GBD 2016 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2017 Sep 16;390(10100):1345-1422.. European Commission. Smoke-free environments. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health/tobacco/smoke-free_environments_en. Last Accessed September 13, 2017.. Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Comparison fact sheet. Turkey 2008 & 2012. Available at: http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/survey/gats/gats_turkey_2008v2012_comparison_fact_sheet.pdf. Last Accessed: September 13, 2017.. Global Adult Tobacco Survey.. Islami et al. Cancer deaths and cases attributable to lifestyle factors and infections in China, 2013. Annals of Oncology. 2017. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdx342. Published online 4 July 2017. Kelishadi et al. Exposure to Hookah and Cigarette Smoke in Children and Adolescents According to Their ...
The Helping Young Smokers Quit (HYSQ) initiative was a multi-phase project that addressed the critical need to disseminate effective, developmentally appropriate cessation programs for young smokers. Phase I identified and described tobacco treatment programs available for youth in the United States, Phase II evaluated smoking secession programs tailored for youth to help understand what works, and Phase III identified factors associated with program sustainability. Phase II collected data from five sources: (1) program participants, (2) program providers, (3) program curricula, (4) organizational leaders, and (5) community leaders and community ordinances. Program participants were interviewed at baseline, end-of program, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Topics covered by the interviews include age, gender, race, Hispanic origin, language spoken at home, employment, income, religiosity, school enrollment, education level, school grades, height, weight, extracurricular activities, ...
The Helping Young Smokers Quit (HYSQ) initiative was a multi-phase project that addressed the critical need to disseminate effective, developmentally appropriate cessation programs for young smokers. Phase I identified and described tobacco treatment programs available for youth in the United States, Phase II evaluated smoking secession programs tailored for youth to help understand what works, and Phase III identified factors associated with program sustainability. Phase II collected data from five sources: (1) program participants, (2) program providers, (3) program curricula, (4) organizational leaders, and (5) community leaders and community ordinances. Program participants were interviewed at baseline, end-of program, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Topics covered by the interviews include age, gender, race, Hispanic origin, language spoken at home, employment, income, religiosity, school enrollment, education level, school grades, height, weight, extracurricular activities, ...
Smoking represents an important and rapidly growing global cause of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity.Cigarrette smoking is one of the major modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease, unless smokers are able to quit, approximately 40% of them will die prematurely.The need of the hour is timely intervention through smoking cessation.Our study was carried out in young smokers to demonstrate the effects of smoking on lipid profile and electrocardiographic changes. We aimed to study the effect of smoking on lipid profile and electrocardiographic changes in young smokers.The study design was a cross sectional study comprising 75 male smokers and 75 healthy controls.Smoking history and physical examination was done .Fasting sample was analysed for lipid profile and electrocardiograph of all subjects were recorded.The statistical anaylsis between mean values were evaluated by studentt test. Statistical significance was assessed by chi-square test, p,0.001 was considered to be ...
We aimed to investigate the immediate respiratory effects of cigar smoking(CS), among young smokers with and without mild asthma. Forty-seven young smokers (18-31years old, 29 males, average pack-years = 3.6 ± 2.8) were enrolled. Twenty-two were mild asthmatics(MA-subgroup) and the remaining 25 were otherwise healthy smokers(HS-subgroup). Exhaled carbon monoxide(eCO), multi-frequency respiratory system impedance(Z), resistance(R), reactance(X), frequency-dependence of resistance(fdr = R5Hz - R20Hz), resonant frequency(fres), reactance area(AX) and exhaled nitric oxide(FENO) were measured at the aforementioned sequence, before and immediately after 30 min of CS, or equal session in the smoking area while using a sham cigar(control group). Chi-square, students t-tests, mixed linear models and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis; level of significance was defined as p | 0.05. Immediately after CS, Z5Hz, R5Hz, R10Hz, R20Hz and eCO increased significantly in both subgroups(MA
Our findings that lower income smokers were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation are consistent with previous findings from a study conducted in developed countries17 and a study conducted in Mexico.18 This emphasises the need to implement tobacco prevention and cessation programmes that specifically target low-income smokers in order to reduce smoking-induced deprivation of household essentials.. Our study also found that smokers residing in Shenyang and Yinchuan were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation than smokers living in Beijing. This might be because these cities are less economically developed than Beijing.12. We found no statistically significant relationship between smoking intensity and smoking-induced deprivation. This differs from the findings of two previous studies conducted by Siahpush et al.17 One of their studies found that smokers who had higher levels of nicotine dependence had higher odds of smoking-induced deprivation. Our results may differ because ...
To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study investigating the effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation in smokers with COPD. The present study shows that patients with COPD and asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function respond differently to smoking cessation with respect to inflammation in sputum and bronchial biopsies. In smokers with COPD, cell concentration, neutrophils, lymphocytes, IL-8 and ECP levels increased significantly in sputum after a 1-yr smoking cessation period, and inflammation did not change in bronchial biopsies. In contrast, inflammatory markers did not significantly change or decrease in sputum (macrophages, eosinophils, IL-8) of asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function. In bronchial biopsies, mast cells decreased significantly, whereas B-cells increased after smoking cessation. Together, the results suggest a perpetuation of inflammation after smoking cessation in COPD versus a reduction in some aspects of airway ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetics and smoking-associated cancers. T2 - 461 families. AU - Lynch, Henry T.. AU - Kimberling, W.. AU - Markvicka, S.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - The etiology of smoking-associated cancers (carcinoma of the lung, oral cavity, esophagus, pancreas, urinary bladder) remain enigmatic despite a plethora of epidemiologic investigations. We have evaluated family histories through second degree relatives of 461 consecutively ascertained patients with histologically verified smoking-associated cancers. The genetic protocol included detailed questionnaires about genealogy, cancer of all anatomic sites, and environmental factors with major attention given to the cigarette smoking habit. Pathologic verification of cancer was vigorously sought. Our findings disclosed a lack of strong evidence for heritable control of lung cancer per se, when only lung cancer in relatives was considered. Confounding factors, most prominent of which was the effect of cigarette smoking (p ,.05), variation of ...
