obstructive sleep apnea vs central sleep apnea obstructive sleep apnea syndrome video sleep disorder center detroit mi childhood sleep disorders apnea monitor childhood sleep disorders sleep apnea symptoms sleep apnea treatment europe snore aids childhood sleep disorders Many childhood sleep problems are related to poor sleep habits or to anxiety...
BACKGROUND: Poor sleep quality (SQ) and daytime sleepiness (DS) are common in renal transplant (RTx) recipients; however, related data are rare. This study describes the prevalence and frequency of self-reported sleep disturbances in RTx recipients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 249 RTx recipients transplanted at three Swiss transplant centers. All had reported poor SQ and / or DS in a previous study. With the Survey of Sleep (SOS) self-report questionnaire, we screened for sleep and health habits, sleep history, main sleep problems and sleep-related disturbances. To determine a basis for preliminary sleep diagnoses according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), 164 subjects were interviewed (48 in person, 116 via telephone and 85 refused). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and to determine the frequencies and prevalences of specific sleep disorders. RESULTS: The sample had a mean age of 59.1 ± 11.6 years (60.2% male); mean time since ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Factor analysis of the pittsburgh sleep quality index in breast cancer survivors. AU - Otte, Julie L.. AU - Rand, Kevin L.. AU - Carpenter, Janet S.. AU - Russell, Kathleen M.. AU - Champion, Victoria L.. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - Context: Sleep is a significant problem in breast cancer survivors (BCS) and measured frequently using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Thus, it is important to evaluate its factor structure. The two-process model of sleep regulation was the theoretical framework for this study. Objectives: To perform a confirmatory factor analysis of the PSQI in BCS and compare results between African-American and Caucasian BCS. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data using local and regional health care facilities and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group referrals. The study included 1174 nondepressed BCS (90% Caucasian), with a mean age of 57 years and median PSQI global scores at the cutoff for poor sleep (median = 6.00, ...
sleep disorder centers des moines ia sleep apnea aids central apnea sleep disorders in adults dr. maas sleep disorders stop snoring hypnosis sleep disorder child sleep disorder questionnaire sleep disorders uk ways to stop snoring Sleep disorders can be effectively treated or managed once correctly diagnosed . Using Research and...
In the United States as many as forty million people suffer from chronic long term sleep disorders while as many as twenty million have occasional sleep disorders. Good health requires sleep, even though this phenomenon is not completely understood by scientists and medical professionals yet. Sleeps disorders have three major types and one of them is insomnia sleep disorder.. Insomnia is a very common sleep problem that is experienced by millions on occasion and it means a person is not able to fall asleep. A person with insomnia will have a disruption of normal daily life and they will often feel tired most of the time and end up worrying about their lack of sleep. Insomnia sleep disorder can be caused by a number of factors including excessive intake of caffeine or alcohol, emotional difficulties, stress and other underlying diseases. Lack of sleep isnt a disorder in itself, but it is an indication of inadequate sleep and can harm the immune system.. There are three categories of insomnia ...
Sleep research and sleep medicine have grown rapidly over the last thirty years, partly as a result of the discovery that REM (rapid eye movement) sleep coincided with dreaming and partly because of the discovery of sleep apnea (breathing stopping during sleep). Countries vary in how they deal with sleep disorders; in the U.S. sleep medicine is recognised as a field and it is looked after by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; other medical specialities e.g. neurology, pulmonology, psychiatry, may be influential in other countries. The sleep disorders category is broadly divided into sub-categories that deal with the specific sleep disorders as well as the institutions that regulate, diagnose and treat these disorders. Sleep is affected by the brains biological clock and so is included in this category. Shift-work sleep disorder and jet-lag are well-known problems that reflect the activity of the biological clock. This category consists of some of the major omnibus sites (SleepNet,
Do YOU Have A Sleep Disorder? is one of the many Sleep Disorders tips at LifeTips. Find related Sleep Disorders advice in the Common Sleep Disorders category.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sleep disorders and secondhand smoke exposure in the U.S. population. AU - Davila, Evelyn P.. AU - Lee, David J. AU - Fleming, Lora E.. AU - LeBlanc, William G.. AU - Arheart, Kristopher. AU - Dietz, Noella. AU - Lewis, John E. AU - McCollister, Kathryn. AU - Caban-Martinez, Alberto J. AU - Bandiera, Frank. PY - 2010/2/4. Y1 - 2010/2/4. N2 - Introduction: Sleep disorders in the United States are pervasive and have been linked to increased risk of injury, morbidity, and mortality. Smoking is a known risk factor for sleep disorders; the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and sleep disorders is less clear. We sought to examine the relationship between SHS exposure and sleep disorders among a representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 4,123). Methods: Data were from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between both smoking and SHS exposure with two measures of sleep disorder ...
