TY - JOUR. T1 - Maximizing RNA Loading for Gene Silencing Using Porous Silicon Nanoparticles. AU - Tieu, Terence. AU - Dhawan, Sameer. AU - Haridas, V.. AU - Butler, Lisa. AU - Thissen, Helmut. AU - Cifuentes-Rius, Anna. AU - Voelcker, Nicolas H.. PY - 2019/7/3. Y1 - 2019/7/3. N2 - Gene silencing by RNA interference is a powerful technology with broad applications. However, this technology has been hampered by the instability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules in physiological conditions and their inefficient delivery into the cytoplasm of target cells. Porous silicon nanoparticles have emerged as a potential delivery vehicle to overcome these limitations-being able to encapsulate RNA molecules within the porous matrix and protect them from degradation. Here, key variables were investigated that influence siRNA loading into porous silicon nanoparticles. The effect of modifying the surface of porous silicon nanoparticles with various amino-functional molecules as well as the effects of ...
Low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) is polycrystalline silicon that has been synthesized at relatively low temperatures (~650 °C and lower) compared to in traditional methods (above 900 °C). LTPS is important for display industries, since the use of large glass panels prohibits exposure to deformative high temperatures. More specifically, the use of polycrystalline silicon in thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFT) has high potential for large-scale production of electronic devices like flat panel LCD displays or image sensors. Polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) is a pure and conductive form of the element composed of many crystallites, or grains of highly ordered crystal lattice. In 1984, studies showed that amorphous silicon (a-Si) is an excellent precursor for forming p-Si films with stable structures and low surface roughness. Silicon film is synthesized by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) to minimize surface roughness. First, amorphous silicon is deposited at 560-640 °C. ...
A process of fabricating an improved transistor on a polycrystalline silicon layer, wherein N and P type dopants, in approximate equal concentrations, are introduced into the layer, and the layer heated. The resultant modified polycrystalline silicon layer inhibits the migration of dopants, used to form the active regions of the device, during subsequent heating steps. An improved field effect transistor having a source region, a drain region, and channel region in a polycrystalline silicon layer, the improvement being that the polycrystalline silicon layer has approximately equal concentrations of N and P type dopants embodied therein, which serves to restrain movement of P/N junctions.
A method is provided for forming smooth polycrystalline silicon electrodes for molecular electronic devices. The method comprises: depositing a silicon layer in an amorphous form; forming a native oxide on a surface of the amorphous silicon layer at a temperature between room temperature to 500° C.; and converting the amorphous silicon to polycrystalline silicon by heat-treating at a temperature in a range of 600° to 800° C. for a period of time in a range of 1 minute to 24 hrs, with higher temperatures associated with shorter times, in an inert atmosphere. The method converts the amorphous form of silicon to the higher conductivity polycrystalline form, while retaining the smoothness associated with the amorphous form.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intravenous delivery of hydrophobin-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles. T2 - Stability, plasma protein adsorption and biodistribution. AU - Sarparanta, Mirkka. AU - Bimbo, Luis M.. AU - Rytkönen, Jussi. AU - Mäkilä, Ermei. AU - Laaksonen, Timo J.. AU - Laaksonen, Päivi. AU - Nyman, Markus. AU - Salonen, Jarno. AU - Linder, Markus B.. AU - Hirvonen, Jouni. AU - Saltos, Hélder A.. AU - Airaksinen, Anu J.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Rapid immune recognition and subsequent elimination from the circulation hampers the use of many nanomaterials as carriers to targeted drug delivery and controlled release in the intravenous route. Here, we report the effect of a functional self-assembled protein coating on the intravenous biodistribution of 18F-labeled thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles in rats. 18F-Radiolabeling enables the sensitive and easy quantification of nanoparticles in tissues using radiometric methods and allows imaging of the ...
