Author: Scharsack, J. P. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2004-05-05; Keywords: Gasterosteus aculeatus; Schistocephalus solidus; Granulocytes; Reactive oxygen species; Phagocytosis; Title: Modulation of granulocyte responses in three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus infected with the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus
These subspecies actually represent three examples from the enormous range of morphological variation present within three-spined sticklebacks. These fall into two rough categories, the anadromous and the freshwater forms.. The anadromous form spends most of its adult life eating plankton and fish in the sea, and returns to freshwater to breed. The adult fish are typically between 6 and 10 cm long, and have 30 to 40 lateral armour plates along their sides. They also have long dorsal and pelvic spines. The anadromous form is morphologically similar all around the Northern Hemisphere, such that anadromous fish from the Baltic, the Atlantic and the Pacific all resemble each other quite closely.. Three-spined stickleback populations are also found in freshwater lakes and streams. These populations were probably formed when anadromous fish started spending their entire lifecycle in fresh water, and thus evolved to live there all year round. Freshwater populations are extremely morphologically ...
Autor: Scharsack, J. P. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2007-11; Keywords: Gasterosteus aculeatus; MHC class I; MHC class II; ECL; N-glycosylation; western blot; immunohistology; Titel: Characterization of antisera raised against stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) MHC class I and class II molecules
Figure 1 Synteny of LG7 and LG12 between the threespine and Northern European ninespine sticklebacks and sex-specific maps of LG12 in the Northern European ninespine stickleback. Marker positions are given in Mb for the threespine stickleback and in cM for the Northern European ninespine stickleback. Markers belonging to LG7 and LG12 in the threespine stickleback are indicated in blue and red, respectively. Location of the sex-determining locus (Sex) is shown in the male map with 95% confidence interval. ...
Gonadal sex differentiation is increasingly recognized as a remarkably plastic process driven by species-specific genetic or environmental determinants. Among aquatic vertebrates, gonadal sex differentiation is a frequent endpoint in studies of endocrine disruption with little appreciation of underlying developmental mechanisms. Work in model organisms has highlighted the diversity of master sex-determining genes rather than uncovering any broad similarities prompting the highly conserved developmental decision of testes versus ovaries. Here we use molecular genetic markers of chromosomal sex combined with traditional histology to examine the transition of the bipotential gonads to ovaries or testes in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Serially-sectioned threespine stickleback fry were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative indications of sexual differentiation, including changes in gonadal morphology, number of germ cells and the incidence of gonadal apoptosis. We show that threespine
Current understanding of the immune system comes primarily from lab-based studies. There has been substantial interest in examining how it functions in the wild, but studies have been limited by a lack of appropriate assays and study species. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) provides an ideal system in which to advance the study of wild immunology, but requires the development of suitable immune assays. We demonstrate that meaningful variation in the immune response of stickleback can be measured using real-time PCR to quantify the expression of eight genes, representing the innate response and Th1, Th2 and Treg type adaptive responses. Assays are validated by comparing the immune expression profiles of wild and laboratory raised stickleback, and by examining variation across populations on North Uist, Scotland. We also compare the immune response potential of laboratory raised individuals from two Icelandic populations by stimulating cells in culture. Immune profiles of ...
In this study, we identified regions of the genome underlying variation in gene expression in a population of threespine stickleback from northern Europe. We used a genotyping-by-sequencing approach to generate an improved linkage map, and applied interval mapping to identify eQTL. Our new map was independent of that recently constructed by Glazer et al. (2015), and the congruent placement of scaffolds between the two maps confirms the reliability of these new genome assemblies. Our map covered a substantially larger distance in centimorgans than those of Roesti et al. (2013) and Glazer et al. (2015), probably due to differences in experimental design. Nevertheless, for our Baltic Sea population, we observe very similar patterns of recombination rate variation across and between chromosomes as found by Roesti et al. (2013) for freshwater sticklebacks from central Europe and Glazer et al. (2015) for marine-freshwater crosses from western North America (Figure S1). Thus, the large-scale pattern of ...
Effects of castration and androgen-treatment on the expression of FSH-β and LH-β in the three-spine stickleback, gasterosteus aculeatus-Feedback differences mediating the photoperiodic maturation response? ...
Hélène Roussel, F. Catel, Jean-Marc Bonzom. Copper effects on population dynamics of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in lotic mesocosms. 13. SETAC Europe Annual Meeting, Apr 2003, Hambourg, Germany. ⟨ineris-00969830⟩ ...