Theravive - Therapy News And Blogging - Sleep disturbances are common in the United States population. Harvard Health Publications (2009), estimate that sleep problems are prevalent in at least 50% of patients receiving psychiatric treatment. This can be compared to the general population in which about 10% report sleep problems. What is not entirely clear is whether or not sleep disturbance is a symptom or a risk factor for mental health presentations.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sleep disturbance is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. AU - Grandner, Michael A.. AU - Jackson, Nicholas J.. AU - Pak, Victoria M.. AU - Gehrman, Philip R.. PY - 2012/8/1. Y1 - 2012/8/1. N2 - Existing research has demonstrated associations between sleep duration and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Sleep disorders research has shown that sleep apnoea, insomnia and other sleep disorders confer risk for cardiometabolic disease, particularly in the presence of reduced sleep duration. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between general sleep disturbance, operationalized as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping too much as measured in a large, nationally representative sample, and self-reported history of myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease, diabetes and obesity. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analysed. Complete data were available for 138201 ...
Many of us toss and turn or watch the clock when we cant sleep for a night or two. But for some, a restless night is routine.. More than 40 million Americans suffer from chronic, long-term sleep disorders, and an additional 20 million report sleeping problems occasionally, according to the National Institutes of Health.. Stress and anxiety may cause sleeping problems or make existing problems worse. And having an anxiety disorder exacerbates the problem.. Sleep disorders are characterized by abnormal sleep patterns that interfere with physical, mental, and emotional functioning. Stress or anxiety can cause a serious night without sleep, as do a variety of other problems.. Insomnia is the clinical term for people who have trouble falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, waking too early in the morning, or waking up feeling unrefreshed.. Other common sleep disorders include sleep apnea (loud snoring caused by an obstructed airway), sleepwalking, and narcolepsy (falling asleep spontaneously). ...
Aim This study examined sleep difficulties, pain and stress among women undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer(CC).. Methods Perceived distress was assessed with Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Sleep quailty was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Pain severity and interference were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), while frequency of cancer-associated pain was assessed with a single item from the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal Cancer (FACT-CC) scale Participants were assessed immediately prior to surgery and then 4-6 weeks following surgery.. Results Participants were 68 women who completed at least the PSQI at presurgery, 36 to 85 tears old ( M = 61.12, SD = 9.18). Clinically significant sleep disturbance was evident was evident in 48% of participants prior to surgery, 57% showed clinically significant sleep disturbance was associated with greater stress (p < 0.01), cancer pain frequency (p < 0.01) and pain interference (p < 0.01). ...