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Porous silicon (abbreviated as PS or pSi) is a form of the chemical element silicon that has introduced nanopores in its microstructure, rendering a large surface to volume ratio in the order of 500 m2/cm3. Porous silicon was discovered by accident in 1956 by Arthur Uhlir Jr. and Ingeborg Uhlir at the Bell Labs in the U.S. At the time, the Ulhirs were in the process of developing a technique for polishing and shaping the surfaces of silicon and germanium. However, it was found that under several conditions a crude product in the form of thick black, red or brown film were formed on the surface of the material. At the time, the findings were not taken further and were only mentioned in Bell Labs technical notes. Despite the discovery of porous silicon in the 1950s, the scientific community was not interested in porous silicon until the late 1980s. At the time, Leigh Canham - while working at the Defence Research Agency in England - reasoned that the porous silicon may display quantum ...
Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of titanium thin films on p-type (100) silicon substrates by KrF excimer laser ablation is investigated by changing the deposition parameters during the thin film deposition. The influence of target-to-substrate distance, laser fluence and substrate temperature is studied for high quality titanium thin films. Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrum analysis of the thin films is also carried out. The surface texture of the titanium target after the laser irradiation is studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. It is found that the most important deposition parameters which affect the thin film quality are target-to- substrate distance and laser fluence. A suitable target-to- substrate distance and laser fluence can minimize the deposition of micro-sized particulates on the thin films. By optimizing the deposition parameters, the less particulate, higher deposition rate and more uniform titanium thin films are grown on the silicon substrates for wafer ...
Page contains details about sorafenib-loaded iRGD-functionalized carbonized porous silicon nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
We demonstrate a method for the fast and simple packaging of silicon sensors into a microfluidic package consisting of the recently introduced {OSTE} polymer. The microfluidic layer is first microstructured and thereafter dry-bonded to a silicon photonic sensor, in a process compatible with wafer-level production, and with the entire packaging process lasting only 10 minutes. The fluidic layer combines molded microchannels and fluidic (Luer) connectors with photopatterned through-holes (vias) for optical fiber probing and fluid connections. All the features are fabricated in a single photocuring step. We report measurements with an integrated silicon photonic {Mach-Zehnder} interferometer refractive index sensor packaged by these means.. ...
Page contains details about aligned Ag nanowires deposited on DNA nanowires array on silicon substrate . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis on the interfacial properties of transparent conducting oxide and hydrogenated p-type amorphous silicon carbide layers in p-i-n amorphous silicon thin film solar cell structure. AU - Lee, Ji Eun. AU - Park, Joo Hyung. AU - Cho, Jun Sik. AU - Chung, Jin Won. AU - Song, Jinsoo. AU - Kim, Donghwan. AU - Lee, Jeong Chul. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (project no. 2009-0090912 ).. PY - 2012/7/1. Y1 - 2012/7/1. N2 - Quantitative estimation of the specific contact resistivity and energy barrier at the interface between transparent conducting oxide (TCO) and hydrogenated p-type amorphous silicon carbide (a-Si 1 - xC x:H(p)) was carried out by inserting an interfacial buffer layer of hydrogenated p-type microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H(p)) or hydrogenated p-type amorphous silicon (a-Si:H(p)). In addition, superstrate configuration p-i-n hydrogenated amorphous ...
A method for fabricating silicon nanowires. The method includes the steps of: depositing a silicon nitride layer on a silicon on insulator (SOI) starting wafer; patterning the silicon nitride to define at least one silicon microbar; etching the SOI starting wafer to expose the at least one silicon microbar, wherein the at least one microbar is surrounded by a raised perimeter; growing a silicon oxide layer on the raised perimeter of the at least one microbar; and etching a portion of the at least one silicon microbar to produce at least one silicon nanowire adjacent the silicon oxide layer.