Mature three-spined stickleback males use spiggin threads secreted from their kidney to glue together nest material. This requires strongly hypertrophied renal proximal tubular cells, which compromises renal osmoregulatory function during the breeding period. Experimental evidence suggests that the intestine takes over hypotonic fluid secretion at that stage but the mechanism is unexplored. To unravel the molecular mechanism we analyzed and compared transcript levels of several membrane proteins involved in water and salt transport in intestinal and renal tissues, in non-mature males (NM), mature males (MM), and mature females (MF). Aquaporin paralogs aqp1a, -30, -8aa, -8ab, -10a, and -10b, two Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-1 subunit isoforms (nka547, nka976), Na+,K+,2C1(-)-, and Na+,CI--cotransporters (nkcc1a, nkcc2,ncc), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr) and two claudin isoforms (cldn2, cldn15a) were expressed in the intestine and kidney in all groups. There were no ...
Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been correlated with physiological functions as well as fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we experimentally investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three-spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To ...
During development the opercular series is known to be one of the first bone structures to form. In the three-spined stickleback the opercular series is seen forming at around seven days after fertilization. Within hours the formation of the shape is visible and then the individual components are developed days later. The size and shape of the operculum bone is dependent on the organisms location. For example, fresh water threespine sticklebacks form a less dense and smaller opercular series in relation to marine threespine sticklebacks. The marine threespine stickleback exhibits a larger and thicker opercular series. This provides evidence that there was an evolutionary change in the operculum bone. The thicker and more dense bone may have been favored due to selective pressures exerted from the threespine sticklebacks environment. The development of the operculuar series has changed dramatically over time. The fossil record of the threespine stickleback provide the ancestral shapes of the ...
Gene duplication and subsequent divergence can lead to the evolution of new functions and lineage-specific traits. In sticklebacks, the successive duplication of a mucin gene (MUC19) into a tandemly arrayed, multigene family has enabled the production of copious amounts of spiggin, a secreted adhesive protein essential for nest construction. Here, we examine divergence between spiggin genes among three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from ancestral marine and derived freshwater populations, and propose underpinning gene duplication mechanisms. Sanger sequencing revealed substantial diversity among spiggin transcripts, including alternatively spliced variants and interchromosomal spiggin chimeric genes. Comparative analysis of the sequenced transcripts and all other spiggin genes in the public domain support the presence of three main spiggin lineages (spiggin A, spiggin B and spiggin C) with further subdivisions within spiggin B (B1, B2) and spiggin C (C1, C2). Spiggin A had diverged
This hands-on activity supports concepts covered in the film Evolving Switches, Evolving Bodies about the evolution of stickleback fish. Students interpret molecular diagrams and build physical models of eukaryotic gene regulation.
Raeymaekers, J. A. , Wegner, M. , Huyse, T. and Volckaert, F. A. M. (2011): Infection dynamics of the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus gasterostei on sympatric and allopatric populations of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus , Folia Parasitologica 58 ...
Body mass, fork length, RNA:DNA ratio, specific growth rate, and hepatic EROD activity and CYP1A expression, were measured in three-spined sticklebacks in the River Ray (south west England) at sites downstream of an urban waste water treatment works (WWTW) prior to, and following, remediation of the effluent with granular activated carbon (GAC) tertiary treatment. During the same two-year period fish were also sampled from a neighbouring reference river (R. Ock). The WWTW effluent elevated water temperatures and nutrient content in the R. Ray and rendered a direct comparison of fish populations in the two rivers untenable. Instead, the stability of population parameters within each river during matched pre- and post-remediation periods was compared. Stickleback populations in both rivers were annual but fish in the R. Ray spawned earlier and were larger than those in the R. Ock. In the R. Ray fish gained mass throughout the winter months whereas in the R. Ock growth was much reduced during this ...
Allen, G.R. 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guniea.. Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. and Allen, M. 2002. Field guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth.. Bester, C. 2004. Striped Mullet. Biological profiles. Available at: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/StripedMullet/StripedMullet.html. (Accessed: 16 October 2005).. Bianchi, G., Carpenter, K.E., Roux, J.-P., Molloy, F.J., Boyer, D. and Boyer, H.J. 1999. Field guide to the living marine resources of Namibia. FAO, Rome, Italy.. Blaber, S.J.M. 1976. The food and feeding ecology of Mugilidae in the St. Lucia lake systems. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 8: 267-277.. Cardona, L. 2000. Effects of salinity on the habitat selection and growth performance of Mediterranean flathead grey mullet Mugil cephalus (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 50: 727-737.. Carpenter, K.E., Krupp, F., Jones, D.A. ...
