/grazers and therefore relying on personal rather than social information could
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a devastating disorder and one the most common neurodegenerative diseases in middle age. The most prominent early manifestations of bvFTD (behavior variant FTD) are not the memory and other cognitive deficits typical of Alzheimers disease (AD) but, rather, disturbance in social or interpersonal behavior. A basic manifestation of this disorder is a disturbance in the emotions and motives that drive social and moral behavior. In fact, bvFTD is an incredible window to the neuroscience of social behavior. This study will help clarify the neurobiological substrates of sociomoral emotions and their associated clinical features. The findings of this proposal can have major implications for understanding the interaction between brain and social behavior and for designing future research on the basic mechanisms of social neuroscience. This research aims to document the loss of sociomoral emotions (SME) compared to primary emotions in patients with bvFTD vs. patients ...
I am interested in the evolution of human social behaviour and wonder if there is any literature on a cognitive centre for the modelling of social status. It has occured to me that the ability to model relative social status i.e. where we stand in relation to others must be a central brain function for social primates, like ourselves. Social primates need to be able to learn the relative social status of other individuals and then react to them appropriately, either with submissive or dominant behaviour. I see that brain mapping techniques have revealed that the hippocampus (the cornu ammonis and the dentate gyrus) is involved in learning face/name pairs. Does anyone know of experiments to discover which part of the brain is active when the faces presented are of individuals with social status that is important to the subject? It seems likely to me that a social status centre exists and that it would have exert a high degree of control over other behavioural centres, especially mood etc e.g. ...
New research in the FASEB Journal suggests that activation of nicotinic receptors within the prefrontal region of the mouse brain helps establish appropriate ranking between competing motivations. If you think nicotine receptors are only important to smokers trying to kick the tobacco habit, think again. New research published in the FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org) suggests that these receptors also play an important role in social interaction and the ability to choose between competing motivations. Specifically, scientists from France show that the nicotinic receptors in the prefrontal cortex are essential for social interaction in mice and that this area of the brain is necessary for adapted and balanced social interactions to occur. This new knowledge could one day lead to novel treatments for ADHD, schizophrenia, and depression, among other illnesses.. One of the main aims would be to understand and help people to make good decisions for themselves (and for others) and to maintain, ...
Fragile X syndrome is the most common monogenetic form of intellectual disability and autism. Although the Fmr1 knockout mouse model recapitulates many aspects of the human FXS condition, the establishment of robust social behavioural phenotypes suitable for drug screening has been difficult. Here, we describe a novel social behavioural paradigm, the Automated Tube Test (ATT), for which Fmr1 knockout mice demonstrate a highly reliable and robust phenotype. Fmr1 KO mice show highly dominant behaviour over wild-type littermates in the ATT. Consistent with previous findings, we observed a highly significant, albeit partial, rescue of the altered social behaviour of Fmr1 knockout mice in the ATT, using genetic (mGluR5 deletion) or pharmacological inhibition (mGluR5 antagonist) of mGluR5 signalling independently. Together, our results validate the Automated Tube Test as a robust outcome measure for social behaviour in preclinical research for FXS, and confirm the pathophysiological relevance of ...
mice are exposed to 10 bouts of social defeat in which c57bl/6 test mice are forced to intrude into space occupied by mice of a larger and more aggressive strain, leading to subordination of the test mice. Following this repeated stress, a subset of mice develop significant avoidance of social contact with mice of the same strain and exhibit other signs that are reminiscent of symptoms of human depression, including weight loss and loss of hedonic (pleasure) responses to sucrose. A strength of the social defeat stress model is that, at least in this mouse strain, the stressor convincingly separates the mice into two groups, a group that the authors designate Susceptible, which develop social avoidance, and a group described as Unsusceptible, which continue to interact with other mice at the same rate as never stressed controls. The model has other strengths. Repeated social defeat would appear to be a good model for some adverse human experience. Moreover, the traits that emerge in ...
In social neuroscience, prosocial behavior is sought in genes, brains and evolutionary past. Social is simultaneously understood as a capacity of the organisms brain to cope with the environment and as an evolutionary advantage of the species. This perspective on the social differs fundamentally from sociologys perspective, where the social can be anything from the sum of individual actions to power relations or social structures. The list of phenomena having been defined to be social in the course of the history of the social sciences is rather long and diverse as (Greenwood, 1997, p. 3) points out by giving a random collection of those phenomena: states, families, armies, religious organizations, literary societies, mobs, street brawls, people chatting on a street corner, the Roman Catholic Church, the Renaissance, insect communication, dominance hierarchies among primates, language, financial instruments, and traffic flow in a city. Thus, social is by no means an unambiguous term and ...
