Author: Scharsack, J. P. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2004-05-05; Keywords: Gasterosteus aculeatus; Schistocephalus solidus; Granulocytes; Reactive oxygen species; Phagocytosis; Title: Modulation of granulocyte responses in three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus infected with the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus
These subspecies actually represent three examples from the enormous range of morphological variation present within three-spined sticklebacks. These fall into two rough categories, the anadromous and the freshwater forms.. The anadromous form spends most of its adult life eating plankton and fish in the sea, and returns to freshwater to breed. The adult fish are typically between 6 and 10 cm long, and have 30 to 40 lateral armour plates along their sides. They also have long dorsal and pelvic spines. The anadromous form is morphologically similar all around the Northern Hemisphere, such that anadromous fish from the Baltic, the Atlantic and the Pacific all resemble each other quite closely.. Three-spined stickleback populations are also found in freshwater lakes and streams. These populations were probably formed when anadromous fish started spending their entire lifecycle in fresh water, and thus evolved to live there all year round. Freshwater populations are extremely morphologically ...
Autor: Scharsack, J. P. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2007-11; Keywords: Gasterosteus aculeatus; MHC class I; MHC class II; ECL; N-glycosylation; western blot; immunohistology; Titel: Characterization of antisera raised against stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) MHC class I and class II molecules
Figure 1 Synteny of LG7 and LG12 between the threespine and Northern European ninespine sticklebacks and sex-specific maps of LG12 in the Northern European ninespine stickleback. Marker positions are given in Mb for the threespine stickleback and in cM for the Northern European ninespine stickleback. Markers belonging to LG7 and LG12 in the threespine stickleback are indicated in blue and red, respectively. Location of the sex-determining locus (Sex) is shown in the male map with 95% confidence interval. ...
Gonadal sex differentiation is increasingly recognized as a remarkably plastic process driven by species-specific genetic or environmental determinants. Among aquatic vertebrates, gonadal sex differentiation is a frequent endpoint in studies of endocrine disruption with little appreciation of underlying developmental mechanisms. Work in model organisms has highlighted the diversity of master sex-determining genes rather than uncovering any broad similarities prompting the highly conserved developmental decision of testes versus ovaries. Here we use molecular genetic markers of chromosomal sex combined with traditional histology to examine the transition of the bipotential gonads to ovaries or testes in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Serially-sectioned threespine stickleback fry were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative indications of sexual differentiation, including changes in gonadal morphology, number of germ cells and the incidence of gonadal apoptosis. We show that threespine
Current understanding of the immune system comes primarily from lab-based studies. There has been substantial interest in examining how it functions in the wild, but studies have been limited by a lack of appropriate assays and study species. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) provides an ideal system in which to advance the study of wild immunology, but requires the development of suitable immune assays. We demonstrate that meaningful variation in the immune response of stickleback can be measured using real-time PCR to quantify the expression of eight genes, representing the innate response and Th1, Th2 and Treg type adaptive responses. Assays are validated by comparing the immune expression profiles of wild and laboratory raised stickleback, and by examining variation across populations on North Uist, Scotland. We also compare the immune response potential of laboratory raised individuals from two Icelandic populations by stimulating cells in culture. Immune profiles of ...
In this study, we identified regions of the genome underlying variation in gene expression in a population of threespine stickleback from northern Europe. We used a genotyping-by-sequencing approach to generate an improved linkage map, and applied interval mapping to identify eQTL. Our new map was independent of that recently constructed by Glazer et al. (2015), and the congruent placement of scaffolds between the two maps confirms the reliability of these new genome assemblies. Our map covered a substantially larger distance in centimorgans than those of Roesti et al. (2013) and Glazer et al. (2015), probably due to differences in experimental design. Nevertheless, for our Baltic Sea population, we observe very similar patterns of recombination rate variation across and between chromosomes as found by Roesti et al. (2013) for freshwater sticklebacks from central Europe and Glazer et al. (2015) for marine-freshwater crosses from western North America (Figure S1). Thus, the large-scale pattern of ...
Effects of castration and androgen-treatment on the expression of FSH-β and LH-β in the three-spine stickleback, gasterosteus aculeatus-Feedback differences mediating the photoperiodic maturation response? ...
Hélène Roussel, F. Catel, Jean-Marc Bonzom. Copper effects on population dynamics of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in lotic mesocosms. 13. SETAC Europe Annual Meeting, Apr 2003, Hambourg, Germany. ⟨ineris-00969830⟩ ...
Mature three-spined stickleback males use spiggin threads secreted from their kidney to glue together nest material. This requires strongly hypertrophied renal proximal tubular cells, which compromises renal osmoregulatory function during the breeding period. Experimental evidence suggests that the intestine takes over hypotonic fluid secretion at that stage but the mechanism is unexplored. To unravel the molecular mechanism we analyzed and compared transcript levels of several membrane proteins involved in water and salt transport in intestinal and renal tissues, in non-mature males (NM), mature males (MM), and mature females (MF). Aquaporin paralogs aqp1a, -30, -8aa, -8ab, -10a, and -10b, two Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-1 subunit isoforms (nka547, nka976), Na+,K+,2C1(-)-, and Na+,CI--cotransporters (nkcc1a, nkcc2,ncc), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr) and two claudin isoforms (cldn2, cldn15a) were expressed in the intestine and kidney in all groups. There were no ...
Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been correlated with physiological functions as well as fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we experimentally investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three-spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To ...