Fish guide for Millennium Rainbowfish, Glossolepis pseudoincisus, Tami River Rainbowfish profile with pictures and description, Millennium Rainbowfish care, habitat, diet and behaviors, keeping the rainbow fish aquarium, Lake Ifaten Rainbowfish
rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" xmlns:dspace="http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0#" xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" xmlns:void="http://rdfs.org/ns/void#" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" , ,rdf:Description rdf:about="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/7575", ,dc:creator,Meyer, Axel,/dc:creator, ,dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng",In contrast to the majority of vertebrate species, primary male parental care is common in fishes and encompasses a remarkable diversity of adaptations. Seahorses and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae) exhibit some of the most specialized forms of paternal care in animals and so are ideally suited to the study of the evolution of male parental care. During mating, female syngnathids transfer eggs to specialized morphological structures that are located on ...
Seahorses are a fascinating species to observe. I took my nephew to the National Aquarium in DC this past weekend and we were memorized by the aquatic centaurian-like bony fish (pictured right). Ive written about seahorses in the past, and from the traffic of that post I can tell that a seahorse post is much appreciated by the BCS readers, so I thought Id take a some time to delve into more of their hallmark traits.. Here are 5 more fun facts about seahorses to add to the list (written almost 3 years ago!). Please feel free to comment below or email [email protected] if you have something youd love to share about seahorses!. ...
Seahorses are used in the treatment of a wide range of health problems under the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is a complementary and alternative system of medicine (CAM). You can refer to my article - "The Basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)" to learn the fundamentals of TCM. Seahorses are employed in the treatment of sexual weakness, reduced sexual desire or drive (reduced libido; libido means sexual desire or sex drive), and are considered as broad-spectrum or general tonics. The practitioners of TCM claim that seahorses strengthen "kidneys" and improve "nerves", which in the context of Traditional Chinese Medicine points to general morale, well-being, and vigor. "kidneys" also imply sexual function in the context of TCM. Seahorses are categorized under sweet, salty, and warm medicines. They are usually not prescribed alone but in combo-preparations (formulations containing multiple ingredients) containing matter from other animals and plants.. Continue reading → ...
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Nature 428, 717-723 (2004) In this Article, we showed that Pitx1 maps to the major locus controlling pelvic reduction in sticklebacks and shows altered expression, but not altered amino-acid sequence, in a pelvic-reduced population. Owing to a technical error, Figs 3 and 4 of the Article incorrectlyshow results from a Pitx1 sense probe, rather than from an antisense probe.
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Genome-wide scans identified several genomic regions subject to divergent selection in each watershed. Given the density of markers used, the outlier SNPs are probably linked to selected haplotypes, rather than representing causative adaptive mutations. The proportion of adaptive genetic variation detected is dependent on both the number of markers and the level of linkage disequilibrium across the genome. Overall, our genomic coverage is roughly one SNP every 600 kb (450 Mb/760 evenly spaced SNPs) with some areas of higher coverage owing to the candidate SNPs on the array (n = 280). So, while our coverage is substantially higher than many previous scans of sticklebacks [38,39], ours is almost certainly not an exhaustive catalogue of the genomic loci under divergent selection. Overall, we identified 21 stringently defined outlier regions; eight of these were from the evenly distributed SNP group (i.e. approx. 1% of these non-candidate SNPs were outliers). This is low compared with 2-10% of loci ...
de Oliveira Armesto, L. & Freret-Meurer, N. V., 2012: Testing for camouflage of the Brazilian seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Syngnathidae) using the territorial damselfish Stegastes fuscus (Cuvier) (Pomacentridae). aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, 18 (3): 165-170 ...
Experiments are often carried out in the laboratory under artificial conditions. Although this can control for confounding factors, it may eliminate important factors that under natural conditions mediate the interaction under investigation. Here, we show that different results can be gained in the field and in the laboratory regarding host-parasite interaction. In the field, courting three-spined stickleback males, Gasterosteus aculeatus, were less often infected with plerocercoids of a cestode tapeworm, Schistocephalus solidus, than shoaling males. However, when a random sample of males was allowed to nest and court females in individual aquaria in the laboratory, both uninfected and infected males built nests and courted females. Moreover, while the few infected males that courted females in the field expressed less red nuptial coloration than uninfected courting males, there was no difference in redness between infected and uninfected males in the laboratory. We argue that the different ...