Downloadable! Preston, Glei, and Wilmoth (2010) recently proposed an innovative regression-based method to estimate smoking-attributable mortality in developed countries based on observed lung cancer death rates. Their estimates for females, however, differ appreciably from some published estimates. This article presents a modified version of the Preston, Glei, and Wilmoth method that includes an age-period interaction term in its model. This modified version produces improved estimates of smoking-attributable mortality that are consistent with results from a modified version of the Peto-Lopez indirect method.
The report titled Global Adult EEG Cap Market 2017 provides the intrinsic research study based on qualitative and the quantitative aspect of the Adult EEG Cap industry along with a complete description of top market players which will provide the thorough understanding of the market on a global scale.. The Global Adult EEG Cap Market 2017 delivers the current industry scenario of Adult EEG Cap market as well as the past and upcoming market trends which will fuel the development of the Adult EEG Cap market. The Adult EEG Cap report also depicts the technological advancements taking place in this industry based on market volume, sales revenue, driving forces behind the market development.. Do Inquiry Before Accessing Global Adult EEG Cap Market 2017 Report at: https://market.biz/report/2017-top-5-adult-eeg-cap-market-lpi/38502/#inquiry. The Global Adult EEG Cap Market 2017 elaborates in detail the strategies and business tactics followed by the key players of Adult EEG Cap industry. The report is ...
A new study finds that while smoking rates are decreasing, the incidence of psychiatric disorders and nicotine dependence among young smokers are rising.
Women smokers may not be at greater risk for lung cancer than their male counterparts. These results were recently published in Lancet Oncology.. Lung cancer claims more lives every year than any other type of cancer. In fact, lung cancer kills more people than breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer combined. It is well known that smoking is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing lung cancer. However, there has been recent debate as to whether female smokers are more susceptible to developing lung cancer than male smokers.. To further explore the possible association between gender, smoking, and lung cancer risk, researchers from the National Institutes of Health analyzed data from a questionnaire sent to participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health study. Participants responded to the questionnaire between 1995 and 1996 and were followed through the end of 2003. The data included nearly 280,000 men and approximately 186,000 women.. Among smokers the incidence of ...
This studys objective was to describe long-term trends and patterns in first cigarette use (cigarette initiation) and daily cigarette use (daily initiation) among youth and young adults in the U.S. We used cross-sectional survey data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2015, to estimate annual incidence of first cigarette use (N = 270,556) and first daily cigarette use (N = 373,464) for each year by age groups, race/ethnicity and gender, examining trends over time and the average annual change in initiation for each group. Several clear patterns emerged: 1) cigarette initiation and daily initiation significantly decreased over time among those aged 12-14 and 15-17 and these trends were consistent among nearly all racial/ethnic and gender subgroups; 2) among 18-21 year olds, cigarette initiation sharply increased through 2009, surpassing rates among 15-17 year olds, and sharply declined through 2015 while remaining higher than rates among the younger group, and this trend was
III. Background: Improving States and Territories Tobacco Prevention and Control Efforts. Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Nearly 500,000 people die prematurely each year from smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, and another 16 million have a serious illness caused by tobacco use.4 Coupled with this enormous health toll is the huge economic burden associated with tobacco use. More than $170 billion per year is spent on medical expenses and another $156 billion per year is spent on lost productivity.5,6. Though the public health community has made strides in preventing tobacco use and helping people to quit, many continue smoking, including youth. Among middle and high school students, 4.7 million report using at least one tobacco product, including e-cigarettes.7 Despite a reduction in cigarette smoking among youth, the rate of e-cigarette use is rising, with 16 percent of high school students using e-cigarettes in the ...
While the effectiveness of taxation as a tobacco control strategy is well established,1-6 there is concern that increasing the price of cigarettes could result in excess financial difficulties among smokers, particularly those from lower income groups, who continue smoking.2 ,7-9 An important aspect of the financial burden of smoking is the fact that tobacco expenditure among smokers may result in not having enough money for household essentials such as food. This notion has been referred to as smoking-induced deprivation (SID).10-12 Using representative samples of smokers from the USA, Canada, the UK and Australia, we examined the correlates of SID and found that younger age, minority status, lower income and higher nicotine dependence were associated with a higher probability of SID.10 We measured SID with the question In the past 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food? In a more recent study, we used data from the ...
Based on a Finnish study, persistent smokers may have higher risk to become depressed in comparison to never smokers. Also those smokers who quit have an elevated risk of depressive symptoms in short run. However, in long run this risk declines to the level of never smokers. In other words, both completely smoke-free life style and successful smoking cessation in long run seem to protect from depressive symptoms.
colleagues, including Ross Prentice, PhD, one of the Principal Investigators of the Womens Health Initiative. They studied smoking patterns and smoking-related deaths over a 50 year period, using data from five large studies, including the Womens Health Initiative. In total, the study included more than 2.2 million adults 55 years and older; of those, 156,701 were WHI participants who provided updated information on smoking in 2000.. This increased risk of dying from smoking-related diseases reflects the change in womens smoking habits. Compared with women in previous generations, women smokers today smoke more like men, that is, they start earlier in adolescence and until recently, smoke more cigarettes per day (smoking peaked in the 1980s). These findings strongly confirm the prediction that if women smoke like men, they will die like men.. For women who smoked in the 1960s, the risk of dying from lung cancer was 2.7 times higher than it was for women who had never smoked. In the cohort ...