During development the opercular series is known to be one of the first bone structures to form. In the three-spined stickleback the opercular series is seen forming at around seven days after fertilization. Within hours the formation of the shape is visible and then the individual components are developed days later. The size and shape of the operculum bone is dependent on the organisms location. For example, fresh water threespine sticklebacks form a less dense and smaller opercular series in relation to marine threespine sticklebacks. The marine threespine stickleback exhibits a larger and thicker opercular series. This provides evidence that there was an evolutionary change in the operculum bone. The thicker and more dense bone may have been favored due to selective pressures exerted from the threespine sticklebacks environment. The development of the operculuar series has changed dramatically over time. The fossil record of the threespine stickleback provide the ancestral shapes of the ...
Explaining the presence of conspicuous female ornaments that take the form of male-typical traits has been a longstanding challenge in evolutionary biology. Such female ornaments have been proposed to evolve via both adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary processes. Determining the genetic underpinnings of female ornaments is important for elucidating the mechanisms by which such female traits arise and persist in natural populations, but detailed information about their genetic basis is still scarce. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of two ornaments, the orange-red throat and pelvic spine, in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Throat coloration is male-specific in ancestral marine populations but has evolved in females in some derived stream populations, whereas sexual dimorphism in pelvic spine coloration is variable among populations. We find that ornaments share a common genetic architecture between the sexes. At least three independent genomic regions ...
Gene duplication and subsequent divergence can lead to the evolution of new functions and lineage-specific traits. In sticklebacks, the successive duplication of a mucin gene (MUC19) into a tandemly arrayed, multigene family has enabled the production of copious amounts of spiggin, a secreted adhesive protein essential for nest construction. Here, we examine divergence between spiggin genes among three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from ancestral marine and derived freshwater populations, and propose underpinning gene duplication mechanisms. Sanger sequencing revealed substantial diversity among spiggin transcripts, including alternatively spliced variants and interchromosomal spiggin chimeric genes. Comparative analysis of the sequenced transcripts and all other spiggin genes in the public domain support the presence of three main spiggin lineages (spiggin A, spiggin B and spiggin C) with further subdivisions within spiggin B (B1, B2) and spiggin C (C1, C2). Spiggin A had diverged
This hands-on activity supports concepts covered in the film Evolving Switches, Evolving Bodies about the evolution of stickleback fish. Students interpret molecular diagrams and build physical models of eukaryotic gene regulation.
Raeymaekers, J. A. , Wegner, M. , Huyse, T. and Volckaert, F. A. M. (2011): Infection dynamics of the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus gasterostei on sympatric and allopatric populations of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus , Folia Parasitologica 58 ...
Body mass, fork length, RNA:DNA ratio, specific growth rate, and hepatic EROD activity and CYP1A expression, were measured in three-spined sticklebacks in the River Ray (south west England) at sites downstream of an urban waste water treatment works (WWTW) prior to, and following, remediation of the effluent with granular activated carbon (GAC) tertiary treatment. During the same two-year period fish were also sampled from a neighbouring reference river (R. Ock). The WWTW effluent elevated water temperatures and nutrient content in the R. Ray and rendered a direct comparison of fish populations in the two rivers untenable. Instead, the stability of population parameters within each river during matched pre- and post-remediation periods was compared. Stickleback populations in both rivers were annual but fish in the R. Ray spawned earlier and were larger than those in the R. Ock. In the R. Ray fish gained mass throughout the winter months whereas in the R. Ock growth was much reduced during this ...
Allen, G.R. 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guniea.. Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. and Allen, M. 2002. Field guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth.. Bester, C. 2004. Striped Mullet. Biological profiles. Available at: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/StripedMullet/StripedMullet.html. (Accessed: 16 October 2005).. Bianchi, G., Carpenter, K.E., Roux, J.-P., Molloy, F.J., Boyer, D. and Boyer, H.J. 1999. Field guide to the living marine resources of Namibia. FAO, Rome, Italy.. Blaber, S.J.M. 1976. The food and feeding ecology of Mugilidae in the St. Lucia lake systems. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 8: 267-277.. Cardona, L. 2000. Effects of salinity on the habitat selection and growth performance of Mediterranean flathead grey mullet Mugil cephalus (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 50: 727-737.. Carpenter, K.E., Krupp, F., Jones, D.A. ...
Fish guide for Millennium Rainbowfish, Glossolepis pseudoincisus, Tami River Rainbowfish profile with pictures and description, Millennium Rainbowfish care, habitat, diet and behaviors, keeping the rainbow fish aquarium, Lake Ifaten Rainbowfish
rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms=http://purl.org/dc/terms/ xmlns:dc=http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ xmlns:rdf=http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# xmlns:bibo=http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/ xmlns:dspace=http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0# xmlns:foaf=http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ xmlns:void=http://rdfs.org/ns/void# xmlns:xsd=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema# , ,rdf:Description rdf:about=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/7575, ,dc:creator,Meyer, Axel,/dc:creator, ,dcterms:abstract xml:lang=eng,In contrast to the majority of vertebrate species, primary male parental care is common in fishes and encompasses a remarkable diversity of adaptations. Seahorses and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae) exhibit some of the most specialized forms of paternal care in animals and so are ideally suited to the study of the evolution of male parental care. During mating, female syngnathids transfer eggs to specialized morphological structures that are located on ...
Seahorses are a fascinating species to observe. I took my nephew to the National Aquarium in DC this past weekend and we were memorized by the aquatic centaurian-like bony fish (pictured right). Ive written about seahorses in the past, and from the traffic of that post I can tell that a seahorse post is much appreciated by the BCS readers, so I thought Id take a some time to delve into more of their hallmark traits.. Here are 5 more fun facts about seahorses to add to the list (written almost 3 years ago!). Please feel free to comment below or email [email protected] if you have something youd love to share about seahorses!. ...
