The concept of directed social learning predicts that social learning opportunities for an individual will depend on social dynamics, context and demonstrator identity. However, few empirical studies have examined social attention biases in animal groups. Sex-based and kinship-based biases in social learning and social attention towards females have been shown in a despotic and female philopatric primate: the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). The present study examined social attention during the juvenile period. Social attention was recorded through 5-min focal observations during periods of natural foraging. Kin emerged as the most important focus of social attention in juveniles, intensified by biased spatial proximity towards matrilineal related members. The highest-ranking conspecifics were more frequently observed by juveniles than low-ranking ones. Additionally, younger and orphaned juveniles showed higher levels of social attention overall, compared to other age categori
Social skill and language are known to relate, not least in the example of those with specific language impairment (SLI). However, most of the research examining this trend has been conducted on young primary school age children and the nature of the relationships is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about which young people in general have social difficulties and whether language, social cognition, and social skills are directly associated at this age. In this study, a large cohort made up of young people with a history of SLI (N = 134) and a typically developing (TD) group (N = 124) of the same age were followed up in their final year of compulsory schooling (aged 16). Language, social cognition, social skills, and functional social outcomes (friendships and levels of social activity) were assessed using tasks and questionnaires. Modest associations were found between social cognition, language, and social behaviours, the strongest being between language and social cognition. Regression ...
How can we design systems that encourage better cybersecurity behaviors? Despite important improvements to the usability of cybersecurity systems, much security advice goes ignored and many security systems remain underutilized. I argue that this disconnect can partially be explained by the fact that theres a largely unconsidered cost to engaging in good security behaviors: costs of social face. For example, by using two-factor authentication, one might be perceived as "paranoid." By encrypting ones phone, one might be perceived as having something to hide. More generally, by caring too strongly about cybersecurity, one may give off the impression of being shady. In this talk, I present evidence in support of the following claim: Social influences strongly affect cybersecurity behaviors, and it is possible to encourage better cybersecurity behaviors by designing security systems that are more social. First, I empirically modeled how social influences affect the adoption of security behaviors ...
Bob Prechters new science of socionomics explains that stock market fluctuations mirror trends in peoples collective mood. In simple terms, when the market is buoyant, it indicates positive social mood; the opposite when a bear market takes over.. The fascinating part is that because the stock market and social mood trend closely together, a forecaster can apply Elliott wave analysis to both - and predict both.. Generally, widespread brutalities and wars do not follow the first phase of a bear market. Extreme violence, when it does occur, often follows the worst part of the markets downturn - like the end of the Great Depression, a negative social mood period that ultimately ushered in World War II.. But even during the first phase, a negative social mood grows. So, if a forecaster determines correctly where in the wave structure social mood resides, he can make educated forecasts about what will follow in society - given what has happened before under similar social mood ...
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication. Skill deficits are most noticeable in social behavior and these deficits may be related to atypical responsiveness to social stimuli. The current study sought to examine how individuals with an ASD allocated their behavior in the presence of others pre and post social exchange training and to evaluate the qualitative changes in social behavior following training. One adult and three children with an ASD participated. Relative preference for social interaction and the qualitative state of social engagement during social interaction were measured. Participants then received training to initiate and sustain a social exchange. Prompting and reinforcement, in the form of preferred social consequences, were provided. Following social exchange training, the results suggested an increased preference for social interaction for some participants and a qualitatively richer state of social engagement ...
Funder: Ford Foundation Partner: CERISE The Project Goal The Social Performance Fund promotes the broad adoption of the Universal Standards for Social Performance Management. Our aim is to promote SPM implementation by building the capacity of national associations and MFIs to use the SPI4 tool to manage and report on their social performance. Geography: Global Status: Finished Social Performance Reports Social Performance in Europe, .... Read More ...
Mir Saeed Moosavi & Zhila Darvishi Postin Doz, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran, ID CLEaR2017-408; Abstract: The changing conditions within cities over time and differences in living conditions between cities suggest that at best these studies provide a crude snapshot of how the mass of urban living conditions at one point in time may be affecting population health, social behavior and communication. Urban green spaces are an integral part of any urban area and their importance is very well known for maintaining the environmental quality, sustainability, social communication as well as population health and wellbeing. Urban green spaces constitute parks, gardens and recreation venues, informal green spaces such as river or sea fronts, green spaces surrounding historical sites, railway corridors and indigenous vegetation types.. The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between green space and community attachment in urban areas including metropolitan areas in Iran. The detailed ...
Despite growing interest in integrating people׳s daily mobility into contextual studies of social inequalities in health, the links between daily mobility and health inequalities remain inadequately conceptualised. This conceptual proposal anchors the relationship between daily mobility and contextual influences on social inequalities in health into the concept of mobility potential, which encompasses the opportunities and places individuals can choose (or are constrained) to access. Mobility potential is realized as actual mobility through agency. Being shaped by socially-patterned personal and geographic characteristics, mobility potential is unequally distributed across social groups. Social inequalities in realized mobility may thus result. We discuss pathways by which these may contribute to contextual influences on social inequalities in health. One pathway is reflected in disadvantaged groups encountering more fast-food outlets during their daily activities, which may relate to their higher risk
Human social behavior develops under the influence of genetic, environmental, and cultural factors. Social cognition comprises our ability to understand and respond appropriately to other peoples social approaches or responses. The concept embraces self-knowledge and theory of mind, or the ability …
Social inhibition can be lowered by a few different factors, one of them being alcohol. Alcohol consumption can be seen to lower inhibitions in both men and women. Social inhibitions generally act to control or affect the way that one conducts themselves in a social setting. By lowering inhibitions alcohol can work to increase social behaviors either negatively or positively. Importantly, one must remember that the higher the dosage of alcohol, the greater the damage it will cause to inhibitory control.[55] By lowering inhibitions, alcohol can cause social behaviors such as aggression, self disclosure, and violent acts.[55] Researchers have suggested that situational cues used to inhibit social behaviors are not perceived the same way after someone consumes enough alcohol to qualify them as drunk: "interacting parties who are impaired by alcohol are less likely to see justifications for the others behavior, are thus more likely to interpret the behavior as arbitrary and provocative, and then, ...