A process for creating bipolar and CMOS transistors on a p-type silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon substrate has typical n+ buried wells and field oxide regions to isolate the individual transistor devices. In accordance with the process, stacks of material are created over the gate elements of the CMOS devices and over the emitter elements of the bipolar transistors. The stacks of material over the gate elements have a silicon dioxide gate layer in contact with the epitaxial layer of the substrate, and the stacks of material over the emitter elements have a polycrystalline silicon layer in contact with the epitaxial layer. Walls of silicon dioxide are created around the stacks in order to insulate the material within the stacks from the material deposited outside of the walls. Polycrystalline silicon in contact with the epitaxial layer is deposited outside the walls surrounding the stacks. All polycrystalline silicon layers in contact with the epitaxial layer are implanted with appropriate
Disclosed is a process for cleaning polycrystalline silicon chunks in an acidic cleaning bath, wherein: (a) the cleaning includes several cleaning cycles, (b) a particular amount of acid is consumed in each cycle, (c) a computer-controlled dosage system integrator adds up those amounts of acid consumed in each cycle to give a current total consumption of acid in the bath, and (d) on attainment of a total consumption of acid in the bath corresponding to an optimal dosage of the dosage system, the dosage system supplies this optimal dosage of unconsumed acid withdrawn from a reservoir vessel to the bath. Another process for cleaning polycrystalline silicon chunks in an acidic cleaning bath includes an acid circuit in which acid is circulated, wherein the ratio of amount of acid circulated in liters to the mass of polysilicon chunks present in the bath in kg is greater than 10 ...
Alkenes are known to react with hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces to produce robust organic monolayers that are attached to the surface via covalent Si-C bonds. In this report we investigate the dependence of the rate of alkylation of porous silicon samples on the reaction time using photochemical initiation. The kinetics of the photochemical alkylation of hydrogen-terminated porous silicon by undec-1-ene in toluene were observed to be pseudo first order, however the apparent rate constant decreased as the concentration of undec-1-ene increased. This behaviour is opposite to what would be expected if the rate-limiting process was an elementary chemical reaction step involving the alkene. Instead, it suggests that transport of the alkene to reactive sites and in the correct orientation is the rate-limiting step. Comparison of the rates of alkylation of porous silicon by undec-1-ene and dimethoxytrityl (DMT)-undecenol is consistent with such an interpretation as the bulky DMT headgroup gives a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallisation characteristics of primary silicon particles in cast hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. AU - Okayasu, M.. AU - Takeuchi, S.. AU - Shiraishi, T.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - The crystallisation characteristics of primary silicon particles in a cast hypereutectic Al-Si alloy were examined using various casting processes. The size of the primary silicon particles depends on the cooling rate. However, the primary silicon particles cannot be crystallised completely when the cooling rate is,20 K s-1, since uncrystallised Si atoms migrate to the regions at low cooling rates, producing large primary Si particles. Moreover, turbulent metal flow under conditions of high cooling rate leads to the macrosegregation of the primary Si particles, resulting in poor mechanical properties. From the crystallisation characteristics obtained, a suitable solidification criterion can be proposed.. AB - The crystallisation ...
PREPARATION METHOD FOR CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN FILM BASED ON LAYER TRANSFER - Provided is a preparation method of a crystalline silicon film. The method includes: 1) forming a mask for making a periodic silicon rod array on a monocrystalline silicon wafer substrate, and forming the periodic silicon rod array on the monocrystalline silicon substrate by a wet chemical etching or dry etching process; 2) forming barrier layers on the surface of the monocrystalline silicon substrate and the surface of the silicon rod array for next selectively epitaxial growth of silicon; 3) exposing silicon cores on the heads of the rod array by a selective etching process to form a silicon seed array; 4) growing a continuous silicon film at the top of the rod array by a chemical vapor deposition method using the exposed silicon cores as seeds for selectively epitaxial growth of silicon; and 5) lifting off the silicon film and transferring the silicon film to a preset substrate, and the seeded substrate is reusable ...
Meliorum Technologies designs custom nanomaterials for industry and research, including gold nanoparticles, zinc oxide, cerium oxide and silicon nanoparticles
Read Hydrothermal synthesis of fluorescent silicon nanoparticles using maleic acid as surface-stabilizing ligands, Journal of Materials Science on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - BV-2 microglial cells sense micro-nanotextured silicon surface topology. AU - Persheyev, Saydulla. AU - Fan, Yongchang. AU - Irving, Andrew. AU - Rose, Mervyn J.. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Artificial biomimetic substrates provide useful models for studying cell adhesion, signaling, and differentiation. This article describes biological interactions with a new type of tunable, micro-nanotextured silicon substrate, generated by irradiation of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film with a large beam, excimer laser (248 nm). In this study, we demonstrate that BV-2 microglial cells can sense differences in laser processed silicon surface topology over the range of 30 nm to 2 mu m, where they undergo marked morphogenic changes with increasing feature size. The cells adopt a more elongated shape in the presence of the modified surface structure and exhibit increased levels of actin-rich microdomains, suggesting enhanced adhesion. The excimer laser modification of hydrogenated ...