The CYP1A1 I462V polymorphism was not significantly associated with lung cancer risk overall or with individual cell types, in contrast to the findings of some previous studies in Japan (4 , 6) . Consistent with previous studies in Japanese populations, the presence of a valine allele was associated with a modest but nonstatistically significant increase in lung cancer risk among smokers with lower daily cigarette consumption (4 , 18) or among those with the GSTM1-null genotype (6, 7, 8) . The presence of a valine allele was most strongly associated with lung cancer risk among smokers with both the GSTM1-null genotype and lower daily cigarette consumption, a finding consistent with data from Japan (18) . Caution is required in interpreting the finding of increased risk for carriers of the valine allele with lower cigarette consumption combined with the GSTM1-null genotype because the numbers become small on cross-classification. However, it is biologically plausible that at lower levels of ...
Anti-smoking campaigns are one of the most helpful aids in assisting former smokers to stay quit, new Cancer Council Victoria data has revealed.
Rationale: Smokers with tobacco-related disorders are more motivated to give up smoking than healthy smokers, but comparative data about the influence of each pathology type on motivation is still insufficient.. Methods: We studied the behavior of persons with a history of smoking, healthy/sick with cardiovascular (CVD)/respiratory (RD) tobacco-related disease, using 2 questionnaires-for former smokers/active smokers regarding motivation, preparation status for quitting, health status, degree of nicotin-addiction, quitting history, determinant factors for tobacco consumption. We use Excel (chi, T tests).. Results: 240 persons were interviewed: 83 women/157 men, mean age 47±16.2 years; 124 active/116 former smokers. Disease present 43.6% of active smokers (53.7% CVD, 42.6% RD, 3.7% both) and 68.1% of former (32.9% CVD, 44 3% RD, 22.8% both) (p=0.0001). Those with RD and both diseases are more former smokers (p=0.0038). Healthy smokers cannot refrain from first cigarette (55.6%, p=0.001). 69% of ...
June 11 - Microsoft founder Bill Gates and Baidu CEO Robin Li launch an anti-smoking campaign in Beijing, calling on Chinese people to say no to passive smoking. Sunita Rappai reports.}
Dimapur, November 30 (MExN): Nagaland recorded a significant drop of 14 percent in tobaccos usage for people 15 years and above of age during the last 5 years. This was revealed in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2016 (GATS-2) for NE states which was declared in Guwahati on November 24. A press note from […]. ...
In the latter part of a large hospital case-control study of the relationship of type of cigarette smoked to risk of various smoking-associated diseases, patients answered questions on the smoking habits of their first spouse and on the extent of passive smoke exposure at home, at work, during trave …
The characteristics of the subjects are shown in Table 1. The average age of women was about 21 years with the range 19-26. Most females estimated their health status as good, economic status and physical activity level as moderate. Almost 12% of students applied special diet, in most cases with reduced energy value. Most of the subjects were slim (85.5%), with BMI amounted approximately 21 kg/ m2. For only 8.5% of students BMI values were lower than 18.5 kg/m2 and for almost 8% - higher than 24.9 kg/m2. Our group of females was similar to other groups of students in Poland [31,32] while surveys conducted in other population groups showed that overweight and obesity were more prevalent and concerned 17% of teenage girls [33]. In our study smoking was declared by about 10% of students while the data received within Global Adult Tobacco Survey indicated that the prevalence of daily smokers among adult women is higher and amounts 17.9% [34]. Dietary supplements usage was a common practice among ...
DIEZ-GANAN, Lucía et al. Demographic characteristics, health-related lifestyle, and history of tobacco consumption of the occasional smokers in Spain. Rev. Esp. Salud Publica [online]. 2002, vol.76, n.4, pp.281-291. ISSN 2173-9110.. Background. This study describes the sociodemographic characteristics, health-related lifestyle, and history of tobacco consumption of the occasional smokers in Spain, and examines whether they show differences against daily smokers. Methods. Data were obtained from the National Health Survey of Spain, carried out in 1993 through household interviews on a sample representative of the non-institutionalised population aged 16 year and older. Analyses were performed with logistic regression and adjusted for sociodemographic, health-state and life-style variables. Results. Out of the 6,668 smokers in the survey, occasional smokers were 9.2%, while daily smokers of £5 cigarettes and ,5 cigarettes were 9.9% and 80.9%, respectively. As compared with daily smokers of ,5 ...
The list of diseases linked to smoking just got longer. A report from the surgeon general concludes that smoking causes a number of diseases not previously attributed to smoking.
In low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), household surveys-such as Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)1 and WHOs Stepwise Approach to Surveillance (STEPS)2-provide vital data sources to inform the health sector nationally. The methods used in these surveys have become standardised, allowing valuable comparisons in over 100 countries and over time, for ,30 years.3 However, increased population mobility and rapid and unplanned urbanisation means that an increasing proportion of urban dwellers live in unplanned, unregistered settlements, in non-standard living quarters (such as a hostel, shop or guesthouse), and in non-family living arrangements (such as a group of flat-mates or multifamily dwellings). There is an urgent need for survey methods to keep pace with these changes. Current methods used in surveys such as DHS, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, the WHO STEPS do not allow analysis of interurban and intraurban health differences and systematically ...
A completely new feature of our results is the greater absolute and (particularly in middle age) relative excess of mortality associated with smoking in the second half of the study compared with the first. When current cigarette smokers were compared with lifelong non-smokers, the excess mortality associated with smoking was already substantial during 1951-71, but it was considerably more extreme during 1971-91. During 1951-71, the death rates in cigarette smokers were about double those in non-smokers throughout middle age; during 1971-91, the corresponding difference was nearly treble. If, as is likely, most of the difference in mortality between smokers and non-smokers is actually caused by smoking then a threefold excess would imply that about two thirds of the deaths in middle age among the smokers were caused by tobacco. Even at older ages the excess mortality associated with tobacco was substantially greater in 1971-91 than it was during 1951-71. This difference between the apparent ...