Seahorses are used in the treatment of a wide range of health problems under the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is a complementary and alternative system of medicine (CAM). You can refer to my article - The Basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to learn the fundamentals of TCM. Seahorses are employed in the treatment of sexual weakness, reduced sexual desire or drive (reduced libido; libido means sexual desire or sex drive), and are considered as broad-spectrum or general tonics. The practitioners of TCM claim that seahorses strengthen kidneys and improve nerves, which in the context of Traditional Chinese Medicine points to general morale, well-being, and vigor. kidneys also imply sexual function in the context of TCM. Seahorses are categorized under sweet, salty, and warm medicines. They are usually not prescribed alone but in combo-preparations (formulations containing multiple ingredients) containing matter from other animals and plants.. Continue reading → ...
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Nature 428, 717-723 (2004) In this Article, we showed that Pitx1 maps to the major locus controlling pelvic reduction in sticklebacks and shows altered expression, but not altered amino-acid sequence, in a pelvic-reduced population. Owing to a technical error, Figs 3 and 4 of the Article incorrectlyshow results from a Pitx1 sense probe, rather than from an antisense probe.
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Genome-wide scans identified several genomic regions subject to divergent selection in each watershed. Given the density of markers used, the outlier SNPs are probably linked to selected haplotypes, rather than representing causative adaptive mutations. The proportion of adaptive genetic variation detected is dependent on both the number of markers and the level of linkage disequilibrium across the genome. Overall, our genomic coverage is roughly one SNP every 600 kb (450 Mb/760 evenly spaced SNPs) with some areas of higher coverage owing to the candidate SNPs on the array (n = 280). So, while our coverage is substantially higher than many previous scans of sticklebacks [38,39], ours is almost certainly not an exhaustive catalogue of the genomic loci under divergent selection. Overall, we identified 21 stringently defined outlier regions; eight of these were from the evenly distributed SNP group (i.e. approx. 1% of these non-candidate SNPs were outliers). This is low compared with 2-10% of loci ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Isolation, purification and characterization of a trypsin from the pyloric ceca of mullet (Mugil cephalus). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
de Oliveira Armesto, L. & Freret-Meurer, N. V., 2012: Testing for camouflage of the Brazilian seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Syngnathidae) using the territorial damselfish Stegastes fuscus (Cuvier) (Pomacentridae). aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, 18 (3): 165-170 ...
Experiments are often carried out in the laboratory under artificial conditions. Although this can control for confounding factors, it may eliminate important factors that under natural conditions mediate the interaction under investigation. Here, we show that different results can be gained in the field and in the laboratory regarding host-parasite interaction. In the field, courting three-spined stickleback males, Gasterosteus aculeatus, were less often infected with plerocercoids of a cestode tapeworm, Schistocephalus solidus, than shoaling males. However, when a random sample of males was allowed to nest and court females in individual aquaria in the laboratory, both uninfected and infected males built nests and courted females. Moreover, while the few infected males that courted females in the field expressed less red nuptial coloration than uninfected courting males, there was no difference in redness between infected and uninfected males in the laboratory. We argue that the different ...
MODEL RELEASED. Seahorse research. Marine biologist feeding seahorses (Hippocampus sp.) in a tank. These seahorses are part of a breeding program designed to repopulate areas of the Mediterranean Sea in which they have become endangered. Seahorses typically eat small crustaceans. Photographed at the Anton Dohrn zoological station in Naples, Italy. - Stock Image G352/0101
The three-spined stickleback is a funny sort of a fish. Theyre somewhat non-distinct: drabbish silver, small, and minnow-like, native to salt- and freshwater bodies throughout most of the Northern hemisphere. However, different stickleback populations have evolved very distinct morphological traits, demonstrating a natural diversity that makes them an ideal candidate in which to examine the mechanics of adaptive evolution and ecology. More strikingly, they display a wide number of behaviors related to breeding, territorial disputes, and foraging that make them fascinating models for the study of animal behavior, particularly as to how genomics can both influence and be influenced by social dynamics.. A new grant through the National Science Foundations Enabling Discovery through GEnomic Tools (EDGE) program promises to expand our knowledge of this foundational fish species. The $1.7 million dollar, three year award is led by Principal Investigator and biologist Daniel Bolnick (University of ...
One of the most definitive examples of a vertebrate extraorganismal structural protein can be found in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In the breeding male the kidney hypertrophies and synthesizes an adhesive protein called spiggin, which is secreted into the urinary bladder from where it is employed as a structural thread for nest building. This paper describes the first molecular characterization of spiggin and demonstrates that this adhesive is a protein complex assembled from a potential of three distinct subunits (alpha, beta, and gamma). These subunits arise by alternative splicing, and 11-ketoandrogens induce their expression in stickleback kidneys. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of each subunit reveals a modular organization whose structural elements display a similarity to the multimerization domains found within von Willebrand Factor-related proteins. These results implicate that spiggin utilizes a conserved multimerization mechanism for the ...
COSEWIC. 2010. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Vananda Creek Benthic and Limnetic Threespine Stickleback Species Pair Gasterosteus aculeatus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa.
The ability to maintain internal ion homeostasis in freshwater or saltwater has enabled euryhaline fishes to colonize a wide range of aquatic habitats. However, the energetic cost of this osmoregulation is high because it involves active transport mechanisms that pump ions against electrochemical gradients, often occurring at the gill epithelia-water interface. For euryhaline populations presently occupying stable environmental salinities, will relaxed selection on hypo- or hyperosmoregulation result in a loss of that capacity, or alternatively, can these fish still acclimate to a wide range of salinities? My research seeks to answer this question in a Pacific northwest lineage of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) consisting of distinct anadromous and lake ecotypes, which descended from an extant marine ancestor following the glacial retreat ca. 10,000 years ago. I raised embryos from each group at a common salinity and later transferred juveniles into either freshwater (,0.5 ppt) ...