Among the problems people with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle with, are difficulties with social behavior and communication, ISNA wrote.. That can translate to an inability to make friends, engage in routine conversations, or pick up on the social cues that are second nature to most people. Similarly, in a mouse model of ASD, the animals, like humans, show little interest in interacting or socializing with other mice.. One drug, risperidone, works in both humans and mice with ASD to treat other symptoms of the disorder-including repetitive behaviors--but no medication has been found to help socialization.. Now the researchers have treated ASD mice with a neuropeptide, molecules used by neurons to communicate with each other, called oxytocin, and have found that it restores normal social behavior.. In addition, the findings suggest that giving oxytocin as early as possible in the animals life leads to more lasting effects in adults and adolescents. This suggests there may be critical ...
Our lab studies mechanisms of social disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Some of our work investigates social cognition, a term that refers to the perceptual and processing abilities that facilitate social interaction. These include a wide range of skills such as emotion recognition, theory of mind and attribution biases, and we examine relationships between social cognition in ASD to general cognition, social behavior, and social functioning. Our studies utilize a variety of different neuropsychological methods, including eye tracking to monitor and quantify perceptual patterns, computerized testing of social cognitive abilities, and video analysis of social functioning.. Our lab also studies face processing, non-social motivation (i.e., circumscribed interests), and the Broad Autism Phenotype. More recently, we have been examining how social interaction difficulties for adults on the spectrum are often a relational rather than an individual impairment, and how the perceptions, ...
Convergent evidence shows that alcohol exerts its effects on social behavior via modulation of amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli. Given that affective processing involves dynamic interactions b
Children with craniofacial anomalies, such as microtia, experience significant teasing, rejection, and other negative social responses, such as social avoidance from others. These occurrences show trends toward social withdrawal, likely as a reaction to the negative reactions of others (Snyder, 2005). Children with craniofacial anomalies are treated differently than children without such defects; the affected children consequently have been shown to be more introverted and to express a more negative self-concept than unaffected children (Weinstein, 2005). These negative events may also result in decreased self-esteem, increased anxiety, behavioral problems, and difficulty with social integration. The patients who request ear reconstruction often complain of diminished self-consciousness and being teased by peers. Children born with microtia tend towards social isolation, they play less with other children, meet less people, and hide more commonly from certain people, and avoid school. The longer ...
Enterprise 3 Your Business and the Triple Bottom Line Economic, Environmental, Social Performance The Sustainable Business Network and the Ministry for the Environment have developed this guide in partnership.
The depression-prone mice displayed higher concentrations of engram cells compared to the less susceptible mice, and the density of the cells correlated with the level of social avoidance behavior. Activating the engram cells increased social avoidance behavior while suppressing the cells decreased it, suggesting a role in the cognitive symptoms of depression ...
p,This international, peer-reviewed journal aims to advance knowledge in the growing and strongly interdisciplinary area of Interaction Studies in biological and artificial systems. Understanding social behaviour and communication in biological and artificial systems requires knowledge of evolutionary, developmental and neurobiological aspects of social behaviour and communication; the embodied nature of interactions; origins and characteristics of social and narrative intelligence; perception, action and communication in the context of dynamic and social environments; social learning, adaptation and imitation; social behaviour in human-machine interactions; the nature of empathic understanding, behaviour and intention reading; minimal requirements and systems exhibiting social behaviour; the role of cultural factors in shaping social behaviour and communication in biological or artificial societies.,/p,,p,The journal welcomes contributions that analyze social behaviour in humans and other ...
Rhonda Charles is a 2010 ASF Grant Winner and a PhD Student in the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. Ms. Charles work focuses on the AVPR1A gene, which affects social behavior and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. Her ASF- funded study puts the human AVPR1A gene into a mouse model, a key step that must occur before we can introduce pharmacological treatments for individuals with autism affected by AVPR1A gene mutations.. ...
Behavior and Social Issues is a peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal which serves as a primary scholarly outlet for articles that advance the analysis of human social behavior, particularly with regard to understanding important social problems.
Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize peoples appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals perception of others as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflict noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner give money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bear
Living in a large social group is thought to increase disease risk in wild animal populations, but comparative studies have provided mixed support for this prediction. Here, we take a social network perspective to investigate whether patterns of social contact within groups influence parasite risk. Specifically, increased modularity (i.e. sub-grouping) in larger groups could offset the increased disease risk associated with living in a large group. We simulated the spread of a contagious pathogen in random social networks to generate theoretically grounded predictions concerning the relationship between social network connectivity and the success of socially transmitted pathogens. Simulations yielded the prediction that community modularity (Q) negatively impacts parasite success. No clear predictions emerged for a second network metric we considered, the eigenvector centralization index (C), as the relationship between this measure and parasite success depended on the transmission probability ...
There is provided a system and method for transmitting social communication data across at least one social communication channel. The method is performed by a computing device for communicating social data, comprising: receiving a composed social data object; integrating at least one tracker object within the social data object; transmitting the social data object comprising said tracker object to at least one destination target; obtaining a response from said tracker object indicating target feedback, wherein the target feedback indicates at least one of: subsequent transmission of the social data object to additional destination targets and feedback parameters from at least one of: said at least one destination target and said additional destination targets.