MODEL RELEASED. Seahorse research. Marine biologist feeding seahorses (Hippocampus sp.) in a tank. These seahorses are part of a breeding program designed to repopulate areas of the Mediterranean Sea in which they have become endangered. Seahorses typically eat small crustaceans. Photographed at the Anton Dohrn zoological station in Naples, Italy. - Stock Image G352/0101
The three-spined stickleback is a funny sort of a fish. Theyre somewhat non-distinct: drabbish silver, small, and minnow-like, native to salt- and freshwater bodies throughout most of the Northern hemisphere. However, different stickleback populations have evolved very distinct morphological traits, demonstrating a natural diversity that makes them an ideal candidate in which to examine the mechanics of adaptive evolution and ecology. More strikingly, they display a wide number of behaviors related to breeding, territorial disputes, and foraging that make them fascinating models for the study of animal behavior, particularly as to how genomics can both influence and be influenced by social dynamics.. A new grant through the National Science Foundations Enabling Discovery through GEnomic Tools (EDGE) program promises to expand our knowledge of this foundational fish species. The $1.7 million dollar, three year award is led by Principal Investigator and biologist Daniel Bolnick (University of ...
One of the most definitive examples of a vertebrate extraorganismal structural protein can be found in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In the breeding male the kidney hypertrophies and synthesizes an adhesive protein called "spiggin," which is secreted into the urinary bladder from where it is employed as a structural thread for nest building. This paper describes the first molecular characterization of spiggin and demonstrates that this adhesive is a protein complex assembled from a potential of three distinct subunits (alpha, beta, and gamma). These subunits arise by alternative splicing, and 11-ketoandrogens induce their expression in stickleback kidneys. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of each subunit reveals a modular organization whose structural elements display a similarity to the multimerization domains found within von Willebrand Factor-related proteins. These results implicate that spiggin utilizes a conserved multimerization mechanism for the ...
COSEWIC. 2010. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Vananda Creek Benthic and Limnetic Threespine Stickleback Species Pair Gasterosteus aculeatus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa.
The ability to maintain internal ion homeostasis in freshwater or saltwater has enabled euryhaline fishes to colonize a wide range of aquatic habitats. However, the energetic cost of this osmoregulation is high because it involves active transport mechanisms that pump ions against electrochemical gradients, often occurring at the gill epithelia-water interface. For euryhaline populations presently occupying stable environmental salinities, will relaxed selection on hypo- or hyperosmoregulation result in a loss of that capacity, or alternatively, can these fish still acclimate to a wide range of salinities? My research seeks to answer this question in a Pacific northwest lineage of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) consisting of distinct anadromous and lake ecotypes, which descended from an extant marine ancestor following the glacial retreat ca. 10,000 years ago. I raised embryos from each group at a common salinity and later transferred juveniles into either freshwater (,0.5 ppt) ...
The ability to maintain internal ion homeostasis in freshwater or saltwater has enabled euryhaline fishes to colonize a wide range of aquatic habitats. However, the energetic cost of this osmoregulation is high because it involves active transport mechanisms that pump ions against electrochemical gradients, often occurring at the gill epithelia-water interface. For euryhaline populations presently occupying stable environmental salinities, will relaxed selection on hypo- or hyperosmoregulation result in a loss of that capacity, or alternatively, can these fish still acclimate to a wide range of salinities? My research seeks to answer this question in a Pacific northwest lineage of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) consisting of distinct anadromous and lake ecotypes, which descended from an extant marine ancestor following the glacial retreat ca. 10,000 years ago. I raised embryos from each group at a common salinity and later transferred juveniles into either freshwater (,0.5 ppt) ...
ID G3PKD3_GASAC Unreviewed; 705 AA. AC G3PKD3; DT 16-NOV-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-NOV-2011, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 38. DE SubName: Full=BRF1, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor b {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063}; OS Gasterosteus aculeatus (Three-spined stickleback). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Actinopterygii; Neopterygii; Teleostei; Neoteleostei; Acanthomorphata; OC Eupercaria; Perciformes; Cottioidei; Gasterosteales; Gasterosteidae; OC Gasterosteus. OX NCBI_TaxID=69293 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007635}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RA Lindblad-Toh K., Mauceli E., Grabherr M., Chang J.L., Lander E.S.; RL Submitted (JAN-2006) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. RN [2] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063} RP IDENTIFICATION. RG Ensembl; RL Submitted (SEP-2011) to ...