Question - Habitual smoker, having a gland in throat like a bubble. Can this be a tumour ?. Ask a Doctor about Biopsy, Ask an ENT Specialist
A new smoke cigarettes detector is simply a device that finds smoke cigarettes. Fumes is often an illustration connected with flame. Its not often the situation and also if you have no genuine flame they could be in charge for several untrue sensors. This device generally is a community merely variety wherever they may be fitted for you to tell anyone that is at your distance from the smoke cigarettes detector. Sensors may also be associated with the handle solar panel which often enables you to noise a security within the whole developing. These types of methods may tell authorities in the event the method can be watched by some other organization.. Normally a neighborhood merely detector is a battery controlled gadget. These kind of will diagnose smoke cigarettes and also noise an indoor siren into the gadget for you to alert your occupants in the room which have been in the house. These are certainly not supposed to alert any person other than your workers which have been close by. In ...
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The policies that apply to the County of Orange Official Web Portal may not be the same as the terms of use for other web sites. The County of Orange cannot attest to the accuracy of the information provided by the linked websites. Any link to an external website is not intended as an endorsement of that external website, any product or service offered or referenced to or any views that might be expressed or referenced therein. ...
If all states supported and used a combination of proven strategies-hard-hitting education and media campaigns, smoke-free air laws, and higher cigarette prices-the nations adult smoking rate, which has stalled at around 20 percent, would begin to decline and smoking-related diseases, deaths, and health care costs would be substantially reduced. Every year, nearly 1 of 5 American deaths is caused by cigarette smoking.. Although the nation has not experienced substantial reductions in the national smoking rate over the past five years, this report shows that states know how to end the smoking epidemic, said CDC Director Thomas R. Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. Smoke-free laws, hard-hitting ads, and higher cigarette prices are among our strongest weapons in this fight against tobacco use. We must redouble efforts to bring down smoking rates, prevent suffering and premature death, and cut health care costs by reducing smoking. The report, Tobacco Control State Highlights 2010, provides a state-by-state ...
This study suggests an elevated risk of bladder cancer in lifelong nonsmokers who were exposed to ETS as compared with those who had no ETS exposure. The risk increased with increasing intensity of exposure to ETS, and reached statistically significant levels for high level of exposure to ETS. In the subgroup analysis, female lifelong nonsmokers showed higher relative risk for bladder cancer associated with ETS exposure than their male counterparts, and so did individuals possessing high CYP1A2 phenotype score and/or NAT2 slow acetylation status, both of them were risk factors for bladder cancer in the present study population (9).. Previous epidemiologic studies on ETS and bladder cancer risk reported inconsistent results. Several studies reported a null association between ETS and bladder cancer risk (21-26) including a recent meta-analysis (13), whereas a few others found a positive association (18-20). The null findings of the previous studies could be due to the following reasons. It has ...
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA. To: Dr. Robert B. Seligman Date: March 31, 1981. From: Myron Johnston. Subject: Young Smokers - Prevalence, Trends, Implications, and Related Demographlc Trends. For over fifteen years certain demographic and social trends have been moving in directions favorable to industry growth. Now, one by one, these powerful social and demographic factors are turning against us, and by 1985 all will be operating against us.. The trends are:. 1. After increasing for over a decade, the prevalence of teenage smoking is now decling sharply.. 2. After increasing for over a decade, the average daily consumption of teenage smokers is declining.. 3. After increasing 18 percent from 1967 to 1976, the absolute number of 15- 19 year-olds will decline 19 percent during the 1980s, with the period of sharpest decline beginning in 1981.. 4. Beginning in 1981 the absolute number of 20-24 year-olds (the ages during which average daily cigarette consumption increases most rapidly) will begin to decline, ...
Tobacco-induced brain damage has long been cited, and can be prevented, heres how, by adopting Iowa, Tennesse, and Michigan-type laws banning cigarette sales, manufacture, and giveaway.
Prevention and cessation efforts need to target use of other forms of tobacco besides cigarettes, especially among younger men and men who are more-than-moderate drinkers of alcohol.
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Lung cancer can happen even in non smokers, doctors share the common reasons lung cancer is a leading cancer even among never-smokers.
This site is especially for teenagers who smoke. It contains images of normal lungs and of lungs damaged by diseases caused by cigarette smoking. While young smokers may have heard many verbal descriptions of the damaging effects of cigarette smoke, seeing the actual changes that can occur may motivate them to quit smoking or to stop others from beginning to smoke. One should not forget, as well, that cigarette smoking also has harmful effects, which are not illustrated here, on organs other than the lungs.. Introduction: This presentation will describe some aspects of the normal lung and then illustrate changes that occur in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (emphysema and chronic bronchitis) and lung cancer. These diseases are common occurrences in cigarette smokers. For each of the diseases, a case history will be given, followed by a description of the changes in the lung. View the site serially by clicking on Normal Lung, or click on another button to view a specific ...
Many smokers believe that light cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, which is at variance with the scientific evidence. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) aims to address this problem in Article 11 which deals with misleading labelling of tobacco products. In this study we aimed to determine smokers use and beliefs concerning light and mild cigarettes (lights), including in relation to ethnicity, deprivation and other socio-demographic characteristics. The New Zealand (NZ) arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project) uses as its sampling frame the NZ Health Survey. This is a national sample with boosted sampling of Maori, Pacific peoples and Asians. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376) about use and beliefs relating to light cigarettes. We assessed the associations with smoking lights after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, and smoking-related behaviours and beliefs. Many smokers of lights
Data & statistics on Lung cancer mortality by ethnic group age group and sex: Lung cancer mortality, by ethnic group, age group and sex, 2011, Lung Cancer Mortality Rates by Sex and Ethnicity 1987-1995 Age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates by sex and ethnicity for the combined period 1990 through 1995, along with their 95% confidence intervals and the rate ratios of each group compared to White rates, are shown in Table 21. (See also Figures 6 and 7, pp. 28-29) Table 21: Lung Cancer Mortality Rates and Rate Ratios by Ethnicity and Sex, ..., That the lung cancer mortality rates in North Denver women were higher than rates in the remainder of the Metro area in all race/ethnicity groups; the differences were statistically significant for all races combined, and white non-Hispanics. For males, lung cancer mortality rates in North Denver were higher than other Metro area rates for all races combined, white non-Hispanics, and Hispanics, but ......