The ability to maintain internal ion homeostasis in freshwater or saltwater has enabled euryhaline fishes to colonize a wide range of aquatic habitats. However, the energetic cost of this osmoregulation is high because it involves active transport mechanisms that pump ions against electrochemical gradients, often occurring at the gill epithelia-water interface. For euryhaline populations presently occupying stable environmental salinities, will relaxed selection on hypo- or hyperosmoregulation result in a loss of that capacity, or alternatively, can these fish still acclimate to a wide range of salinities? My research seeks to answer this question in a Pacific northwest lineage of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) consisting of distinct anadromous and lake ecotypes, which descended from an extant marine ancestor following the glacial retreat ca. 10,000 years ago. I raised embryos from each group at a common salinity and later transferred juveniles into either freshwater (,0.5 ppt) ...
ID G3PKD3_GASAC Unreviewed; 705 AA. AC G3PKD3; DT 16-NOV-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-NOV-2011, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 38. DE SubName: Full=BRF1, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor b {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063}; OS Gasterosteus aculeatus (Three-spined stickleback). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Actinopterygii; Neopterygii; Teleostei; Neoteleostei; Acanthomorphata; OC Eupercaria; Perciformes; Cottioidei; Gasterosteales; Gasterosteidae; OC Gasterosteus. OX NCBI_TaxID=69293 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007635}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RA Lindblad-Toh K., Mauceli E., Grabherr M., Chang J.L., Lander E.S.; RL Submitted (JAN-2006) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. RN [2] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063} RP IDENTIFICATION. RG Ensembl; RL Submitted (SEP-2011) to ...
There is probably no organisms without parasites or pathogens. Such a sentence points towards the crucial role that parasites play in the evolution of their hosts. Using experiments conducting in our lab, I will argue that parasites represent a classic natural selection pressure to which their hosts genetically adapt. Furthermore, I will show that non-genetic inheritance of parasite resistance/tolerance can evolve when parents and offspring share the same parasitic environments. Lastly, placing host-parasite interactions in a broad ecological context, I will demonstrate that parasites drive eco-evolutionary feedbacks. For this seminar, I will focus on the three-spined stickleback fish, an established model system for evolutionary and ecological studies.. ...
Attracting a mate can be really tricky in the marine world. A new study on three-spined stickleback fish has found that females do not always trust males who emit strong sexual signals.
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Seahorse is one of the marine living resources usually used as ornamental fish, traditional medicinal materials, and souvenirs. The purpose of the study was to determine the proximate composition of wet and dry seahorses, determine the profile of amino acid hydrolyzate and powder of seahorses, and determines to content of bioactive compounds from the ethanol extract of seahorses on qualitatively. The sample of this study is seahorses obtained from nature. Prviously, seahorses were morphometric identified, subsequently, seahorses were made of the powder, hydrolyzate, and ethanol extract. Several analyzes used were qualitative analysis of proximate, amino acid, and phytochemical analysis. Morphometric identification results indicate that the type is Hippocampus comes. The proximate composition is water content is 66.16 ± 0.33% (wet) and 10.33 ± 0.16% (dry), ash content of 9.55 ± 0.15% (wet) and 9.65 ± 0.16% (dry), lipid content 1.18 ± 0.23% (wet) and 4.89 ± 0.37% (dry), protein content of ...
Fish: Seahorses and pipefishes - marine biology (characteristics, ecology and range, behavior), underwater photography, links, books
Natural History This slender seahorse grows to about seven inches long. Males are often bright orange and the females yellow; both may be covered in brown or white spots, and may turn pink or white during courtship. They are found in coral reefs and sea grass beds and occasionally in the midwater of the Atlantic from North Carolina to Florida, and from the Caribbean down to Brazil. Males can carry broods of up to 1,000 young in their pouches, with larger males carrying even more young. Conservation Of the thousands of longsnouts born in each brood, only one or two may live to become adults and raise broods of their own. In the past, thats been enough to keep their populations healthy. But today, collectors take tons to dry and sell as souvenirs. The more that are taken, the fewer that are left to reproduce-putting longsnout populations in danger. Cool Facts As with other seahorses, when longsnout seahorses mate, the female deposits her eggs into a special pouch on the males belly. The pouch seals
In addition to aggressive contexts, many fishes produce water movements that could be used as mechanosensory signals during their courtship repertoire. For example, body quivers, in which males display and vibrate their bodies while in close proximity to a female, are a common courtship behavior. Furthermore, some male fish produce tail waggles to encourage a sexually receptive female to spawn. Male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) use a zig-zag dance to court gravid females (Tinbergen, 1951; Tinbergen and Van Iersel, 1947), and in many species of wrasses, terminal-phase (i.e. dominant, territory-holding and reproductively competent) males combine intense body vibrations with rapid tail beats while swimming back and forth over a potential mate (Robertson and Hoffman, 1977). Despite the obvious use of hydrodynamic signal-generating behaviors, only a few studies have examined the role of mechanosensation during reproductive encounters. Because any signals produced during ...
Male pregnancy is the incubation of one or more embryos or fetuses by male members of some species. In nearly all heterogamous animal species, offspring are ordinarily carried by the female until birth, but in fish of the Syngnathidae family (pipefish, seahorses and the leafy seadragon), males perform this function. Some humans who, based on their gender identity, are men have become pregnant. Male humans incubating fetuses are also a recurring theme in speculative fiction. The Syngnathidae family of fish has the unique characteristic of a highly derived form of male brood care referred to as male pregnancy. The family is highly diverse, containing around 300 different species of fish. Included in Syngnathidae are seahorses, the pipefish, and the weedy and leafy seadragons. The males of some of these species possess a brood pouch on the trunk or tail; in other species, the eggs are merely attached to the males trunk or tail when the female lays them. Although biologists definitions of ...