Get this from a library! Siblings of Children with Autism: Social Behavior in Early Childhood. [Tremaine, Emily A.] -- Siblings of Children with Autism: Social Behavior in Early Childhood
This is a somewhat challenging book to review for Sociological Research Online because it is not sociological. The book, an edited collection, reflects the work of a cluster of educational and developmental psychologists with a particular interest in the influence of peers and teachers on pupil motivation. Engagement with related social factors promises to lead towards better understanding of childrens adjustment in school.. In principle I would argue, greater exploration of overlaps in psychological and sociological disciplines is to be greatly welcomed, for far too many issues have been colonised by particular disciplines only to be doomed to a lack of holistic validity. A book on social motivation thus generates very positive expectations. Indeed, for Bernard Weiner, writing the Forward, it is a landmark volume for the way in which it gives affiliative motivation its proper role and respect and for signalling the potential for a general theory of motivation.. In structure the ...
The model and results presented here demonstrate how asocial organisms that reproduce parthenogenetically and grow within somewhat isolated colonies can evolve to social organisms that invest in the common good. The effect of clonal mixing on the level of sociality can be quantified with a relatedness measure. This demonstrates how social behaviour is not precluded by clonal mixing and may evolve without the need for some form of kin recognition.. The relatedness measure we have used quantifies assortment in the population. Our derivation of this measure and the costs and benefits came from a detailed ecological model. By demonstrating how inclusive fitness arguments follow from the ecology, without the need to invoke other mechanisms such as group selection, our work contributes to a growing body of literature that highlights the usefulness of inclusive fitness in complex ecological scenarios (e.g. Lehmann et al. 2007; Taylor et al. 2007).. Interestingly, as shown by equation (2.2), both ...
Search "+Network science -Ron Burt -Animal social network -Community structure -Link community +Temporal network -Innovation -Sinan Aral -Albert-László Barabási ...
Search "+Network science -Ron Burt -Animal social network -Community structure +Industry-Academic Partnership -Elizabeth Leicht -Adrien Friggeri +Science of science -modularity +Interdisciplinary research -Ecology -Community formation ...
The proposition of this study was that training in social skills and subsequent stimulation to practice the skills developed in the intervention would favor the social competence of children surviving brain tumors. The results support this proposition, because the data from the interviews with the dyads indicated an improvement in the general standard of social competence of the two children following the intervention based on social skills training. These findings corroborate those from previous studies that highlight the effectiveness of interventions focused on social skills training (Barakat et al., 2003; Devine et al., 2016; Schulte, Vannatta et al., 2014).. Although they underwent the same intervention procedures, the two children demanded specific procedures to address the sequelae of their illness. Alan and Betina had different sequelae, but they shared the fear of being rejected because of these characteristics, which may be attributable to the fact that they did not have the skills ...
The health of older adults is influenced by many factors. One of the least understood is the role that social support and personal relationships may play in healthy aging. The National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) is the first population-based study of health and social factors on a national scale, aiming to understand the well-being of older, community-dwelling Americans by examining the interactions among physical health, illness, medication use, cognitive function, emotional health, sensory function, health behaviors, and social connectedness. It is designed to provide health providers, policy makers, and individuals with useful information and insights into these factors, particularly on social and intimate relationships. The National Opinion Research Center (NORC), along with Principal Investigators at the University of Chicago, conducted more than 3,000 interviews during 2005 and 2006 with a nationally representative sample of adults aged 57 to 85. Face-to-face interviews ...
The prevention of drug use and drug-related problems among young people is a key policy objective and is one of the pillars of the European Drugs Strategy 2013-20. Drug prevention encompasses a wide range of approaches. Environmental and universal strategies target entire populations, selective prevention targets vulnerable groups who may be at greater risk of developing drug use problems, and indicated prevention focuses on at-risk individuals. Over the last decade, the availability of quality standards, which can support intervention delivery and best practice, has grown. The European Drug Prevention Quality Standards Project provides toolkits to support the implementation of standards in this area.. A relatively robust evidence base exists for some prevention approaches that may be implemented in school settings. While countries report extensive implementation of smoking bans in schools and school drug policies, approaches for which an evidence base exists, prevention approaches solely based ...
The Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research (RCMAR) is a national initiative to improve the health of minority Americans through scholarship, better public health interventions, and by fostering and mentoring the next generation of minority scholars ...
In their new paper, Nowak, Tarnita and Wilson propose that "kin selection" is not only wrong, it is unnecessary. They argue that standard natural selection theory, in the context of precise models of population structure, is a simpler and more fruitful approach, allowing the evaluation of multiple competing hypotheses, and providing an exact framework for interpreting experimental observations. The key here is mathematical modeling; hence, Wilsons co-authors. Wilsons own vast knowledge of the social insects provides the teams empirical base. But we are not just talking about ants and bees. At the end of their paper, Nowak, Tarnita and Wilson say: "We have not addressed the evolution of human social behavior here, but parallels with the scenarios of animal eusocial evolution exist, and they are, we believe, well worth examining ...
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which encompasses the anterior paracingulate cortex and extends rostrally along the medial frontal wall, has recently received a considerable amount of scientific inquiry as a distinct subregion of the frontal lobe. This is, in part, because the mPFC is involved in core mental functions that form the foundation of many human social behaviors (Spreng et al., 2009). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided strong support for a link between the mPFC and a wide variety of cognitive functions critical for social behavior, including abilities to reflect upon past interactions and personal traits, to comprehend and/or predict the behaviors of others, and to empathize with the sufferings of others (for review, see Frith, 2007). One of the more reliable fMRI observations, however, is that blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal increases in the mPFC during unconstrained rest, a characteristic that has been used to infer functional ...