TY - THES. T1 - Oral health promotion and tobacco use prevention in South Africa : towards an integrated educational approach. AU - Ayo-Yusuf, O.A.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. M3 - Doctoral Thesis. SN - 9780620421904. PB - Maastricht University. CY - Maastricht. ER - ...
quitting gradually, either by tapering or postponing. The gradual approach beats going cold turkey if youre especially anxious about quitting or lack confidence in your ability to quit. With the tapering method, set your quit date, count the number of cigarettes you typically smoke daily, and then smoke fewer cigarettes each day. If you typically smoke, say, 30 cigarettes daily, resolve to smoke 5 fewer cigarettes each day, so youll have quit completely in 6 days. Unless youre a light smoker to begin with, cut back by more than just one cigarette daily; your total tapering time should be a few days, not a few weeks. Dragging it out too long could turn into a procrastination tactic. With the postponing method, delay your first cigarette of the day by 2 hours every day. Heres a sample schedule: On day 1, smoke your first cigarette at 8:00 A.M.; on day 2, at 10 A.M.; on day 3, at noon-and so on. If you go this route, make sure to consider your work schedule; it could limit your ability to ...
To date, the sharing behaviors associated with the homemade tobacco waterpipe used in rural areas of the Western Pacific Region have not been studied. Evidence from studies of manufactured waterpipes raises the possibility of infectious disease transmission due to waterpipe sharing. The objective of our pilot study in rural Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (PDR) was to identify and measure the prevalence of waterpipe sharing behaviors. We first conducted ethnographic studies to investigate waterpipe-smoking behaviors. These findings were then used to develop an interviewer-administered household survey that was used in a sampling of waterpipe smokers from three villages of the Luang Namtha province of Lao PDR (n = 43). Sampled waterpipe smokers were predominantly male (90.7%), older (mean age 49, SD 13.79), married (95.4%), farmers (78.6%), and had completed no primary education. Pipes were primarily made from bamboo (92.9%). Almost all (97.6%) smokers were willing to share their pipe with others. At
The Institute for Global Tobacco Control is a part of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Our mission is to prevent death and disease from tobacco products by generating evidence to support effective tobacco control interventions.
The Institute for Global Tobacco Control is a part of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Our mission is to prevent death and disease from tobacco products by generating evidence to support effective tobacco control interventions.
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apr/03_0034p.htm. PEER REVIEWED. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is conducting several reviews of mass media campaigns to determine the kinds of campaign elements that contribute most to success. The purpose of the reviews is to aid states and other countries in developing their own campaigns to reduce smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. The first 2 reviews (of campaigns to promote adult smoking cessation and youth tobacco use prevention) have been completed. Preliminary findings for the third review (of campaigns to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke) are available.. Media campaigns are an effective component of a comprehensive tobacco control program. Programs must determine ways to make their limited funds work most efficiently to change attitudes and behaviors related to smoking and secondhand smoke via media campaigns.. Data and results were solicited through a variety of channels, including CDC networks, GLOBALink, and the World Health Organization. Qualitative ...
Databases of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) and the Survey of Dental Diseases (SDD) from 1999 were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare with permission for analytical use. The SDD, which involved the same sample population as that of the NNS, is conducted every six years. Data were collected from persons aged 1 year or older from approximately 5000 households in 300 districts. The background and general procedure of the surveys were described previously [11].. Smoking status was defined in the questionnaires of the NNS as: current smoker, an individual who currently smokes cigarettes daily or occasionally; former smoker, an individual who has smoked cigarettes at some point in their life, but who currently does not smoke; non-smoker, an individual who was an experimental smoker or who has never smoked cigarettes. Current smokers were asked about cigarette consumption in terms of the number of cigarettes per day and duration of smoking.. In the SDD, calibrated ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration revealed last Tuesday that menthol-flavored cigarettes pose greater damaging effects to public health, because they are more addictive than regular cigarettes.. The findings were published by the FDA, menthol cigarettes pose a public health risk above that seen with non-menthol cigarettes. The study explains that menthol-flavored cigarettes are not more harmful than regular ones, in terms of toxicity, however, menthol´s freshness and anesthetic properties tend to reduce the unpleasant flavor of tobacco; as result, the number of young smokers increases. In the U.S., menthol-flavored cigarettes account for about a quarter of the total market.. Also, the FDA explained, Menthol smokers show greater signs of nicotine dependence and are less likely to successfully quit smoking.. Menthol-flavored cigarettes are consumed, mostly, by African Americans and teenagers. Nonetheless, the FDA didn´t proposed any specific restriction or ban on the subject for ...
On World Head and Neck Cancer Day held on July 27, the experts urged Indian citizens to stay away from tobacco use, as its a major cause of cancer. Head and neck cancer occurs mainly in the mouth, larynx, throat or nose.. Dr. Harit Chaturvedi, cancer surgeon, Chairman Max Oncology, and Voice of Tobacco Victims (VoTV) patron said, Head & neck cancers are the biggest sources of the cancer burden in India. Nearly half of the newly diagnosed head & neck cancers die within 12 months of diagnosis. Paradoxically, two-thirds of head & neck cancers are related to known agents such as tobacco, areca nut, and alcohol.. Unfortunately, these causative agents are freely available either due to a weak policy implementation or absence of it. India witnesses 1.75 lac new cases of head and neck cancers every year. Of these 76% are males and 24% are females.. In India, tobacco chewing is more as compared to smoking. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2017, of the 28.6% of overall prevalence of ...