Article Exposure to the pesticide linuron affects androgen‐dependent gene expression in the three‐spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Previous research demonstrated that exposure to exogenous androgens and effluents with androgenic activity ...
The evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites often results in adaptations, which may differ between populations. Investigation of such local adaptation becomes increasingly important to understand dynamics of host-parasite interactions and co-evolution. To this end we performed an infection experiment involving pairs of three-spined sticklebacks and their tapeworm parasite Schistocephalus solidus from three geographically separated origins (Germany, Spain and Iceland) in a fully-crossed design for sympatric and allopatric host/parasite combinations. We hypothesized that local adaptation of the hosts results in differences in parasite resistance with variation in parasite infection rates and leukocyte activation, whereas parasites from different origins might differ in virulence reflected in host exploitation rates (parasite indices) and S. solidus excretory-secretory products (SsESP) involved in immune manipulation. In our experimental infections, sticklebacks from Iceland were more ...
Seahorses are marine fishes and they belong to the family Syngnathidae. Their look and behaviour is much different in comparison to the other fishes. Fishes that belong to the order Syngnathiformes are special because only the mail becomes pregnant. Male cares the eggs in his brood pouch. Today, we recognise 49 species of seahorses, but probably this is not the final number. Seahorses are threatened by overexploitation for tradicional medicines, aquarium fishes and souvenirs. Also, many human activites are degrading and destroying their habitats. Seahorses are vulnerable to overexploitation because of their behaviour and ecology. These fishes are important predators on benthic organisms, so removing them may well disrupt ecosystems. All seahorse species are listed in CITES Appendix II and IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Listing in Appendix II is intended to ensure that future use of the species is undertaken in a sustainable manner ...
Author: Hammerschmidt, Katrin et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2007-06; Keywords: Schistocephalus solidus; Macrocyclops albidus; Gasterosteus aculeatus; cestode; copepod; fish; histology; intestinal wall; host-parasite interaction; cercomer; penetration; post-exposure; beta-galactose-1,3N-acetylgalactosamine; N-acetylglucosamine; Title: Schistocephalus solidus: Establishment of tapeworms in sticklebacks - fast food or fast lane?
Seahorses compose the fish genus Hippocampus within the family Syngnathidae, in order Syngnathiformes. Syngnathidae also includes the pipefishes. Hippocampus comes from the Ancient Greek hippos meaning horse and kampos meaning sea monster .. There are about 40 species of seahorse. They are mainly found in shallow tropical and temperate waters throughout the world. They prefer to live in sheltered areas such as seagrass beds, coral reefs, or mangroves. Colonies have been found in European waters such as the Thames Estuary. From North America down to South America there are approximately four species, ranging from the very small (dwarf seahorses are only about 2.5 centimeters (1 in) to much larger specimens off the Pacific Coast of Central America (the foot-long H. ingens). H. erectus are larger seahorses that range from Nova Scotia to around Uruguay. Three species live in the Mediterranean Sea: H. hippocampus (long snout), H. brevirostris (short snout) and H. fuscus (immigrated from the Red ...
Host genotype - parasite genotype co-evolutionary dynamics are influenced by local biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. This results in spatially heterogeneous selection among host populations. How such heterogeneous selection influences host resistance, parasite infectivity and virulence remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that different co-evolutionary trajectories of a vertebrate host-parasite association result in specific virulence patterns when assessed on a large geographic scale. We used two reference host populations of three-spined sticklebacks and nine strains of their specific cestode parasite Schistocephalus solidus from across the Northern Hemisphere for controlled infection experiments. Host and parasite effects on infection phenotypes including host immune gene expression were determined. S. solidus strains grew generally larger in hosts coming from a population with high parasite diversity and low S. solidus prevalence (DE hosts). Hosts from a population with low parasite
Tinbergens Legacy in Behaviour: Sixty Years of Landmark Stickleback Papers. This publication lines vital medical advances in ethology, evolutionary biology, ecology, ecotoxicology and developmental genetics made attainable throughout the stickleback version through a range of key papers released within the first 60 years of Behaviour in addition to statement and retrospective essays.. In a flurry of post-war productiveness, Niko Tinbergen re-established his lab in Leiden, wrote landmark papers and his well-known ebook The research of Instinct, and based the magazine Behaviour to serve the burgeoning box of ethology. Tinbergen and his senior assistant, Jan van Iersel, released their vintage paper, Displacement reactions within the three-spined stickleback, within the first factor of his new magazine in 1948. Stickleback are actually a strong version within the fields of behavioural ecology, evolutionary biology, developmental genetics, and ecotoxicology - a unprecedented improvement for ...
The concentration of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn) in the water, sediment and fish (Mugil cephalus) were investigated from different sites on Köyceğiz Lagoon System. Potential ecological risk analysis of heavy metal concentrations in sediments underlined considerable ecological risk for two sites of the lagoon during winter and spring. The ratio of transfer factors of Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, and As in fish from water was higher than 1, which means that fish undergo bioaccumulation of these elements from lagoon water. The determination of individual Target Hazard Quotients (THQs) in fish tissue indicated safe levels for the local people, but there is a possible risk in terms of total THQ because the highest THQ value of As suggests that they may experience a certain degree of adverse health effect.
A technique has been elaborated that enabled the plerocercoid larvae of Schistocephalus solidus to be removed from the body cavity of Gasterosteus aculeatus without bacterial contamination. Larvae were cultured in plugged test-tubes under completely aseptic conditions in a variety of balanced salines, glucose salines and nutrient peptone broth.. The most successful results were obtained with peptone broth at room temperatures (16-19° C) in which plerocercoids remained active and showed normal behaviour for periods up to 300 days. In ¾ strength Lockes solution, which was found by experiment to be approximately isotonic with Schistocephalus (δ = -0.44 ± 0.02° C), the mean period of normal behaviour was 114 days. In the remaining saline and saline-glucose media, the mean viability and period of normal behaviour was considerably less.. In the plerocercoid, histological examination revealed that the genitalia are in an immature condition. During cultivation at room temperatures, the genitalia ...