A new study reports people with higher levels of moral reasoning appear to have increased grey matter volume in areas of the brain associated with complex social behavior and decision making.... Read More... ...
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, born in Geneva in 1712, had an important influence on political philosophy in the 18th century and since, in particular through his book The social contract, published in 1762.1,2 This monumental work is part of the family of older, major writings on social contract theory by Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704).. The relationships between individuals, the state and government form the key components of Rousseaus "social contract". A first principle to govern these relationships is that man has no natural authority over other human beings and sheer force exercised by one individual over another does not justify authority. Rather, legitimate authority must find its rationale in so-called social pacts or contracts.2 Secondly, competition among men will stimulate the need for a social pact, so that each can preserve oneself and be protected by the "general will" enacted by the people.3. The social contract purports to provide a proper alternative to the ...
The authores propose that humans are adapted to transfer knowledge to, and receive knowledge from, conspecifics by teaching. This adaptation, which they call 'pedagogy', involves the emergence of a special communication system that does not presuppose either language or high-level theory of mind, but could itself provide a basis facilitating the development of these human-specific abilities both in phylogenetic and ontogenetic terms. They speculate that tool manufacturing and mediated tool use made the evolution of such a new social learning mechanism necessary. However, the main body of evidence supporting this hypothesis comes from developmental psychology. They argue that many central phenomena of human infant social cognition that may seem puzzling in the light of their standard functional explanation can be more coherently and plausibly interpreted as reflecting the adaptations to receive knowledge from social partners through teaching ...
Deficits in social behavior are found in several neuro-psychiatric disorders with a presumed developmental origin. The aim of the present study is to determine if prenatal stress at a given day of gestation alters social behavior in adult offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed to an acute stress (presence of a cat) either at the 10th (S10), the 14th (S14) or the 19th (S19) gestational day. When adult, their offsprings were studied in anxiety, neophobic and social behaviors. The results showed that S10 and S19 rats were more anxious and less aggressive than control rats, while the anxious and aggressive behavior of S14 rats was similar to that of the control ones ...
Animal models with an eco-ethological relevance can help in identifying novel and reliable stress-related markers. To this end, 3-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to social defeat (SD) stress for 10 days as this stressor shows good face and predictive validity for several models of human affective disorders including depression, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder. Social avoidance and pain threshold were assessed 24 h and 4 weeks after the end of SD stress, while corticosterone was assayed at the beginning and at the end of the stressful procedure (days 1 and 10). SD subjects were characterized by increased corticosterone levels (30 min following stress exposure), increased latency to approach the social target in the short-term as well as increased emotionality in the long-term. Moreover, an increase in nociceptive threshold (stress-induced analgesia) was found both in the short-term and 4 weeks after the end of stress. These data indicate that the SD paradigm is able to induce
The follow-up finding is equally illuminating, shedding light on both the workings of the brain and on evolution itself. The relationship between people and pathogens, the researchers suggest, could have directly affected the development of our social behavior, allowing us to engage in the social interactions necessary for the survival of the species while developing ways for our immune systems to protect us from the diseases that accompany those interactions. Social behavior is, of course, in the interest of pathogens, as it allows them to spread.. The UVA researchers have shown that a specific immune molecule, interferon gamma, seems to be critical for social behavior and that a variety of creatures, such as flies, zebrafish, mice and rats, activate interferon gamma responses when they are social. Normally, this molecule is produced by the immune system in response to bacteria, viruses or parasites. Blocking the molecule in mice using genetic modification made regions of the brain hyperactive, ...
A frame of reference for studying human disease is presented. An individuals social behavior serves as the orienting theme. Special forms of social behavior are in effect what tie an individual to his physical and social space, and alterations here can lead to disease. Causes of disease can thus be linked to behaviors of the individual. Although associated with basic changes in the physiologies and chemistries of the individual, disease invariably comes to affect the individuals behavior and adaptation. Different ways in which such behavioral changes can be conceptualized are discussed. The individual relies on these behavioral changes as the data for evaluating his disease and deciding about medical treatment. A model of how an individual processes information about illness and makes decisions designed to alleviate his condition is presented. Finally, the rationale and value of keeping behavior and adaptation in mind when studying disease are discussed. ...
Humans spend much of their time in the company of other people, whose behaviour is complex, often unpredictable, and highly relevant to our own daily lives. Making sense of all of this places strong demands on the "social brain". We can think of the social brain as a system that continuously (and often unconsciously) seeks answers to questions: Is anyone there? Who is that? What are they looking at? What are they doing? What are they feeling? What are they thinking? How do I feel about them? Modern social-cognitive neuroscience has uncovered a great deal about the brain systems that ask and answer these questions. The module will cover important concepts and findings in this area. There is a particular emphasis on understanding the "typical" social brain - we do not focus on mental illnesses and psychiatric disorders.. ...
Natural selection is expected to lead to "good" genes taking over a population, and thereby to deplete genetic variation in natural populations. Nevertheless, even traits closely correlated to fitness often show considerable genotypic and phenotypic variation. Social behavior like dominance behavior and parental care behavior can vary widely between individuals, and incur fitness consequences. There must therefore be mechanisms operating that result in genetic variation in social behavioral traits being preserved. Different social environments may select for different social traits ...
Infancy is the time of life during which enormous changes take place- the helpless newborn seems almost a different creature from the inquisitive, walking and talking 2-year-old. During this formative life period, infants develop in an intensely social world filled with other people and one of the most important tasks they face is to develop skills that help them to interact with others and understand others social behavior.
Latest research in Modelling and Simulation of Complex Social Systems Presents the modelling of the complex dynamics that drive the linked epidemiologies
Downloadable! This paper seeks to provide a profile of social group disparities and poverty in India, where social groups are classified as scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other social groups, and examine the factors underlying differences in levels of living between these groups and for each group separately. The paper argues that social group disparities in levels of living are the result of historically rooted social disadvantages for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, by way of social exclusion and physical exclusion respectively, which continue to operate in contemporary Indian society.