Understanding the trends in the prevalence of cigarette smoking among youths enables policy makers to target prevention resources more effectively. Every 2 years, CDC analyzes data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to evaluate trends in cigarette use among high school students in the United States. This report updates a previous report (1) and describes results of CDCs 2010 analysis of YRBS data from 1991--2009 for three measures: ever smoked cigarettes, current cigarette use, and current frequent cigarette use. For ever smoked cigarettes, the prevalence did not change from 1991 (70.1%) to 1999 (70.4%), declined to 58.4% in 2003, and then declined more gradually, to 46.3% in 2009. For current cigarette use, the prevalence increased from 27.5% in 1991 to 36.4% in 1997, declined to 21.9% in 2003, and then declined more gradually, to 19.5% in 2009. For current frequent cigarette use, the prevalence increased from 12.7% in 1991 to 16.8% in 1999, declined to 9.7% in 2003, and then ...
The specific objectives of the present study are to analyze the differentials in prevalence; progression of use of tobacco and major determinants of quitting of smoking as well as use of smokeless tobacco. The rationale behind this study is to spread the awareness about the disease and deaths due to tobacco consumption. This study utilized the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey India (GATS India).The prevalence is high in Bihar (54%), Chhattisgarh (53%), and Jharkhand (50%) and the lowest in Goa (9 %), Punjab (12 %).the probability of quitting tobacco among females is 1.35 times (p
TY - JOUR. T1 - Salivary antioxidants status following progressive aerobic exercise. T2 - What are the differences between waterpipe smokers and non-smokers?. AU - Arazi, Hamid. AU - Taati, Behzad. AU - Sajedi, Forough Rafati. AU - Suzuki, Katsuhiko. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Waterpipe tobacco (WPT) smoking is a public health problem with similar or even stronger effects than cigarette smoking. Although it appears to be associated with extensive oxidative stress, there is a limited number of studies on the oxidative effects of WPT smoking in stressful conditions. We, therefore, compared the responses of salivary flow rate (SFR), uric acid (UA) concentration, and peroxidase (POX) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) activities between WPT smokers and non-smokers following a bout of exhaustive aerobic exercise (AE). Twenty-three sedentary young women (age: 22.95 ± 2.83 years) participated in this study, including 11 smokers (7.00 ± 1.41 uses/week) and 12 non-smokers. All ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Living with a nonsmoking partner and smoking cessation of middle-aged Japanese male smokers. T2 - A prospective cohort study. AU - Ota, Atsuhiko. AU - Masue, Takeshi. AU - Yasuda, Nobufumi. AU - Tsutsumi, Akizumi. AU - Mino, Yoshio. AU - Ohara, Hiroshi. AU - Ono, Yuichiro. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - Background: Smokers nonsmoking partners may be expected to encourage the smokers to quit smoking. However, there is little evidence regarding whether this expectation is applicable to the cases of middle-aged Japanese male smokers. Objective: We examined the relationship between living with a nonsmoking partner and smoking cessation of middle-aged Japanese male smokers. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed. Five hundred seventy nine male smokers were observed for two years during which no intensive smoking cessation interventions were offered to either the subjects or their partners. The smoking status of the subjects and their partners was assessed based on ...
Tobacco, a legal product worldwide, killed 100 million people in the 20th century, and could kill as many as a billion human beings in the current century.1 Efforts to prevent tobacco-related morbidity and premature mortality depend on prevention programs, policies protecting people from tobacco smoke exposure, and effective cessation programs. Over a decade ago, Peto and Lopez showed that cessation will contribute quickly to lowering the burden of smoking-induced disease, because of the immediate health benefits of quitting and the long lag time for the development of many smoking-related diseases.2 Cessation has the additional benefit of the prevention of exposure of others to tobacco smoke. Yet, cessation for many smokers remains an elusive goal,3(p.15) with most quitters returning to their habit over time.4. Principles of behavior assume that the provision of knowledge works to change behavior when motivation for change is present. Increased perception of risk has been shown to be associated ...
Links to the Government of Canadas Federal Tobacco Control Strategy (FTCS), Health Canadas Tobacco Control Programme (TCP) and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
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ANY cigarette smoker can easily make a menthol inhaler to fight his winter colds. All that is necessary is a small bottle of menthol crystals, some absorbent cotton, a cigarette holder, a smoke instead of a sweet, and the habit. Several of the menthol crystals should be lightly wrapped in the cotton and inserted in the holder before the cigarette is inserted. The smoker will find that he has a much cooler smoke and that the menthol tends to clear the throat and nose when inhaled and expelled through the nose. It will also tend to extract the nicotine from the smoke. ...
Were encouraged by the continued decline in youth tobacco use in Minnesota, said Minnesota Commissioner of Health Dr. Sanne Magnan. Many local public health departments, tobacco prevention organizations and other partners contributed to this decline. We have more work to do, however, because tobacco use remains the single most preventable cause of death in this country.. The new Freedom to Breathe Act is likely helping to discourage youth tobacco use, according to Dr. Jane Korn, a chronic disease epidemiologist with MDH. Smoke-free laws create a positive example for young people and lead to decreased smoking, said Korn. She noted that nearly 90 percent of the middle school students surveyed believe that smoking should never be allowed inside their homes, their vehicles, at workplaces and in indoor public places. Support among high school students ranges from 71 percent for vehicles to 81 percent for indoor public places.. Korn expressed concern about several findings in the survey.. * ...
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The aim of the study: The aim of the study was clinical and cytological examination of gingival changes in smokers and non-smokers. was higher than in non-smokers group, but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The values of examined indices showed buy 213261-59-7 higher values in smokers group. This finding could show that the level of oral hygiene is higher in the non smokers group. The size of nucleus (area, Ferrets diameter and perimeter) was higher in the group of smokers, but differences were not statistically significant. Teamwork of many different speciality experts is required for better periodontal health of smokers. Key words: smoking, periodontal disease, gingival, cytological investigation. 1.?INTRODUCTION Periodontal disease is chronic, inflammatory disease followed by destruction of periodontal tissues. Oral biofilm with anaerobic microorganisms represents main etiological factor for occurrence of periodontal disease, buy 213261-59-7 but cigarette smoking is ...