Methods Case control study including 47 patients diagnosed with JIA. The diagnosis of JIA was made according to the criteria of the International League of Association of Rheumatology (ILAR), and 47 healthy children, age and sex matched. Sleep was assessed by questionnaire CSHQ (childrens sleep habits questionnaire). All parents have filled the 45 items of the CSHQ, grouped into eight subscales: (1) bedtime resistance, (2) sleep onset delay, (3) sleep duration, (4) sleep anxiety, (5) sleep-disordered breathing, (6) night Wakings, (7) parasomnias, (8) morning wakening/daytime sleepiness. The disease activity was assessed by the number of painful joints, swelling, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and c-protein reactive. Functional assessment was based on the value of CHAQ Arabic validated. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale pain (VAS).. ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Concerns regarding sleep disorders in Hmong immigrants in the US emerged when an astonishingly high mortality rate of Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome (SUNDS) was documented in Hmong men. Stress, genetics, and cardiac abnormalities interacting with disordered sleep were hypothesized as contributing factors to SUNDS. Most recently, sleep apnea has been implicated in nighttime deaths of Brugada Syndrome. This syndrome is thought to comprise a spectrum of sudden cardiac death disorders, including SUNDS. However, little research since has placed SUNDS in its context of Hmong cultural beliefs, health, or the prevalence of other sleep disorders. Because the epidemiology of sleep disorders and terrifying nighttime experiences in Hmong is poorly documented, we investigated the prevalence and correlates of sleep apnea, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage related disorders, and insomnia in 3 population-based samples (collected from 1996 to 2001) comprising 747 Hmong
Preterm birth refers to the birth of a baby of less than 37 weeks gestational age. According to background information from the study, preterm birth is the leading cause of infant morbidity due to increased respiratory disease, neonatal infections, neurodevelopmental impairments and infant mortality. It is a major public health priority and the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. The rate of preterm births in the United States has increased from nine to 12 per cent in the last 25 years. Sleep disturbances are a common complaint in pregnancy and can result from a variety of physiological, hormonal and metabolic changes. The study participants included 166 pregnant women who were non-smokers and free of medications or conditions that might affect the study results. Self-reported questionnaires - including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), an 18-item questionnaire used to measure sleep quality over the previous month - were administered at 14 to 16, 24 to 26, and 30 to 32 weeks ...
Hormonal factors, pain syndromes, and psychological issues, most particularly depression, are common concerns when addressing sleep dysfunction in women. Poor sleep quality and inadequate sleep affect many of the measures of quality of life.
This small exploratory study supports previous findings that self-reported sleep disturbance predicted exacerbation of next-day symptoms in women with IBS and extends this relationship using an objective sleep measure, the study concluded, which was led by Diana Taibi Buchanan, Ph.D. The study adds further evidence that sleep quality predicts subsequent IBS symptoms, but not the converse. The findings from this small study support the importance of additional longitudinal research to further understand the relationships between sleep and IBS ...
There are more than 80 classified sleep problems. Learn about the primary sleep disorders, and how secondary sleep disorders are different.
Sleep Disorders, Read about Sleep Disorders symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Also read Sleep Disorders articles about how to live with Sleep Disorders, and more.
Sleep Disorders, Read about Sleep Disorders symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Also read Sleep Disorders articles about how to live with Sleep Disorders, and more.
National Sleep Solutions is an Accredited Sleep Disorder Center that can diagnose and treat pediatric sleep disorders.Call 1-888-884-9493.
Developing new scientists in sleep, circadian biology, and sleep disorders research is a major undertaking. The Center administers sleep and circadian research training and career development programs serving institutions and postdoctoral individuals nationwide.. As part of its efforts to ensure that research advances are utilized by health care providers, the Center has supported the development of medical school sleep disorder curricula and durable educational materials. A Sleep Academic Award (SAA) program - which was conducted in three concurrent cycles from 1996 to 2002 - improved the quality of medical school education on sleep disorders at 20 sites nationwide. A subsequent funding opportunity is supporting research to develop sleep education programs for patients and caregivers.. View the full listing of projects on NIH RePORTER funded through the SAA program. ...