Game-theoretic models of network formation typically assume that people create relations so as to maximize their own outcome in the network. Recent experiments on network formation suggest that the assumption of self-interest might be unwarranted and that social preferences, such as altruism and inequality aversion, play a role in the formation of social networks. We developed an experiment to systematically investigate whether people show preferences for outcomes of others during network formation. We find that such preferences play a role when network decisions degenerate to simple two-person decision tasks. In more complex environments, however, we find little evidence for social preferences as a significant decision criterion. Furthermore, we find some evidence for farsighted behavior in network formation.. ...
Author(s): Hanson, Kari | Advisor(s): Semendeferi, Katerina | Abstract: The evolution of the human brain has yielded advanced cognitive capacities supporting the development of language, technologically advanced material culture, and highly complex social behavior that has allowed for the development of the rich diversity of human cultures. Comparative neuroanatomy in evolutionary perspective continues to make great strides in characterizing and defining unique elements of the human neuroanatomical phenotype at the gross and microscopic level that underlie these key behavioral adaptations. In conjunction with these studies, an understanding of the functional implications of derived anatomical traits is gained through analyses of neurodevelopmental disorders, which help to define a spectrum of variation in the diversity of human brain phenotypes. Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a hemideletion of ~1.6 Mb (25-28 genes) on human chromosome 7q11.23, a highly dynamic
BASF Report 2009 Economic, environmental and social performance Investing in the future: children in the BASF Kids Lab in Hong Kong BASF Group 2009 * Economic data (million ) Change in % Sales
The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS), a condition caused by deletion of ∼28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music), and a negative physical stressor (cold). We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median
The Self-determination theory and The Vallerands Hierarchical Model has been studied with different types of social factors that can bring different consequences. The purpose of this work was if responsibility and social climate could predict the social and prosocial behaviors and vio-lence. For this, 429 students (M = 11.46, SD = 1.92) participated in this study answering a ques-tionnaire with five variables: school climate, responsibility, motivation, satisfaction of psycholog-ical needs, prosocial and antisocial behaviors and violence. The main results saw that the most part of variables were correlated positive and directly except with antisocial behaviors and vio-lence. On the other hand, prediction model (X2 = 584.145 (98); RMSEA = 0.104 [90% CI = 0.096, 0.112]; TLI = 0.849; CFI = 0.894) showed that responsibility and school climate can predict psy-chological basic needs and these needs, can improve the autonomous motivation and finally have positive consequences improving prosocial behaviors and
Infants innately relieve stress by crying, turning their heads or maintaining eye contact. Adults manage emotional tension using problem-solving or by seeking support. A new study by a University of Missouri human development ...
BACKGROUND: Recent research has revealed that the community of microorganisms inhabiting the gut affects brain development, function and behaviour. In particular, disruption of the gut microbiome during critical developmental windows can have lasting effects on host physiology. Both antibiotic exposure and germ-free conditions impact the central nervous system and can alter multiple aspects of behaviour. Social impairments are typically displayed by antibiotic-treated and germ-free animals, yet there is a lack of understanding of the underlying neurobiological changes. Since the μ-opioid, oxytocin and vasopressin systems are key modulators of mammalian social behaviour, here we investigate the effect of experimentally manipulating the gut microbiome on the expression of these pathways. RESULTS: We show that social neuropeptide signalling is disrupted in germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice, which may contribute to the behavioural deficits observed in these animal models. The most notable finding is
Theory of mind (ToM), the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others, is a strong determinant of social functioning among individuals with schizophrenia. Identifying the neural bases of ToM and their relationship to social functioning may elucidate functionally relevant neurobiological targets for intervention. ToM ability may additionally account for other social phenomena that affect social functioning, such as social anhedonia (SocAnh). Given recent research in schizophrenia demonstrating improved neural functioning in response to increased use of cognitive skills, it is possible that SocAnh, which decreases ones opportunity to engage in ToM, could compromise social functioning through its deleterious effect on ToM-related neural circuitry. Here, twenty individuals with schizophrenia and 18 healthy controls underwent fMRI while performing the False-Belief Task. Aspects of social functioning were assessed using multiple methods including self-report (Interpersonal ...