Downloadable! This paper seeks to provide a profile of social group disparities and poverty in India, where social groups are classified as scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other social groups, and examine the factors underlying differences in levels of living between these groups and for each group separately. The paper argues that social group disparities in levels of living are the result of historically rooted `social disadvantages for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, by way of social exclusion and physical exclusion respectively, which continue to operate in contemporary Indian society.
This book examines the cultural, biological and other processes that explain how humans evolved into an exceptionally cooperative species. It advances two propositions, the first of which deals with proximate motivations for prosocial behavior and the second is concerned with the distant evolutionary origins and ongoing perpetuation of these cooperative dispositions. It argues that cooperation arose because it was highly beneficial to the members of groups that practiced it, and humans were able to construct social institutions that minimized the disadvantages of those with social preferences in competition with fellow group members, while heightening the group-level advantages associated with the high levels of cooperation that these social preferences allowed. The book explains why altruistic social preferences supporting human cooperation outcompeted unmitigated and amoral self-interest.
Whats normal social behavior? And how can parents help their kids develop strong social skills? Check out this evidence-based guide to social cognition.
Research at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences revolves around human cognitive abilities and cerebral processes, with a focus on the neural basis of brain functions like language, emotions and human social behaviour, music and action.
Even though social preferences affect nearly every facet of life, there exist many open questions on the economics of social preferences in markets. We leverage a unique opportunity to generate a large data set to inform the whos, whats, wheres, and whens of social preferences through the lens of a nationwide tipping field experiment on the Uber platform. Our field experiment generates data from more than 40 million trips, allowing an exploration of social preferences in the ride sharing market using big data. Combining experimental and natural variation in the data, we are able to establish tipping facts as well as provide insights into the underlying motives for tipping. Interestingly, even though tips are made privately, and without external social benefits or pressure, more tha ...
The team 2 of the "Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives", INSERM Unité 960, is part of the Départment dEtudes Cognitives (DEC) at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS) in Paris.. The objective of our research is to gain a better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying our ability to understand and respond to non-verbal social signals emitted by others. It is motivated by the insight that the human brain is a "social brain" enabling human beings to communicate and collaborate with many other individuals and to handle complex relationships. The team investigates the interactive aspect of social signals (their social effects), looking notably for the links between emotions and adaptive motor responses, both at the physiological and neurological level. We combine several approaches, psychological (self-report questionnaires), behavioral (performances and reactions times, decision-making models), psychophysiological (such as skin conductance) and neuroimaging techniques (fMRI and EEG) ...
The team 2 of the "Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives", INSERM Unité 960, is part of the Départment dEtudes Cognitives (DEC) at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS) in Paris.. The objective of our research is to gain a better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying our ability to understand and respond to non-verbal social signals emitted by others. It is motivated by the insight that the human brain is a "social brain" enabling human beings to communicate and collaborate with many other individuals and to handle complex relationships. The team investigates the interactive aspect of social signals (their social effects), looking notably for the links between emotions and adaptive motor responses, both at the physiological and neurological level. We combine several approaches, psychological (self-report questionnaires), behavioral (performances and reactions times, decision-making models), psychophysiological (such as skin conductance) and neuroimaging techniques (fMRI and EEG) ...
sciencehabit writes A new study suggests that, by disrupting your bodys normal rhythms, your alarm clock could be making you overweight. The study concerns a phenomenon called social jetlag. Thats the extent to which our natural sleep patterns are out of synch with our school or work schedules....
After years of splashing the cash on roads and rail, the NSW government will switch its focus to social infrastructure as it continues to reap the rewards from its privatisation agenda.
Socially Assistive Robotics (SAR) defines the research regarding robots which provide assistance to users through social interaction. Socially assistive robots are being studied for therapeutic use with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It has been observed that children with ASD interact with robots differently than with people or toys. This may indicate an intrinsic interest in such machines, which could be applied as a robot augmentation for an intervention for children with ASD. Preliminary studies suggest that robots may act as intrinsically-rewarding social partners for children with autism. However, enabling a robot to understand social behavior, and do so while interacting with the child, is a challenging problem. Children are highly individual and thus technology used for social interaction requires recognition of a wide-range of social behavior. This work addresses the challenge of designing behaviors for socially assistive robots in order to enable them to recognize and ...
Humans are inherently social creatures and our understanding of the world is shaped from the very beginning by the social interactions we observe and engage in. As a consequence, we are truly excellent at extracting information from social scenes. We can quickly discern if two people are cooperating or competing, flirting or fighting, and helping or hindering each other. Most important of all, we swiftly learn a great deal about people from observing their interactions with others - even a brief interaction give us important clues about their personality, their social abilities and their current mood. How does this remarkable skill develop? What are its brain bases? How is this kind of "social interaction perception" related to real-world social ability and social learning across development?. Publication date: 15 November 2016. ...
Phencyclidine (PCP), a noncompetitive N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, provides the most complete pharmacologic model of schizophrenia in humans and animals. Acute PCP causes hyperlocomotion, disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI), and increases social avoidance in rats. We have previously shown that repeated treatment with the dopamine (DA) D2-like receptor agonists, quinpirole or ropinirole, prevents agonist-induced PPI disruption. In the present study, we examined whether repeated ropinirole treatment similarly attenuates the effects of PCP in a more complete model of schizophrenia symptoms and examined the effect of repeated D2-like agonist treatment on locomotion, PPI, and social interaction after acute PCP challenge. The acute effect of PCP (3.0 or 6.0 mg/kg) on locomotor activity was examined to establish a minimum effective dose. Thereafter, the effect of PCP challenge (3.0 mg/kg) on locomotor activity, PPI, and social interaction was assessed in adult male rats before or ...