There is probably no organisms without parasites or pathogens". Such a sentence points towards the crucial role that parasites play in the evolution of their hosts. Using experiments conducting in our lab, I will argue that parasites represent a classic natural selection pressure to which their hosts genetically adapt. Furthermore, I will show that non-genetic inheritance of parasite resistance/tolerance can evolve when parents and offspring share the same parasitic environments. Lastly, placing host-parasite interactions in a broad ecological context, I will demonstrate that parasites drive eco-evolutionary feedbacks. For this seminar, I will focus on the three-spined stickleback fish, an established model system for evolutionary and ecological studies.. ...
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Natural History This slender seahorse grows to about seven inches long. Males are often bright orange and the females yellow; both may be covered in brown or white spots, and may turn pink or white during courtship. They are found in coral reefs and sea grass beds and occasionally in the midwater of the Atlantic from North Carolina to Florida, and from the Caribbean down to Brazil. Males can carry broods of up to 1,000 young in their pouches, with larger males carrying even more young. Conservation Of the thousands of longsnouts born in each brood, only one or two may live to become adults and raise broods of their own. In the past, thats been enough to keep their populations healthy. But today, collectors take tons to dry and sell as souvenirs. The more that are taken, the fewer that are left to reproduce-putting longsnout populations in danger. Cool Facts As with other seahorses, when longsnout seahorses mate, the female deposits her eggs into a special pouch on the males belly. The pouch seals
In addition to aggressive contexts, many fishes produce water movements that could be used as mechanosensory signals during their courtship repertoire. For example, body quivers, in which males display and vibrate their bodies while in close proximity to a female, are a common courtship behavior. Furthermore, some male fish produce tail waggles to encourage a sexually receptive female to spawn. Male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) use a zig-zag dance to court gravid females (Tinbergen, 1951; Tinbergen and Van Iersel, 1947), and in many species of wrasses, terminal-phase (i.e. dominant, territory-holding and reproductively competent) males combine intense body vibrations with rapid tail beats while swimming back and forth over a potential mate (Robertson and Hoffman, 1977). Despite the obvious use of hydrodynamic signal-generating behaviors, only a few studies have examined the role of mechanosensation during reproductive encounters. Because any signals produced during ...
Male pregnancy is the incubation of one or more embryos or fetuses by male members of some species. In nearly all heterogamous animal species, offspring are ordinarily carried by the female until birth, but in fish of the Syngnathidae family (pipefish, seahorses and the leafy seadragon), males perform this function. Some humans who, based on their gender identity, are men have become pregnant. Male humans incubating fetuses are also a recurring theme in speculative fiction. The Syngnathidae family of fish has the unique characteristic of a highly derived form of male brood care referred to as "male pregnancy". The family is highly diverse, containing around 300 different species of fish. Included in Syngnathidae are seahorses, the pipefish, and the weedy and leafy seadragons. The males of some of these species possess a brood pouch on the trunk or tail; in other species, the eggs are merely attached to the males trunk or tail when the female lays them. Although biologists definitions of ...
Article Exposure to the pesticide linuron affects androgen‐dependent gene expression in the three‐spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Previous research demonstrated that exposure to exogenous androgens and effluents with androgenic activity ...
The evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites often results in adaptations, which may differ between populations. Investigation of such local adaptation becomes increasingly important to understand dynamics of host-parasite interactions and co-evolution. To this end we performed an infection experiment involving pairs of three-spined sticklebacks and their tapeworm parasite Schistocephalus solidus from three geographically separated origins (Germany, Spain and Iceland) in a fully-crossed design for sympatric and allopatric host/parasite combinations. We hypothesized that local adaptation of the hosts results in differences in parasite resistance with variation in parasite infection rates and leukocyte activation, whereas parasites from different origins might differ in virulence reflected in host exploitation rates (parasite indices) and S. solidus excretory-secretory products (SsESP) involved in immune manipulation. In our experimental infections, sticklebacks from Iceland were more ...
Dear Leah:. You are right and the guys from the store are wrong. The type of scratching you describe is a clear indication that your dwarf seahorses have some sort of external parasites (ectoparasites).. You can provide them with some immediate relief by giving the seahorses a quick freshwater dip, Leah, as explained below in more detail:. Freshwater Dips. A freshwater dip is simply immersing your seahorse in pure, detoxified freshwater thats been preadjusted to the same temp and pH as the water the seahorse is accustomed to, for a period of at least 10 minutes (Giwojna, Dec. 2003). It doesnt harm them - seahorses typically tolerate freshwater dips exceptionally well and a 10-minute dip should be perfectly safe. Freshwater dips are effective because marine fish tolerate the immersion in freshwater far better than the external parasites they play host to; the change in osmotic pressure kills or incapacitates such microorganisms within 7-8 minutes (Giwojna, Dec. 2003). A minimum dip, if the fish ...