Author(s): King, Brian Henry | Abstract: Porous silicon rugate photonic crystals are an attractive optical sensor material due to their high surface area, naked eye response, and controllable optical, morphological, and chemical characteristics. This thesis presents new ways to improve the selectivity, reversibility, and stability against interferents of remotely interrogated porous silicon sensors. After a brief introduction to rugate porous silicon, Chapters 2-5 present methods of directly sensing the interaction of organic vapors with the porous layer by chemical and physical sensor modulation. A 0.3 mm² fiber optic-coupled porous silicon sensor is constructed in Chapter 2 and implanted in a bed of activated carbon, demonstrating carbon bed end-of-service-life sensing. Chapter 3 furthers this concept by incorporating chemically modified sensor surfaces, with selectivity between water vapor, isopropanol, and heptane vapors demonstrated using acetylated and oxidized sensor chemistries. Chapter 4
The photophysics of silicon quantum dots (QDs) is not well understood despite their potential for many optoelectronic applications. One of the barriers to the study and widespread adoption of Si QDs is the difficulty in functionalizing their surface, to make, for example, a solution-processable electronically-activ Luminescent silicon nanostructures
At present silicon wafer technologies dominate the market place with cost driven by the technological requirement for optically thick and electronically pure silicon. A solution to the high cost of wafer based panels is a thin film approach where micron thick layers of silicon replace the ~250 micron thick silicon wafers. Thin film silicon has gone to market in the form of amorphous and microcrystalline Si where performance is an issue as well as stability due to the hydrogenated amorphous Si structure. This project involves the growth of three dimensional wire structures based on crystalline silicon and their integration into solar cell devices. Nanowire solar cells featuring a radial junction have the potential to reduce the required volume and purity of the silicon used in cell fabrication compared to wafer based technologies. The vapour-liquid-solid effect (VLS) has been used to grow Si nanowires using Au and Sn as catalyst metals together with electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapour ...
The researchers examined a variety of raw material samples and found little change in the silicon content of barley during the malting process. The majority of the silicon in barley is in the husk, which is not affected greatly during malting. The malts with the higher silicon contents are pale colored which have less heat stress during the malting process. The darker products, such as the chocolate, roasted barley and black malt, all have substantial roasting and much lower silicon contents than the other malts for reasons that are not yet known. The hop samples analyzed showed surprisingly high levels of silicon with as much as four times more silicon than is found in malt. However, hops are invariably used in a much smaller quantity than is grain. Highly hopped beers, however, would be expected to contain higher silicon levels ...
A fine yellow-brown powder composed of spherical particles of silicon, the optic and electric properties of silicon nanoparticles have made them a favorite among nanoparticle researchers in recent years, revealing a multitude of new applications and improvements on existing ones. Silicon nanoparticles come in a variety of sizes, mostly falling into smaller 5-25nm configurations or larger 80-100 nm configurations. You can find out more about options for silicon nanopowder, including safe handling, dispersion, and storage, by contacting SSNano directly.. Silicon(Si) Nanopowder Applications. ...