Deficits in social functioning are a core feature of schizophrenia and are influenced by both symptomatic and neurocognitive variables. In the present stud
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Among the problems people with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle with, are difficulties with social behavior and communication, ISNA wrote.. That can translate to an inability to make friends, engage in routine conversations, or pick up on the social cues that are second nature to most people. Similarly, in a mouse model of ASD, the animals, like humans, show little interest in interacting or socializing with other mice.. One drug, risperidone, works in both humans and mice with ASD to treat other symptoms of the disorder-including repetitive behaviors--but no medication has been found to help socialization.. Now the researchers have treated ASD mice with a neuropeptide, molecules used by neurons to communicate with each other, called oxytocin, and have found that it restores normal social behavior.. In addition, the findings suggest that giving oxytocin as early as possible in the animals life leads to more lasting effects in adults and adolescents. This suggests there may be critical ...
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Abstract: There are a variety of procedures used to measure canine sociability, and these methods vary both systematically and unsystematically. The tests are typically used in isolation; thus, it is unclear whether they measure the same concept. The purpose of this three-part study was to determine whether a wide range of canine sociability tests would each produce the same results. Experiment 1 examined the effects of minor methodological changes for detecting social behavior in a shelter setting; we employed a mixed-subjects design to assess whether experimenter position (standing, sitting, or kneeling) and presence of affection (petting and praise or none) affect leashed dogs social behaviors. In Experiment 2, we tested the effects of leash presence on a range of social behaviors including time in proximity, gazing, and touching. Experiment 3 explored the relationship between sociability and potentially related concepts using reinforcer efficacy, following, pointing, and attachment ...
In preschoolers, externalizing behavior problems are a primary cause of consultation. It is known that externalizing behavior (EB) could result from individual and environmental risk factors. Individual risk factors included notably social cognition (SC) and executive functions (EF). A high level of EB has usually been related to dysfunction in SC and to poor skills in EF. The aim of the present experimental study is to compare the impact of two very targeted child-oriented trainings in the increasing of social competence and decreasing of EB in preschoolers. One training targeted SC abilities while the second one targeted EF capacities. These two trainings were compared on 48 preschoolers presenting clinically relevant levels of EB. The comparison of those results highlighted how each training could help preschoolers with EB in their behavior, emotion regulation and social adjustment. In comparison to a waiting-list control-group, the two trainings were effective in decreasing EB and differentiated
Animals rely on group behavior to survive, whether its fish swimming together to avoid predators or humans sharing knowledge with each other. But despite the importance of such social interactions, scientists do not have ...
This paper presents the incorporation of realistic practice into the formulation of evaluation methodology in environmental planning. The approach is based on the principles of realistic evaluation. The latter, founded on scientific realist philosophy, offers a complete blueprint for evaluation activities and proposes realistic development in policy making. Combining theory and method, as well as qualitative and quantitative procedures, realistic evaluation focuses on testing theories of how outcomes are generated by specific mechanisms, fired and activated in particular contexts. Its commitment to the belief that evaluation research depends on the investigation of causal explanation underlines the fact that environmental interventions are closely connected with and affect social world. In this way the social dimension in environmental interventions is enhanced and a more sophisticated perspective is introduced in the evaluation process. Realistic evaluation offers to environmental planning and ...
Qualified and healthy lifestyle consists of extensive broad dimensions of physical health, resistance against diseases, fast recovery following disease, better social communications, flexibility in facing social problems, better education, better interactions, stress management, transcendental individual and social behavior, as well as morality. A variety of the contemporary academic studies and scientific findings secure emphases on the effects of environmental conditions and social policies on community mental function and cognitive proficiency related processes in healthy lifestyle formation.
Network phenomena appear to be relevant to the biologic and behavioral trait of obesity, and obesity appears to spread through social ties. These findings have implications for clinical and public health interventions.
English: In social animals and humans social grooming is a major social activity, and a means by which animals who live in proximity can bond and reinforce social structures, family links, and build relationships ...
Research on the neural mechanisms of social behavior has particular relevance for autism. These mechanisms are now being revealed in voles, which constitute a promising model for understanding social cognition because of differences between vole species.
We should also acknowledge that attention is a habit more than a skill. There may be a few people that can generate attention on command, but the great majority of us cultivate a habit of intention that is contingent on a variety of situational factors. Most of these factors have to do with the social dynamics of a situation. A culture-wide, in-depth examination of these social dynamics would revolutionize how we educate children, and would put us more at peace with ourselves. People under twenty-five have already moved in this direction. The rest of us are pining for a kind of "self-discipline" among youth which will never be. Medication is simply a way to assuage that disappointment, until a different set of cultural expectations has become the norm ...
In this study, we reported a novel role of the nuclear alarmin IL-33 in the regulation of anxiety-related and social behaviors in mice. We found that Il33 deficiency resulted in anxiolytic behaviors in two well-established behavioral paradigms, the OFT and the EPM. Consistent with these behavioral changes, we observed that the expression of an immediate early gene, c-Fos, was significantly altered in brain regions related to anxiety in Il33 −/− mice. Il33 −/− mice also showed impaired social recognition in the three-chamber social interaction test. In addition, we found that IL-33 expression patterns considerably varied across different brain regions in adult mice and that subsets of Olig2+ oligodendrocyte-lineage cells and S100β+ astrocytes did not express IL-33. Thus, IL-33 expression may represent glial subpopulations whose distribution varies between brain regions. Although IL-33 expression was detected in the adult brain, there was no correlation between IL-33 expression and c-Fos ...