Outbreak of Lung Injury Associated with the Use of E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Products. CDC has identified vitamin E acetate as a chemical of concern among people with e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI). Recent CDC laboratory testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples (fluid samples collected from the lungs) from 29 patients with EVALI submitted to CDC from 10 states found vitamin E acetate in all of the samples. Vitamin E acetate might be used as an additive, most notably as a thickening agent in THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products.. CDC recommends that people should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC, particularly from informal sources like friends, or family, or in-person or online dealers. Until the relationship of vitamin E acetate and lung health is better understood, vitamin E acetate should not be added to e-cigarette, or vaping, products. In addition, people should not add any substance to e-cigarette or vaping ...
PubMed journal article: Smoking-associated interstitial lung disease: update and review. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Background: Genotype announcements related to susceptibility to hazardous effects of smoking may be effective ‍to induce smoking cessation. ‍Methods: Subjects were municipal government employees, 63 young smokers employed in the previous year and ‍59 smokers with more than 45 pack-years, who were invited to educational sessions against smoking held in December ‍2003 and February 2004, respectively. In the session, those who wished genetic susceptibility tests (GSTM1, GSTT1, ‍and NQO1 C609T) were enrolled in the study. The smoking habit was ascertained three times: at the session, one ‍month later, just before the genotype announcement, and at the follow-up three months after the announcement. ‍Results: Fifty eight (92.1%) and 49 (83.1%) smokers participated in the study, respectively. One out of 58 smokers ‍was not a habitual smoker, so was not included in the analysis. The smoking cessation rates were 15.8% (9 participants) ‍and 6.1% (3 participants) just before the genotype
COPD is a disease in which the lung airways are damaged and partly obstructed, making it difficult to breathe. Millions of people in the United States have COPD, and it is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Symptoms include coughing, excess mucus production, shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness. Emphysema and long-term bronchitis are the two most common manifestations of the disease. The most common risk factor for developing COPD is cigarette smoking; however, only 15% to 20% of smokers develop COPD in their lifetimes. It is not known why some smokers develop COPD and some do not, but certain genetic factors, combined with exposure to cigarette smoke, may increase the likelihood of developing COPD. This study will analyze DNA from current and former cigarette smokers to identify genetic factors and markers that may indicate a predisposition to developing COPD.. This study will enroll African-American and white cigarette smokers and former cigarette smokers both ...
Pre-cessation reduction is associated with quitting smoking. However, many smokers reduce the amount consumed but may not quit altogether. Using a representative sample of adult current daily smokers, this project explored future intentions of smokers regarding cigarette consumption. This information is important because it can provide a framework within which to plan tobacco cessation initiatives. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. The response rate was 65% (of households with a smoker in residence, 65% agreed to participate). Analyses focused on the 825 respondents who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day at some point in their lives. As part of this survey, respondents were asked their future plans about their smoking (maintain, increase, reduce, quit). Of these 825 respondents, the majority of respondents had plans to change their cigarette use, with 55% planning to quit, 18.8% to reduce and 22.5% to maintain the amount
Longtime women smokers are two-and-a-half times more likely to suffer sudden cardiac death than non-smokers, a researcher in Canada says.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), smoking tobacco is the top risk factor for lung cancer, with 90 percent of cases attributed to tobacco use. People who smoke cigarettes are 15 to 30 times more likely to get lung cancer or die from lung cancer than those who do not. The 2014 U.S. Surgeon Generals Report stated that women smokers were 25.7 times more likely than women who never smoked to develop lung cancer. Male smokers were 25 times more at risk than men who never smoked. Smoke from others cigarettes, pipes, or cigars (secondhand smoke) also causes lung cancer. Quitting smoking at any age can lower the risk of lung cancer ...
SEOUL, June 2 (Korea Bizwire) - A recent study showed that smokers or those exposed to second-hand smoke require more anesthetic and painkillers during surgical operations than non-smokers, hinting that exposure to smoking can hinder anesthesia and pain control.. According to a May 30 report by Science Daily, Erdogan Ozturk of Bezmialem Vakif University in Turkey arrived at the conclusion after dividing 90 women who underwent surgery to remove their uterus through abdominal hysterectomy into three groups: smokers, those who were exposed to secondhand smoke, and non-smokers. Doses of propofol and remifentanil were monitored for the three groups of 30 patients each.. Doctor Ozturks team compared the total amounts of anesthetic and painkillers among the three groups to maintain the Bispectral index value (BIS) from 40 to 60.. The amount of propofol used for the induction of anesthesia was 102.76mg for the smoker group, 84.53mg for the passive smoker group and 119.37mg for the non-smoker ...
Vogue apparently doesnt care that 178,000 women die every year due to lung cancer and other smoking-related disease. Their latest response to your faxes about light and luscious Camel No. 9s -- Could you stop? Youre killing trees. R.J. Reynolds doesnt care either. Death is literally being marketed - and sold - to our daughters, mothers, and sisters through Camel No.9 ad campaigns. Thats why our Youth Advocates of the Year - the YAYAs - are taking the fight against Big Tobacco and Camel No.9 straight to Washington, DC. Will you help the YAYAs wage this most important battle on Capitol Hill and sponsor their training at this summers Youth Advocacy Symposium? At the six-day symposium, YAYAs from across the country will learn how to lobby our nations lawmakers for passage of life-saving FDA legislation that will spell the end for pretty and pink Camel No.9 ads and other sinister marketing that attracts youth. ... Your gift will give the YAYAs the tools and training they need to influence ...