This study assessed the effect of starvation on survival and nutritional status of newborn juveniles H. erectus (,10 days) to optimize rearing protocols, thereby helping to reduce wildlife exploitation. Maximum starvation time (MST) was estimated through the survival of juveniles continuously starved from birth. Resistance to starvation and the effect of food re-introduction after 1, 2, 4 and 6 days of starvation on survival and metabolite concentrations (total proteins, total lipids, acylglycerides, cholesterol, glucose) were also determined. Survival amongst continuously starved animals decreased from 6.6 ± 0.5 to 0% from days 9 to 10 of starvation. Seahorses under different starvation-refeeding treatments all had 100% survival up to day 5 of experiments. After 10 days, however, a 4-day starvation period followed by refeeding showed negative effects with ,50% survival. During continuous starvation, lipids were the first energy reserve used to maintain basal metabolism, followed by proteins. ...
With armoured bodies and limited swimming abilities, seahorses are unlike other fish. Discover facts about these unusual animals.
Seahorses are used in the treatment of a wide range of health problems under the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is a complementary and alternative system of medicine (CAM). You can refer to my article - The Basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to learn the fundamentals of TCM. Seahorses are employed in the treatment of sexual weakness, reduced sexual desire or drive (reduced libido; libido means sexual desire or sex drive), and are considered as broad-spectrum or general tonics. The practitioners of TCM claim that seahorses strengthen kidneys and improve nerves, which in the context of Traditional Chinese Medicine points to general morale, well-being, and vigor. kidneys also imply sexual function in the context of TCM. Seahorses are categorized under sweet, salty, and warm medicines. They are usually not prescribed alone but in combo-preparations (formulations containing multiple ingredients) containing matter from other animals and plants.. Continue reading → ...
Effect of tank colour on |i|Artemia|/i| ingestion, growth and survival in cultured early juvenile pot-bellied seahorses (|i|Hippocampus abdominalis|/i|)
Reinert, T.R., Straight, C.A., & Freeman, B.J. (2006). Effectiveness of atimycin-a as a toxicant for control of invasive asian swamp eels. Fisheries Management, 26(4), 949-952. Retrieved from http://apps.webofknowledge.com.libez.lib.georgiasouthern.edu/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=Refine&qid=4&SID=2BfFR1t5niYH3IZmr7n&page=1&doc= ...
Sporulation and Survival of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Different Types of Commercial Cat Litter. J. P. DUBEY, L. R. FERREIRA, J. MARTINS, and J. L. JONES. 751 Polypocephalus sp. Infects the Nervous System and Increases Activity of Commercially Harvested White Shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus). NADIA CARREON, ZEN FAULKES, and BRIAN L. FREDENSBORG .. . 755 Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Gastrointestinal Helminths Infecting Four Lake Whitefish (Coregonus dupeaformis) Stocks in Northern Lakes Michigan and Huron, U.S.A. MOHAMED FAISAL, WALIED FAYED, ABDELAZIZ NOUR, and TRAVIS BRENDEN. ... . 760 Do Heavy Burdens of Schistocephalus solidus in Juvenile Threespine Stickleback Result in Disaster for the Parasite? DAVID C. HEINS and JOHN A. BAKER. 775 Structure of Parasite Component Communities of Didelphid Marsupials: Insights From a Comparative Study. F. AGUSTIN JIMÉNEZ, FRANÇOIS CATZEFLIS, and SCOTT L. GARDNER. 779 Complex Interactions Among a Nematode Parasite (Daubaylia potomaca), a Commensalistic Annelid
Imprinting on ecologically divergent traits of odour and body coloration produces sexual isolation in benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. As odour or body coloration diverged owing to species differences in ecology, imprinting could have rapidly driven divergence in mate preference and sexual isolation between species would have resulted. Therefore, imprinting has turned odour and nuptial coloration into magic traits. Previous work has identified other components of pre- and post-mating isolation in sticklebacks which are ecologically dependent [13,15,21]. These mechanisms combine with imprinting to produce strong isolation between these incipient species. Speciation in benthics and limnetics appears to be driven by ecological divergence in multiple dimensions [40]. Imprinting may also play a role in other stickleback species pairs and the adaptive radiation of sticklebacks worldwide [41].. Our results provide new insight into the role of imprinting in speciation, providing an explanation for the ...
The symbolic meaning of seahorse is quite intricate and diverse as this little creature itself is full of surprises. The seahorse is quite a unique creature, and thought to have mystical significance among the Ancient Greeks, European (alchemists) and Asians. Symbolic meaning of Seahorses carry the following significances: Patience, Friendliness, Protection, Inflexibility, Perspective, Generosity/Sharing, High-Perception, Persistence, and Contentment. A relatively calm, and mild-mannered creature, the seahorse is seemingly content to roam the seas. Their bodies are geared for ambling-type motion - not for speed. Thus, they are symbolic of patience and contentment - they are happy with being where they are, and are in no hurry for advancement. Further testimony to these attributes is the lack of evolution of the seahorses body style. They have remained with this body style without change since their inception. Content to be who they are, and not feeling the need to change - these are a few ...
Define -cephalus. -cephalus synonyms, -cephalus pronunciation, -cephalus translation, English dictionary definition of -cephalus. n combining form denoting a cephalic abnormality: hydrocephalus. Collins English Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins...