Seahorses, which are a type of fish, are too comely and graceful to fail to fascinate and arouse the inquisitive nature of any human being. They are one of the most awe-inspiring creations of the Nature. Seahorses are named so because they are marine in their habitat and have a horse-like head. Animal-analogy does not end here, as the biologists often describe seahorses as having monkey-like prehensile tail, kangaroo-like pouch, and chameleon-like eyes. In the Chinese language, a seahorse is known as Hai Ma (Haima). Seahorses high level of exploitatation in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has become a grave issue of international interests. The use of seahorses in TCM is discissed here - Seahorses in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ...
Mitochondrial biogenesis is induced by low temperature in many fish species. For example, cold acclimation of Gasterosteus aculeatus (threespine stickleback) increases mitochondrial densities in oxidative skeletal muscle. Oxidative muscles of Antarctic icefishes (suborder Notothenioidei) also have high mitochondrial densities characterized by higher densities of phospholipids compared to red-blooded notothenioids. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been well studied in mammals yet it is unknown how mitochondrial phospholipid synthesis is regulated. I hypothesized that both activity and mRNA levels of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), the rate-limiting enzyme in glycerolipid biosynthesis, would increase in oxidative muscle of stickleback, where mitochondrial biogenesis occurs, but not in liver, in response to cold acclimation, and that GPAT1 and /or GPAT2 mRNA levels would be higher in hearts of icefishes compared to red-blooded species. To test these hypotheses, maximal activity of GPAT and ...
Find out whats known about Barbours Seahorses, Hippocampus barbouri, Actinopterygii, Syngnathiformes, Syngnathidae, including their world range and habitats, feeding behaviors, life history, ecology, reproduction, and conservation status.
Video articles in JoVE about quantitative trait loci include Quantifying Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, Dissection and Flat-mounting of the Threespine Stickleback Branchial Skeleton, Microinjection for Transgenesis and Genome Editing in Threespine Sticklebacks, Screening for Functional Non-coding Genetic Variants Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and DNA-affinity Precipitation Assay (DAPA), Generation of High Quality Chromatin Immunoprecipitation DNA Template for High-throughput Sequencing (ChIP-seq), A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research, Purification of High Molecular Weight Genomic DNA from Powdery Mildew for Long-Read Sequencing, A Straightforward Method for Glucosinolate Extraction and Analysis with High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), The Treadmill Fatigue Test: A Simple, High-throughput Assay of Fatigue-like Behavior for
Heres an example to get back to your question. Stickleback fish live in the ocean, and the population has a large amount of genetic variation. After the last Ice Age, when the glaciers pulled back, some stickleback got caught in lakes all over the world. In many of the lakes, stickleback lost their armor plating, changed mating behavior, color and many other attributes. These changes happened so quickly that they are not the result of new mutations in the population, but just selection on existing genetic variation. Is this evolution? ...
Understanding the precise molecular mechanisms underlying changes in animal morphology is a tricky problem--usually two species which have diverged morphologically (say, mice and humans) are now so unrelated as to make genetic study exceedingly difficult, if not impossible. For years, a group led by David Kingsley has been addressing this problem in a cleverly-chosen model--three-spined sticklebacks. Importantly for the question of morphological evolution, freshwater populations of this fish have lost many of the spines and pelvic girdle carried by the saltwater populations (there are a number of hypotheses, probably not all mutually exclusive, for why this has been under selection ...
After working on the Misty and Beaver lake-stream pairs, both located on northern Vancouver Island near Port McNeill, we drove south for a couple of hours to Roberts Lake Resort near Campbell River. Here we were to continue our lake-stream work, starting with the Roberts pair, and here we would be joined by our collaborators from the University of Texas at Austin, including team leader Dan Bolnick. On the night that everyone arrived, all of us (one-quarter of a hundred people!) gathered in a room for some discussion, introductions, and a pep talk from Dan. Dan went over safety and security issues, of course, but - more importantly - imparted to us his considerable wisdom regarding the local stickleback populations, especially that in Roberts Lake itself where he had been working for 13 years. "I have never seen a stickleback breeding in Roberts Lake before June 6" was the phrase I most remember - perhaps because the next morning I walked down to the dock at the lake and saw two breeding ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...