Sleep problems are associated with increased risk of physical and mental illness. Identifying risk factors is an important method of reducing public health impact. We examined the association between maternal postnatal depression (PND) and offspring adolescent sleep problems.The sample was derived from Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) participants. A sample with complete data across all variables was used, with four outcome variables. A sensitivity analysis imputing for missing data was conducted (n = 9633).PND was associated with increased risk of sleep problems in offspring at ages 16 and 18 years. The most robust effects were sleep problems at 18 years [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 1 s.d. increase in PND, 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.39, p | 0.001] and waking more often (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.25, p = 0.003). This remained after controlling for confounding variables including antenatal depression and early sleep problems in infancy.PND is associated
Most people understand the important restorative value of sleep. However, the detrimental effects of sleep disorders are not as plainly understood and discussed.. Sleep disturbance is found in as many as 40% of individuals who have sustained a brain injury. Common sleep disorders include sleep apnea, difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, difficulty awaking, and difficulty in achieving beneficial cycling between the various stages of sleep. This post will discuss a few key sleep disorders, the ramifications of sleep disorders, and proper and improper solutions.. Sleep Apnea. Snoring is the most obvious indication of sleep apnea, however snoring is not conclusive of sleep apnea. In fact, the only way to determine the presence of sleep apnea is through polysomnography (a sleep study). While there are devices that offer detection via headbands and other mechanisms, our research has shown that these devices are quite inaccurate and miss the majority of individuals with sleep ...
The Sleep Disorders Clinic at Childrens Hospital & Medical Center can provide diagnosis, management and treatment of your childs sleep problems so he or she can get the vital sleep he or she needs for normal growth and development. The Sleep Disorders Clinic is staffed by the pediatric pulmonologists at Childrens.
snoring male treatment snoring mouthpiece tongue sleep apnea cure my snoring solution review problems childrens sleep disorders snore doctor apnea cure snoring causes risks childrens sleep disorders snoring pillow fda approved Sleep disorders in children can be worrisome and often even elusive of detection . Stanford Sleep and Dreams shines...
Spotting and Diagnosing Child Sleep Apnea is one of the many Sleep Disorders tips at LifeTips. Find related Sleep Disorders advice in the Sleep Apnea category.
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between sleep disorders and the behavior of subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and control subjects using specific questionnaires. A small percentage (1.8%) of the control subjects had symptoms indicative of sleep-breathing disorders (SBD) and nocturnal sweating. Fifty-nine percent of the subjects with ASD had symptoms indicative of at least one sleep disorder, with SBD the most commonly reported (38%). In the control group, the symptoms of SBD were correlated with social, thought, attentional, aggression, externalizing and behavioral problems. In the ASD group, disorders of arousal (DA) were correlated with thinking problems, and disorders of excessive somnolence were correlated with thinking and behavioral problems. These results suggest that children and adolescents with ASD have a high frequency of sleep disorders, which in turn correlate with some of the behavioral traits that they already exhibit. Furthermore, sleep ...
Sleep dysfunction is one of the primary symptoms reported by patients with psychiatric disorders, and specifically those suffering from anxiety and depressive disorders. Conversely, primary insomnia and other sleep disorders produce symptoms of mood disturbance that are quite similar to those reported by patients with psychiatric disorders.
Table of Content:. Market Overview: The report begins with this section where product overview and highlights of product and application segments of the Global Sleep Disorder Market are provided. Highlights of the segmentation study include price, revenue, sales, sales growth rate, and market share by product.. Competition by Company: Here, the competition in the Worldwide Global Sleep Disorder Market is analyzed, By price, revenue, sales, and market share by company, market rate, competitive situations Landscape, and latest trends, merger, expansion, acquisition, and market shares of top companies.. Company Profiles and Sales Data: As the name suggests, this section gives the sales data of key players of the Global Sleep Disorder Market as well as some useful information on their business. It talks about the gross margin, price, revenue, products, and their specifications, type, applications, competitors, manufacturing base, and the main business of key players operating in the Global Sleep ...