Elephants typically have very strong social bonds, and social interactions can include affiliative, agonistic, or ambiguous behaviors. The social interactions and dominance hierarchy between individuals of a herd depend upon many factors, including maternal lineage, age, and sex. This study was designed to determine how social behaviors among a herd of captive African elephants varied throughout the day and to establish if the frequency of social interactions and age class were correlated. The study also aimed to determine if handler perceptions of elephant personality were an accurate predictor of the type and frequency of social behaviors observed, in addition to the factors stated above. The research was performed at the African Elephant Research Unit at Knysna Elephant Park (KEP) in South Africa. The herd included 7 elephants in 3 age groups: juvenile (0-10 years), young adult (11-20 years), and adult (20+ years). Continuous, all-occurrence sampling of pre-determined affiliative, agonistic, and
Social phobia, also known as social anxiety disorder, is a common, often debilitating condition. People with social phobia experience high levels of anxiety when they participate in social situations or perform in front of others. Approximately 80% of social phobia cases occur before the age of 18, and often precede other anxiety, mood, and substance abuse or dependence disorders. Physical symptoms typically accompany the intense anxiety caused by the disorder, and may include blushing, profuse sweating, trembling, nausea, and difficulty talking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment method for most people with social phobia. Approximately 30% of people with the disorder, however, do not respond to CBT treatment. A better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying social phobia and CBTs effect on these mechanisms will help physicians to better predict the best treatment for different patients. This study will evaluate the effect of CBT on how the ...
Humans are a social species; our ability to function in a diverse range of social environments is indispensable to our livelihood. Although a large range of individual differences in social cognitive ability has been described in clinical and typically-developed populations, our understanding of the neurophysiological sources of individual differences in social cognition is incomplete. Taking the viewpoint that across-individual variances in social behavioral tendencies are the manifestations of differences in baseline and task-related functional properties of fundamental information-processing neural networks, this manuscript presents a series of experiments that aim to characterize the extent to which functional properties of basic brain networks can explain individual differences across a number of traits. The results of these experiments show that functional properties of the default network, the somatosensory network, and the emotion processing network predict several socially-relevant ...
Social structure is proposed to influence the transmission of both directly and environmentally transmitted infectious agents. However in natural populations, many other factors also influence transmission, including variation in individual susceptibility and aspects of the environment that promote or inhibit exposure to infection. We used a population genetic approach to investigate the effects of social structure, environment, and host traits on the transmission of Escherichia coli infecting two populations of wild elephants: one in Amboseli National Park and another in Samburu National Reserve, Kenya. If E. coli transmission is strongly influenced by elephant social structure, E. coli infecting elephants from the same social group should be genetically more similar than E. coli sampled from members of different social groups. However, we found no support for this prediction. Instead, E. coli was panmictic across social groups, and transmission patterns were largely dominated by habitat and ...
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Summary Micro-organisms were believed until recently to live independent, unicellular lives but are now understood to rely on complex systems of social behaviours for survival. In pathogenic bacteria, cooperation and communication between cells leads to increased virulence and the understanding of how these behaviours evolve is of fundamental importance to the future of human health. Almost nothing is known, however, about social behaviours of bacteria infecting human hosts, and research on social behaviour in microbes is limited to well-characterised lab strains. This proposal describes a program of research designed to exploit the opportunities offered by an interdisciplinary approach to address the growing challenge posed to human health by disease caused by bacterial infection. Specifically, I have three primary objectives: (1) to develop a model system for investigating social behaviour in long-term bacterial infections; (2) to identify evolutionary mechanisms driving dynamics of social ...
Suspendisse viverra egestas eros. Duis tempus varius diam et condimentum. Donec elementum, mi ut posuere posuere, erat dui interdum ante, nec fringilla augue odio ac felis. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse quam mauris, tempus ut felis nec, rutrum cursus arcu. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Pellentesque id sodales elit. Quisque et dui vulputate, rutrum nunc a, ullamcorper tortor. Duis at libero vestibulum, aliquet diam a, pharetra mauris. Donec justo libero, suscipit eu dolor scelerisque, eleifend rhoncus quam. Nullam aliquet semper magna, commodo tincidunt risus varius tincidunt. Integer pulvinar ac libero non vulputate.. Vivamus et felis vitae dolor imperdiet pulvinar id eu dui. Donec ultrices sem nisl, ut porttitor purus scelerisque vel. Morbi eget lacinia ligula, eu condimentum urna. Maecenas id nisi a ex sollicitudin commodo. Duis imperdiet libero eget nibh volutpat, in iaculis felis varius. Nullam ullamcorper bibendum eros ...