There are about 40 species of seahorse are mainly found in shallow tropical and temperate waters throughout the world. They prefer to live in sheltered areas such as seagrass beds, coral reefs, or mangroves. Colonies have been found in European waters such as the Thames Estuary. From North America down to South America there are approximately four species, ranging from the very small (dwarf seahorses are only about 2.5 centimeters (1 in) to much larger specimens off the Pacific Coast of Central America (the foot-long H. ingens). H. erectus are larger seahorses that range from Nova Scotia to around Uruguay. Three species live in the Mediterranean Sea: H. hippocampus (long snout), H. brevirostris (short snout) and H. fuscus (immigrated from the Red Sea). These fish form territories, with males staying in about 1 square metre (11 sq ft) of their habitat while females range about one hundred times that area. They bob around in sea grass meadows, mangrove stands, and coral reefs where they adopt ...
1. Introduction. The main fishing resources in Brazil have long been overexploited, so that regulatory measures have been taken to prevent the collapse of fisheries (Peres et al., 2001). Some management measures are developed from common knowledge and long-term observation in traditional management systems, such as limited access, seasonal limits, protection of reproductive stocks or juveniles, among others (Berkes et al., 2006). Those measures do not often reach the goal to which they are created, that is, to preserve stocks.. Small-scale fisheries are of great social and economic importance in the fisheries sector, being responsible for a large number of jobs in coastal communities. According to IBAMA (2008), fishing contributes approximately 65.2% of national production of fish in coastal waters. From about 25 thousand vessels of the national fleet, around 23 thousand correspond to the small scale fleet (Dias-Neto and Marrul-Filho, 2003).. The Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida Estuarine ...
Usually lives in schools. Males reproduce for the first time at two years, females at three. Females larger than males. Spawns pelagic eggs in May-August, rarely until early October. Juveniles around 20 mm SL move to coastal lagoons and estuaries in summer and autumn. Juveniles feed on zooplankton until about 30 mm SL, then on benthic organisms until 50 mm SL; adults feed on algae, vegetal detritus and sediment ...
The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can survive long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and acclimate from fresh to brackish water. This study was undertaken to clone and sequence gdh expressed in the liver, intestine and brain of M. albus, to verify whether more than one form of gdh were expressed, and to examine the gdh mRNA expressions in these three organs in fish exposed to various adverse conditions using quantitative real-time PCR. Only one gdh gene sequence, consisted of a 133 bp 5 UTR, a CDS region spanning 1629 bp and a 3 UTR of approximately 717 bp, was obtained from the liver, intestine and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence from the liver of M. albus had 542 residues and was confirmed to be Gdh1a. It had sequence identity of |90% with Oncorhynchus mykiss Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1, Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a and Tribolodon hakonensis Gdh1a, and formed a monophyletic clade with B.
53. Glippa O, Brutemark A, Johnson J, Spilling K, Candolin U, Engström-Öst J: Early development of the threespine stickleback larvae in relation to water pH. Frontiers in Marine Science (in press). 52. Engström-Öst, J, Barrett, NJ, Brutemark, A, Vehmaa, A, Dwyer, A, Almén, A-K, De Stasio B (2017) Feeding, survival and reproduction of two populations of Eurytemora (Copepoda) exposed to local toxic cyanobacteria. Journal of Great Lakes Research 43:1091-1100. Abstract. 51. Jacobsen L & Engström-Öst J: Coping with environments - vegetation, turbidity and abiotics. In: (Eds. Nilsson A & Skov C), Biology and ecology of pike, CRC Press. (in press). 50. Almén A-K, Brutemark A, Jutfelt F, Riebesell U & Engström-Öst J (2017) Ocean acidification shows no detectable effect on swimming activity and body size in a common copepod. Hydrobiologia 802: 235-243.. 49. Almén A-K, Glippa O, Pettersson H, Alenius P, Engström-Öst J (2017) Changes in wintertime pH and hydrography of the Gulf of Finland with ...
The current study was undertaken to describe the present status of sablefish aquaculture in the U.S. and elsewhere, and to perform an initial assessment of the financial viability of a sablefish aquaculture industry that utilizes existing technology, including use of all-female rearing stocks that have been developed at NMFSs Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC). In addition, the study examines prospective markets for farmed sablefish, the possibility of broadening the overall market for both farmed and commercial sablefish, and the potential economic effects that expansion of sablefish aquaculture could have on commercial sablefish fisheries ...
Fish held in hypo or hyperosmotic environments would show additional energy requirements for osmoregulation that could hamper growth when compared to those kept at an isosmotic environment (Boeuf & Payan, 2001; Tsuzuki et al., 2007; Herrera et al., 2009; Pérez-Robles ., 2012Pérez-Robles, J., A. D. Re, I. Giffard-Mena & F. Díaz. 2012. Interactive effects of salinity on oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion, osmoregulation and Na+/K+-ATPase expression in the bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus, Jenyns 1842). Aquaculture Research, 43: 1372-1383.). Energy cost associated with osmoregulation may vary at the different ontogenetic developmental stages. In addition, response to salinity has shown to be highly variable among fish species. This variation is likely associated with the interaction between osmoregulatory mechanisms with other physiological processes (Jobling, 1994; Imsland et al., 2002Imsland, A. K., A. Foss, S. W. Bonga, E. V. Ham & S. O. Stefansson. 2002. Comparison of growth and ...