The study involved 93 people with this type of sleep disorder who had no signs of a neurodegenerative disease, such as dementia or Parkinsons disease. The participants were followed for an average of five years. During that time, 26 of the people developed a neurodegenerative disease. Fourteen developed Parkinsons disease, 11 developed dementia and were diagnosed with either Alzheimers disease or Lewy body dementia. One person developed multiple system atrophy, a rare disorder that affects movement, blood pressure and other body functions.. The estimated five-year risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease was 18 percent, with the 10-year risk at 41 percent and the 12-year risk at 52 percent.. "These results are obviously of great interest to people who have this sleep disorder and their physicians and families," said study author Ronald B. Postuma, MD of McGill University in Montreal, Canada, who carried out the studies at the sleep disorders center at the Sacre Coeur hospital, ...
Background: Treatment of sleep disorders in visually impaired children is complicated by a complex pathophysiology, a high incidence of sleep disorders in this population, and a dearth of management options. The significant impact on the health of these children and distress to their caregivers warrant a systematic assessment of the published literature on therapeutic approaches. Objective: This systematic review aims to assess the current therapeutic options in the management of sleep disorders in visually impaired children to identify knowledge gaps and guide future research. Methods: A search of primary literature was conducted using the bibliographic databases PubMed (1980-August 2010), EMBASE (1990-August 2010), Science Citation Index Expanded (1990-August 2010), and CINHAL (1992-August 2010) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Additional studies were identified through snowballing search techniques (manually by searching retrieved references and electronically by
Find sleep disorder therapists, psychologists and sleep disorder counselors in Dickerson, Maryland. Search now for detailed listings and contact a sleep disorder therapist in Dickerson that fits your needs!
Find sleep disorder therapists, psychologists and sleep disorder counselors in Hewlett, New York. Search now for detailed listings and contact a sleep disorder therapist in Hewlett that fits your needs!
Estrogen levels determine body fat distribution, and in women that fat is stored on our hips, bottom, abdomen and thighs. Fat cells manufacture and store estrogen. During the peri-menopausal years (the 10 to 15 years before menstruation ceases) and menopause (defined as one year with no periods), it is common for women to suffer a multitude of hormonal complaints. Menstrual irregularities, weight gain, hot flashes, uterine fibroids, night sweats and sleep disturbances are common complaints during this time in a womans life.. Most would think these symptoms are associated with a decline in estrogen, but they are also hallmark symptoms of low thyroid, especially night sweats and insomnia. The conventional medical treatment for menopausal women is hormone replacement therapy with estrogen (ie. Premarin derived from a pregnant horses urine) for these symptoms. And peri-menopausal women may be put on the birth control pill.. The problem with these treatments is that they can cause increased blood ...
~Sleep disturbances, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in children and can result in significant health problems if left untreated.
Pediatric sleep disorders represent highly common phenomena that often interfere with daily patient and family functioning. Interest in and treatment of sleep disturbances in youth continues to increase, but research continues to lag.
Looking for Sleep Disorder Specialists in Woodland Hills? We have compiled a list of businesses and services around Woodland Hills that should help you with your search. We hope this page helps you find Sleep Disorder Specialists in Woodland Hills.
Looking for Sleep Disorder Specialists in Bolingbrook? We have compiled a list of businesses and services around Bolingbrook that should help you with your search. We hope this page helps you find Sleep Disorder Specialists in Bolingbrook.
Can snoring be fatal? Sleep apnea, snoring, TMJ and other sleep disorders can put you in danger. Call Dr. Ron Perkins and find out how he can help you. His offices are in Dallas and Rockwall, Texas.
Schizophrenic patients commonly suffer from sleep disorders which are associated with acute disease severity, worsening prognoses and a poorer quality of life. Research is attempting to disentangle the complex interplay between schizophrenia and sleep disturbances by focusing not only on demographic and clinical characteristics, but also on the identification of genetic factors. Here, we performed a systematic literature review on the topic of genetic variations in sleep-disordered schizophrenic patients in an attempt to identify high quality investigations reporting scientifically sound and clinically useful data. For this purpose, we conducted a thorough search of PubMed, ScienceDirect and GoogleScholar databases, according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. Our search yielded 11 eligible studies. Certain genetic variations were reported to be associated with schizophrenia-related sleep disorders. Antipsychotic-induced ...