Suspendisse viverra egestas eros. Duis tempus varius diam et condimentum. Donec elementum, mi ut posuere posuere, erat dui interdum ante, nec fringilla augue odio ac felis. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse quam mauris, tempus ut felis nec, rutrum cursus arcu. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Pellentesque id sodales elit. Quisque et dui vulputate, rutrum nunc a, ullamcorper tortor. Duis at libero vestibulum, aliquet diam a, pharetra mauris. Donec justo libero, suscipit eu dolor scelerisque, eleifend rhoncus quam. Nullam aliquet semper magna, commodo tincidunt risus varius tincidunt. Integer pulvinar ac libero non vulputate.. Vivamus et felis vitae dolor imperdiet pulvinar id eu dui. Donec ultrices sem nisl, ut porttitor purus scelerisque vel. Morbi eget lacinia ligula, eu condimentum urna. Maecenas id nisi a ex sollicitudin commodo. Duis imperdiet libero eget nibh volutpat, in iaculis felis varius. Nullam ullamcorper bibendum eros ...
Suspendisse viverra egestas eros. Duis tempus varius diam et condimentum. Donec elementum, mi ut posuere posuere, erat dui interdum ante, nec fringilla augue odio ac felis. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse quam mauris, tempus ut felis nec, rutrum cursus arcu. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Pellentesque id sodales elit. Quisque et dui vulputate, rutrum nunc a, ullamcorper tortor. Duis at libero vestibulum, aliquet diam a, pharetra mauris. Donec justo libero, suscipit eu dolor scelerisque, eleifend rhoncus quam. Nullam aliquet semper magna, commodo tincidunt risus varius tincidunt. Integer pulvinar ac libero non vulputate.. Vivamus et felis vitae dolor imperdiet pulvinar id eu dui. Donec ultrices sem nisl, ut porttitor purus scelerisque vel. Morbi eget lacinia ligula, eu condimentum urna. Maecenas id nisi a ex sollicitudin commodo. Duis imperdiet libero eget nibh volutpat, in iaculis felis varius. Nullam ullamcorper bibendum eros ...
Ireland is in the middle of a catastrophized recession. This will come as no surprise to anyone in Ireland, though perhaps it is not known as well internationally as one might think. One of the crucial features of the time leading up to the boom was the activity of the property developers, the risk-taking darlings of the neo-liberal miracle. The developers built and built, while prices and availability of cheap credit grew. Until one day it all fell apart and the Irish economy collapsed into a heap on the floor. What was once prime residential housing, is now a toxic asset. A crucial feature of the post-crash Irish landscape is the presence of vacant or half-built houses and apartments. The question I want to address here is what those radicals concerned with social justice in Ireland should do in the face of this landscape. To get to the point, I would like to go back and point towards an alternate historiography which reveals that rights have been used in truly radical demands and ...
Introduction. Social adjustment is an umbrella term encompassing various aspects of peoples performance in social context. It is ones tendency to cope with all the difficulties that one may encounter in a social environment. Passer & smith (2011) refer to it as a life-long process that involves adjustment of an individual to the society and others in order to be accepted as member of the society. It is, therefore, the strive by individuals to cope with societal demands in order to be accepted by others. Interestingly, those who design and provide programmes for students in educational settings often seek to enhance aspect of social adjustment either as a primary outcome or as a value by product of other product activities (Yeseldyke & thurlow, 1993). It is almost certain that well developed social abilities affect virtually all aspects of ones life in social settings; hence, social adjustment is considered as moving forward with members of the society. Social adjustment is a psychological ...
The purpose of the study was to investigate how peoples endogenous levels of oxytocin were related to brain activity when they viewed social interactions, said Katie Lancaster, a Ph.D. candidate in psychology at the University of Virginia and first author of the study. We found that people with higher oxytocin levels showed greater recruitment of brain regions that support social cognition, suggesting that these people are naturally attending to the more social aspects of the interactions.. People with low levels of oxytocin showed less recruitment of these social brain areas; their brain activity resembles the patterns of neural activity previously observed when people focus on non-socially relevant information.. The study has implications for better understanding how oxytocin interacts with cognition in both healthy people and people with disordered social behavior. For example, low levels of oxytocin have previously been associated with social deficits often found in individuals with ...
Recent studies suggest that the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline, or its cousins, hold therapeutic potential for affective and psychotic disorders. This is proposed on the basis of a direct effect on microglia‐mediated frontocortical synaptic pruning (FSP) during adolescence, perhaps in genetically susceptible individuals harboring risk alleles in the complement component cascade that is involved in this normal process of CNS circuit refinement. In reviewing this field, it is argued that minocycline is actually probing and modulating a deeply evolved and intricate system wherein psychosocial stimuli sculpt the circuitry of the social brain underlying adult behavior and personality. Furthermore, this system can generate psychiatric morbidity that is not dependent on genetic variation. This view has important ramifications for understanding pathologies of human social behavior and cognition as well as providing long‐sought potential mechanistic links between social experience and ...