Social recognition in mice is represented by a simple pattern of behavior that can be accurately and reliably quantified by trained observers
Research does show that anonymity in sharing actually generates more "honest" discussion, but I think the trollers, who are like hecklers at a comedy show or political rally, kinda ruin it for some people because it feels contrived and unkind. Also people who overshare seem too be self-involved, insensitive to others, or emotionally stunted so your average person shies away from being thrown into that pile. Unfortunately in a social world we see too little from people who could actually generate useful, meaningful dialogue, and we see too much of some people who have narcissistic tendencies or poor filter control ...
The Population Studies Center (PSC) at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) has fostered research and training in population since 1962, with support from the NICHD P30 program from 1978-2003 and the P2C Population Dynamics Research Infrastructure Program from 2018 to present (formerly the R24 funding mechanism from 2003-2018). Our goal is to remain a national and world leader in research on the growth and structure of human populations and on the role of socioeconomic stratification and human and social diversity on the health of populations. The PSC is characterized by strong continuity in the production of high-quality research on demography, population-based studies of health and human development, and behavioral and social science approaches to sexually transmitted diseases and reproductive health.. READ MORE. ...
U.S. Secretary of Defence, 2001-2006. Abstract. In this article, we discuss a conceptual framework on the social management of risk and highlight the role of the community sector in that process. We introduce the topic of risk, illustrate how it is distinct from the concept of uncertainty, and show how different social actors assess risk differently. Next, we introduce the "social management of risk" approach, which takes a broad view of the potential actors involved in pursuing societal objectives in relation to risk. Finally, we discuss the role of the community sector is the social management of risk. While this framework is presented in the context of social policy, it can be generalized to any situations where social actors respond to and manage risks in a multi-player environment.. Introduction. Risk is endemic in our world and forms a powerful influence, both constructive (as an enticement to positive gains) and destructive (as adverse events beyond our control undermine our well-being). ...
There is increasing evidence that oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP), two neuropeptides released in the brain, play important roles in social behaviors. Several studies have supported the involvement of these neuropeptides in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).
Teenager social life is a very serious problem in this generation and there is many kind of problem, for examples: friends, gossip, communication, bullying, peer pressure, social networks, and the like. In the same time, there are many ways by letting teenagers easily get influenced. And most of the teenagers been influenced is because of family problems and friends issues. So today we will be exploring this social problem that would affect the forefront of teenage life. Teenagers social life is all about how a teenager will become and in the same time family and friend is the most important characters in these cases. Most of the socialization teenagers are because of their parents did not spend their times with their children. As parents, is to properly shelter their own children until they are mature enough to handle "the next step". In fact, parents always thinks that their children able to solve their own problems. But the fact is, teenagers should always be accompanied by their parents, ...
Get more shares on your content and increase your sites viral growth by installing the Upshare Viral Social Sharing widget! Unlike your normal, everyday social sharing plugin, Upshares responsive, cloud-based sharing tools have been specifically designed to help boost viral growth without slowing down load time.. ,, CLICK HERE to download plugin. With Upshare Social Sharing, as users start sharing your content on their favorite Social Networks, you can track their sharing behavior and get viral growth data, and (coming soon) users can get points they can cash in for cool stuff in the Upshare Store. Users sign up for UP once by expanding the Upshare icon, then each time theyre Sharing your content across Social Networks like Facebook, Twitter, Google+, or LinkedIn, they get points - and you get powerful cross-network Social data on how your users are Sharing your content on their social networks.. You can also turn OFF the Upshare icon if you simply want simple, cloud-based, responsive sharing ...
Abstract This talk will consist of three parts. In the first part, I will sketch an informal, yet quite precise framework for studying collective decision-making in several swarm robotics collective behaviors. Within this framework, I will introduce the information transfer problem, a problem that is quite central in collective decision making and that represents the topic of my PhD. I will also present a taxonomy which classifies the possible mechanisms to achieve information transfer within a swarm robotics setting. In the second part, I will talk about information transfer for heading alignment in self-organized flocking. I will present my contributions that dealt with explicit communication strategies for tackling information transfer in different environmental settings. In the third and final part, I will briefly explain the current work that I have been doing on the information transfer problem, still in the context of self-organized flocking. Before concluding, I will talk about work on ...
View Notes - social psych (4-16-09) from PSY 350 at ASU. Abie Feuerstein April 16, 2009 Social psych Social Relationships How and why we develop relationships with others o How we maintain those
There are, as I see it, two possibilities. One is to view those who are pushing the "Russian hacking" or "Russian aggression" story as political adversaries. Another is to view them as temporarily mentally ill. Yes, their brains are infected with the Ukrainian Brain Parasite, but that just means that their opinions are to be disregarded-until they feel better. And since this particular brain parasite specifically influences social behavior, if we refuse to reward that behavior with positive reinforcement-by acknowledging it-we will suppress its most debilitating symptoms, eventually forcing the parasite to evolve toward a more benign form. As with many infectious diseases, the fight against them starts with improved hygiene-in this case, mental hygiene. And so that is my prescription: when you see someone going on about "Russian hacking" or "Russian aggression" be merciful and charitable toward them as individuals, because they are temporarily incapacitated, but do not acknowledge their mad ...
There are, as I see it, two possibilities. One is to view those who are pushing the "Russian hacking" or "Russian aggression" story as political adversaries. Another is to view them as temporarily mentally ill. Yes, their brains are infected with the Ukrainian Brain Parasite, but that just means that their opinions are to be disregarded-until they feel better. And since this particular brain parasite specifically influences social behavior, if we refuse to reward that behavior with positive reinforcement-by acknowledging it-we will suppress its most debilitating symptoms, eventually forcing the parasite to evolve toward a more benign form. As with many infectious diseases, the fight against them starts with improved hygiene-in this case, mental hygiene. And so that is my prescription: when you see someone going on about "Russian hacking" or "Russian aggression" be merciful and charitable toward them as individuals, because they are temporarily incapacitated, but do not acknowledge their mad ...