Another night of no rest passes bill and whole body aches. You feel sick to your stomach and your head hurts tremendously. The signs and symptoms of sleep deprivation and other sleep disorders are common. At first, you would think that it may be resolved by caffeine and a lot of sleep the following night, but lack of sleep continues and worsens as he passed each night. Begin to sleep at work and while driving. Caffeine does not soon work more. Many people experience every day also affects every part of his life, such as work, home and school. What is going on and why? Many reasons exist for not sleeping enough. Some people simply do not allow sufficient time for the dream that we want. Other reasons include medical and psychological conditions that make a complete break nights more difficult to obtain. Things such as these may cause more notable sleep problems e.g. insomnia and lack of sleep. Sometimes you can be suffering less apparent disorders such as sleep apnea. Whatever the problem, lack ...
America is a 24/7 lifestyle. This makes sleep--especially disruptions in sleep--a pressing concern for many Americans. According to the National Sleep Foundation (NSF), approximately 40 million Americans suffer from chronic sleep disorders, and an estimated 20-30 million others experience sleep-related problems. Chronic sleep disorders may also lead to psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia.
Just in time for the time change, VGH & UBC Hospital Foundation will present a free public event about sleep disorders, a disease that affects approximately 40% of the population. Hear from experts at the UBC Hospital Sleep Disorders Program who will share the latest in sleep care and research in an informative and engaging panel discussion emceed by CBC Early Edition host Rick Cluff. Light refreshments will be served.. Please let us know if you plan to attend by RSVPing online at: http://vghfoundation.ca/sleep or by phone at: 604.875.5164. All are welcome!. Read updates and get more info on our event page here: http://on.fb.me/1QeKI2Q. ...
Learn about free sleep screenings at UPMC Hamot for people at risk of having a sleep disorder. Contact the UPMC Hamot Sleep Disorders Center for more information.
A sleep disorder is a disorder within the sleep patterns of a person. Sleep disorders may cause a variety of diseases and pain stimuli.
Can snoring be fatal? Sleep apnea, snoring, TMJ and other sleep disorders can put you in danger. Call Dr. Ron Perkins and find out how he can help you. His offices are in Dallas and Rockwall, Texas.
Shown for the first time in such a large and diverse sample, analyzing the data of more than 130,000 people, the new research also indicated that general sleep disturbance (difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep and/or sleeping too much) may play a role in the development of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The study is published online ahead of print in the Journal of Sleep Research.. "This study is one of the largest ever to link sleep problems with important cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, stated Philip Gehrman, assistant professor of psychology in the Department of Psychiatry, clinical director of the Penn Medicine Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, and senior study author. It joins other studies that show that sleep is an important part of health, just like diet and physical activity. … As a society, we need to make healthy sleep a priority.". The researchers examined associations between sleep disturbances and other health conditions, focusing on perceived sleep ...
Shown for the first time in such a large and diverse sample, analyzing the data of more than 130,000 people, the new research also indicated that general sleep disturbance (difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep and/or sleeping too much) may play a role in the development of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The study is published online ahead of print in the Journal of Sleep Research.. "This study is one of the largest ever to link sleep problems with important cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, stated Philip Gehrman, assistant professor of psychology in the Department of Psychiatry, clinical director of the Penn Medicine Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, and senior study author. It joins other studies that show that sleep is an important part of health, just like diet and physical activity. … As a society, we need to make healthy sleep a priority.". The researchers examined associations between sleep disturbances and other health conditions, focusing on perceived sleep ...
Lifestyle Issues And Sleep Disorders This hectic lifestyle has made many of us victim of various sleep disorders. A sound sleep is what we.... Read More ...