Purpose: Evaluation of possibilities of obtaining type I fibrillar collagen from fish skin using the Black Sea marine resources and suitable cross-linking agent for this one to stay stable at body or room temperature. Materials and methods: Collagen has been extracted from the skin of the Grey mullet and Sturgeon by the acidic method with Acetic acid 0.5M. Cross-linking has been performed by using Tanic acid at 4-6oC. The rheological behaviour was determined by using a Haake VT 550 rheo-viscometer. Results: The collagen was isolated from the skin of Gray mullet and Sturgeon. (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii). Hydrogels have a pseudoplastic behavior. Tanic acid was used for cross-linking like a better alternative, eliminating the toxicity of glutaraldehyde. Conclusion. The yield of collagen extraction was higher for the Gray mullet skin, than Sturgeon. Pseudo-plastic behavior allows them to be successfully applied in the treatment of wounds. The isolated type I collagen may serve as an attractive alternative
Synbranchiella gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Synbranchiella mabelae sp. n. (Proteocephalidae: Monticelliinae) from the intestine of the marbled swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, in the River Colastin , a tributary of the middle Rive...
These are the tropical field pre-course presentation outlines and papers for 2007 Tropical Marine Ecology of the Bahamas and Tropical Ecosystems of Costa Rica.
As much as I disagree with this practice and find their appearance distasteful, I have also heard that many of the halter type Arabian pictures are heavily photoshopped to make their faces look more dished (I also think the flared nostrils make it look more dished as well). Also, the skull shape apparently has no affect on their breathing/nasal passages. Even though I think the halter Arabians are poorly conformed (completely flat croup and super fine bone--blegh!), I dont think their welfare is compromised by their appearances. Their behavior in the halter classes, on the other hand ...
12/20/08 Past due for an entry in the Health Diary and the fact of the matter is that I was riding kind of low after my last infusion. The usual wiriness (plus an excess of spasticity, i.e. shaky legs) kicked in, then I was in the manual wheelchair in Illinois, but came back with a slight cold, which dragged me down again. I got quickly reaccustomed to the scooter, then made it almost through the week, when-- ironically, since I had another infusion in the morning--I fell in the bathroom at work again Friday afternoon. I didnt hurt myself and was quickly put back up on the scooter thanks to colleages Joni and Joyce, but it gets worse. My scooter, recently repaired, had been slowing down again when going in reverse, indicating the same damned problem (a design flaw, in my opinion) that was just fixed. Of course Murphys Law kicked in when I made a mental note to deal with the scooter as soon as the cold was gone and I was back to normal. At 11 PM last night, BeBe decides not another inch ...
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Vertebrate populations rarely are homogeneous. Instead they exist as arrays of demographically variable subpopulations that are linked through dispersal. Variation in habitat quality is a major cause of demographic variability among subpopulations, but few studies have examined habitat-specific demography empirically. Here I present a detailed field study o f habitat-specific demography in Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) that occupied a habitat mosaic landscape in south-central Florida. By measuring habitat-specific demographic parameters, including density, reproductive output, survival, and dispersal, I tested for the existence of population sources and sinks associated with different habitats, and the applicability ofa series ofhabitat selection models using the observed habitat occupancy distribution. Because estimates of density were integral to this study, I evaluated the efficacy of three common density-estimating techniques by comparing derived estimates with actual density of Blue Jays across a
Allen, G.R., 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Publication, no. 9. 268 p. Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guinea. (Ref. 2847 ...
Tallinn Transport Department is still in the process of adjusting traffic lights on the citys new Reidi Road to ensure the best possible traffic flow, but hopes to wrap up the process by spring.
Male Jayakars seahorse camouflaged in seagrass habitat - View amazing Jayakars seahorse photos - Hippocampus jayakari - on Arkive
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Article: Martinez-Palacios CA, Salgado-Garcia RL, Racotta IS & Ross L (2008) Effects of salinity on eggs, larvae, and juveniles of blacknose silversides from Lake Chapala, Mexico. |i|North American Journal of Aquaculture|/i|, 70 (1), pp. 12-19. https://doi.org/10.1577/A06-026.1
On-line social networks, such as Facebook, are increasingly utilized by many users. These networks allow people to publish details about themselves and connect to their friends. Some of the information revealed inside these networks is private and it is possible that corporations could use learning algorithms on the released data to predict undisclosed private information. In this paper, we explore how to launch inference attacks using released social networking data to predict undisclosed private information about individuals. We then explore the effectiveness of possible sanitization techniques that can be used to combat such inference attacks under different scenarios. social network data could be used to predict some individual private trait that a user is not willing to disclose (e.g., political or religious affiliation) and explore the effect of possible data sanitization alternatives on preventing such private information leakage. To our knowledge this is the first comprehensive paper ...
Milinski, M. , Griffiths, S. , Wegner, M. , Reusch, T. B. H. , Haas-Assenbaum, A. and Boehm, T. (2005): Mate choice decisions of stickleback females predictably modified by MHC peptide ligands , Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the U.S.A ...
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While the absence of genes directly encoding MHC class II molecules was similar to the situation in cod [6], the receptor encoding gene (CD8β), which is involved in MHC I recognition via the T-cell receptor (TCR) was absent in pipefish but not cod (table 1). Note that CD8β is not mandatory for a MHC I mediated immune response, as CD8α molecules may function as a homodimer [16]. The antigen recognizing TCR γ was also absent. Because the majority of TCRs consist of α/β-heterodimers, functionality of the TCR is still likely [17].. As opposed to cod, where the CD4+-receptor was truncated and non-functional, this gene could not be identified among pipefish transcripts. For the invariant-chain gene, our annotation returned two contigs that aligned almost perfectly to each other, suggesting the same transcript. When translated into the appropriate amino acid sequence, the putative gene model revealed a stop codon approximately 20 amino acid distant from the 3′-end of the gene in other teleosts ...
Stock Photo of Harlequin Ghost Pipefish. High Quality Harlequin Ghost Pipefish Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
Stock Photo of Harlequin Ghost Pipefish. High Quality Harlequin Ghost Pipefish Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.