This thesis focuses on psychological distress and social capital among the Finnish labour force and students. During the past decades, considerable changes in the Finnish working life, social structures and values have aroused concern over increased psychological distress and loss of community spirit. Feelings of being in a hurry and under pressure are reported more commonly at work than before. Traditional social communication and networks are looking for a new shape in modern society - for example, Finns visit each other less frequently than before, but at the same time new technology has become more common in everyday social communication. In addition, emphasizing individual values instead of communal values is more common. Overall, the sources of human well-being have changed radically. Previously researchers have primarily stressed the association between socioeconomic status and mental well-being and placed less emphasis on social determinants in spite of the fact that high social activity ...
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Based on repeated surveys of 12,067 closely interconnected people between 1971 and 2000, examines the extent to which smoking spreads socially and to which groups of smokers quit together, as well as trends in the number and social centrality of smokers.
9781138124424 Our cheapest price for Social Cognition: How Individuals Construct Social Reality is $50.75. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Consiliance, or the unity of knowledge, is an idea that I am interested in and this three-way, interdisciplinary talk, which took place in London on June 13h as part of the Forum for European Philosophy Consilience public debate is a welcome addition to the discussion. Professor Chris Frith, Dr Alex Gillespie, Professor Dermot Moran each…
In the first part, I will sketch an informal, yet quite precise framework for studying collective decision-making in several swarm robotics collective behaviors. Within this framework, I will introduce the information transfer problem, a problem that is quite central in collective decision making and that represents the topic of my PhD. I will also present a taxonomy which classifies the possible mechanisms to achieve information transfer within a swarm robotics setting ...
3 Credit Hours • 45 Contact Hours (Lecture). Prerequisite: CCR 092. Note: This course transfers to CSU-Pueblo. Focus in this course is on an understanding and analysis of larger social systems which include the family, groups, communities and organizations. Emphasis is on social systems as an organizing theoretical framework for understanding social functioning and change.. ...
This is the eBook version of the printed book.Harness the Power of Social Networking to Promote Innovation and Drive Growth A treasure trove of strategic and tactical insights for the business leader Provides relevant experience from a host of powerful case studies and compelling business scenarios Secrets for avoiding costly mistakes that can cripple a social networking initiative Millions of people use social networking sites, and companies are increasingly turning to social networking to buil
A modern learning experience that empowers you to deliver training to your workforce and customers. Kickstart social learning in your organization to reduce skill-gaps
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Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Language Lab: Spin & Speak - Social Skills. Download Language Lab: Spin & Speak - Social Skills and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.
I recently read a post by Brian Solis titled Social Capital: The Currency of the Social Economy, which served as the catalyst for one of the most entertaining Twitter conversations Ive had so far. I personally had a problem with the way the term social capital was used in the piece, which was inspired by…
I recently read a post by Brian Solis titled Social Capital: The Currency of the Social Economy, which served as the catalyst for one of the most entertaining Twitter conversations Ive had so far. I personally had a problem with the way the term social capital was used in the piece, which was inspired by…
Efforts by general practitioners to promote good health or to influence consultation patterns may conflict with their patients family habits and attitudes at home. In general practice the family was long considered as a starting point for treatment. Families are important social contexts within which illness occurs, lingers, or resolves. Families share the same lifestyle and home environment, and they share beliefs and behaviours relating to illness and health, thereby influencing each others use of medical care.1-6 Most publications emphasise the importance of the mothers role in relation to childrens health, with less research on the contribution of fathers.1 3 The propensity of some families to use more health services than others may be attributed to predisposing factors such as family composition, health beliefs, and social structure.. Family members show similar help seeking behaviour with regard to morbidity over time7 and the relation between morbidity and attendance,8 while ...
Delhi-based journalist, having worked for a business magazine and a news agency. Also worked as a researcher on local democracy and right to information for an NGO. Having left my latest employment at a magazine on governance, where I contributed to ideation and wrote on public policy from the perspective of common citizens, in September 2010, I am currently engaged in freelancing. At the NGO, I participated in a rare experiment in bringing face to face the people and their representatives and officials in the municipal bodies. At the business magazine, I wrote on finance, economy, business, education, healthcare, etc. At the news agency, my longest employer so far, I worked on the business and economy desk, but also did some news reporting and writing. I believe we Indians are going through a very slow but sure democratic awakening, which is due to greater flow of information. We must sustain this process of awakening and help each other out of ignorance. This ignorance enslaves us to the elite ...
Delhi-based journalist, having worked for a business magazine and a news agency. Also worked as a researcher on local democracy and right to information for an NGO. Having left my latest employment at a magazine on governance, where I contributed to ideation and wrote on public policy from the perspective of common citizens, in September 2010, I am currently engaged in freelancing. At the NGO, I participated in a rare experiment in bringing face to face the people and their representatives and officials in the municipal bodies. At the business magazine, I wrote on finance, economy, business, education, healthcare, etc. At the news agency, my longest employer so far, I worked on the business and economy desk, but also did some news reporting and writing. I believe we Indians are going through a very slow but sure democratic awakening, which is due to greater flow of information. We must sustain this process of awakening and help each other out of ignorance. This ignorance enslaves us to the elite ...
New findings suggest that staying up late and sleeping in on the weekend could negatively affect our metabolic health. A team from the Medical Research Council
Its not hard to understand how bright women could be appalled, Sorkin responds to unsuspecting commenters critique of Facebook flick.