PubMed journal article Parental smoking behavior and passive smoke exposure in children with asthm were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
PURPOSE; To test whether differences in smoking-related lung cancer risks in blacks and whites can explain why lung cancer incidence is greater in black males than in white males but about equal in black and white females, given that a greater proportion of blacks are smokers, but smoke far fewer cigarettes per day than do whites. METHODS; A hospital-based case-control study was conducted between 1984 and 1998 that included interviews with 1,710 white male and 1,321 white female cases of histologically confirmed lung cancer, 254 black male and 163 black female cases, and 8,151 controls. Relative risks were estimated via odds ratios using logistic regression, adjusted for age, education, and body mass index. RESULTS; We confirmed prior reports that smoking prevalence is higher but overall dosage is lower among blacks. Overall ORs were similar for blacks and whites, except among the heaviest smoking males (21+ cigarettes per day or 37.5 pack-years), in whom ORs for blacks were considerably greater than
cigarette use, and current frequent cigarette use. For ever smoked cigarettes, the prevalence did not change from 1991 (70.1%) to 1999 (70.4%), declined to 58.4% in 2003, and then declined more gradually, to 46.3% in 2009. For current cigarette use, the prevalence increased from 27.5% in 1991 to 36.4% in 1997, declined to 21.9% in 2003, and then declined more gradually, to 19.5% in 2009. For current frequent cigarette use, the prevalence increased from 12.7% in 1991 to 16.8% in 1999, declined to 9.7% in 2003, and then declined more gradually, to 7.3% in 2009. For all three measures, rates began to decline in the late 1990s, but the rate of decline slowed during 2003-2009. (Cigarette Use Among High School Students - United States, 1991-2009, MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vol. 59 / No. 26, 7/9/2010 ...
There is a strong relationship between the length of time a person smokes, the number of cigarettes a person smokes each day, and the development of smoking-related diseases. Simply put, the more one smokes, the more one is likely to suffer ill effects. Cigarette smoke weakens blood vessel walls and increases the level of cholesterol in the blood, which can lead to atherosclerosis (a disease in which fatty material is deposited in the arterial walls). It can cause the coronary arteries to narrow, increasing the risk of heart attack due to impaired blood flow to the heart. Smoking also increases the risk of stroke (a blood clot or rupture in an artery of the brain). In addition to lung cancer, smoking can cause cancers of the mouth, throat, voicebox, esophagus, stomach, cervix, and bladder. Drinking alcohol while smoking causes 75 percent of all mouth and throat cancers. ...
The Marlboro-makers Hold My Light campaign claims to be a new way to give up cigarettes, and links to a website where smokers can create a profile and have friends commit to help them quit. Charity Cancer Research U.K. criticized the move, calling it staggering hypocrisy.
In 2000-04, a pilot project in East Texas sought to find out what is needed to encourage grade schools children not to use tobacco. The pilot project spent $3 per person, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This program demonstrated that by using $3 per person, a comprehensive tobacco control and prevention program can make a difference. It demonstrated a significant 37-percent drop in grade 6-12 smokers and a 26-percent reduction in smoking in adults aged 18-22. Only a concerted effort throughout the state, with an expenditure of at least $3 per person on a comprehensive tobacco control program, can maintain these impressive numbers ...
NOTES 1. Cigarette Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-- United States, 1990, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 42 (Aug. 27, 1993): 645-49. (Return to text.) 2. On average, an adult cigarette smoker (current or former) spends 20 percent more on health care than an adult who has never smoked. This excess rate of spending varies from 10 to 30 percent, depending on the source of data and the methods used by researchers to compare smokers and nonsmokers, but in some studies it runs as high as 100 percent. See, for example: J. Paul Leigh and James F. Fries, Health Habits, Health Care Use and Costs in a Sample of Retirees, Inquiry 29 (Spring 1992): 44-54; Thomas A. Hodgson, Cigarette Smoking and Lifetime Medical Expenditures, Milbank Quarterly 70 (1992): 81-125; Willard G. Manning, Emmett B. Keeler, Joseph P. Newhouse, et al., The Costs of Poor Health Habits (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991); Dorothy P. Rice, Thomas A. Hodgson, et al., The ...
Interested candidates should forward their resume/cover letter, quoting this File #98-NY-009 to Human Resources, City of Toronto, North York Civic Centre, 5100 Yonge Street, North York, Ontario, M2N 5V7 or by Fax to: (416) 395-6985 by the closing date of May 7, 1998 ...
There is a strong link between cigarette smoking and socio-economic group. Smoking has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in death rates between rich and poor in the UK. Smoking accounts for over half of the difference in risk of premature death between social classes.. Death rates from tobacco are two to three times higher among disadvantaged social groups than among the better off.. Long-term smokers bear the heaviest burden of death and disease related to their smoking. Long-term smokers are disproportionately drawn from lower socio-economic groups. People in poorer social groups who smoke, start smoking at an earlier age: of those in managerial and professional households about one third start smoking before age 16 compared with almost half of those in routine and manual household.. Below is a recording of a webinar by Martin Dockrell from Public Health England and Amanda Amos from the University of Edinburgh. (A on the topics that arose during the webinar is ...
year old male chronic smoker complaints hoarseness voice for past months Laryngeal keratosis is a precancerous condition. Treatment modalities includes avoidance of aetiological factors such as smoking, stripping of vocal cords and examination of tissues for malignancy and
year old male chronic smoker complaints hoarseness voice for past months Laryngeal keratosis is a precancerous condition. Treatment modalities includes avoidance of aetiological factors such as smoking, stripping of vocal cords and examination of tissues for malignancy and
Background: Smoking is one of the major risk factors of CVD. It is well-known that smokers increase weight when they quit smoking, and concomitant weight increase after smoking cessation may blunt beneficial effects of smoking cessation on e.g. glucose metabolism. However, not all smokers gain weight. To our knowledge, predictors of weight-loss after smoking cessation have not previously been investigated.. Methods: in a large population-based study, the Inter99 study, 2,408 daily smokers were included at baseline. Out of these, 262 attended the five year follow-up and reported that they had not smoked for at least 12 months. Participants completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. In multivariable logistic regression analyses we investigated predictors of weight-loss.. Results: A total of 17.6% of the quitters had lost weight from baseline to 5 years follow-up. Neither sex, age, number of daily meals, energy intake, dietary quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption, ...