A substance containing a catalyst element is formed so as to closely contact with an amorphous silicon film, or a catalyst element is introduced into the amorphous silicon film. The amorphous silicon film is annealed at a temperature which is lower than a crystallization temperature of usual amorphous silicon, thereby selectively crystallizing the amorphous silicon film. The crystallized region is used as a crystalline silicon TFT which can be used in a peripheral driver circuit of an active matrix circuit. The region which remains amorphous is used as an amorphous silicon TFT which can be used in a pixel circuit. A relatively small amount of a catalyst element for promoting crystallization is added to an amorphous silicon film, and an annealing process is conducted at a temperature which is lower than the distortion temperature of a substrate, thereby crystallizing the amorphous silicon film. A gate insulating film, and a gate electrode are then formed, and an impurity is implanted in a self-alignment
According to an exemplary embodiment, a method includes providing a silicon-on-insulator substrate including a buried oxide layer situated over a bulk silicon substrate and a silicon layer situated over the buried oxide layer. A trench is formed in the silicon layer and the buried oxide layer, where the trench exposes a portion of the bulk silicon substrate, and where the trench is situated adjacent to an optical region of said silicon-on-insulator substrate. According to this exemplary embodiment, an epitaxial layer is formed on the exposed portion of the bulk silicon substrate in the trench. The epitaxial layer and the bulk silicon substrate form a bulk silicon electronic region of the silicon-on-insulator substrate.
A method of manufacturing a semiconductor device, comprises the steps of: forming a first insulating film on a first substrate; forming a second insulating film on the first insulating film; forming an amorphous silicon film on the second insulating film; holding a metal element that promotes the crystallization of silicon in contact with a surface of the amorphous silicon film; crystallizing the amorphous silicon film through a heat treatment to obtain a crystalline silicon film; forming a thin-film transistor using the crystalline silicon film; forming a sealing layer that seals the thin-film transistor; bonding a second substrate having a translucent property to the sealing layer; and removing the first insulating film to peel off the first substrate.
Stable luminescence, size-tunability, and biocompatibility encourage the deployment of Cd-free NPs into diverse biological applications. Here we report one-pot synthesis of blue-emitting and polymerizable silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) from which water-soluble Si QDs embedded polystyrene nanoparticles ([email protected] NPs) were prepared using a miniemulsion polymerization approach. The hydrodynamic size of NPs was controlled by KOH to oleic acid molar ratio. Studies on the photoluminescence properties of [email protected] NPs in different conditions reveal that they exhibit two-photon luminescence property and high stability against pH and UV exposure. These NPs add new size regime to the Si QDs based luminescent makers for bioimaging and therapy applications.
Abstract: Quantum computers have the potential to efficiently solve problems in logistics, drug and material design, finance, and cybersecurity. However, millions of qubits will be necessary for correcting inevitable errors in quantum operations. In this scenario, electron spins in gate-defined silicon quantum dots are strong contenders for encoding qubits, leveraging the microelectronics industry know-how for fabricating densely populated chips with nanoscale electrodes. The sophisticated material combinations used in commercially manufactured transistors, however, will have a very different impact on the fragile qubits. We review here some key properties of the materials that have a direct impact on qubit performance and variability ...
摘要. A new method of preparing water-dispersible silicon quantum dots (QDs, blue spheres) has been developed by using an organic peroxide as a highly effective precursor (the lower left quarter, red and grey-green ball-and-stick model). The obtained water-dispersible carboxylic acid terminated Si QDs displayed strong and stable photoluminescence in the visible spectrum, which can be widely used in boimedical imaging. For more detail, see the Communication by S.-T. Lee, P.-F. Wang et al. on page 12872 ff.. ...
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Silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) have great potential for biomedical applications, including their use as biological fluorescent markers and carriers for drug delivery systems. Biologically inert Si-QDs are less toxic than conventional cadmium-based QDs, and can modify the surface of the Si-QD with covalent bond. We synthesized water-soluble alminoprofen-conjugated Si-QDs (Ap-Si). Alminoprofen is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used as an analgesic for rheumatism. Our results showed that the
Maximizing the utilization of the ultraviolet portion in the solar radiation spectrum has always been a goal for plant growth in order to minimize the harm and harvest the benefits. For this reason, fluorescent, amine-functionalized, and water-soluble silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) were fabricated with a mono-dispers
In this work, we study the changes in the optical properties of 300-nm-thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide layers after an annealing process. Both intrinsic and phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon carbide layers (a-SiCx:H) were deposited on silicon wafers by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) at 400 °C and annealed in a quartz furnace at 800 °C. ...
Among the range of materials used in bioengineering, parylene-C has been used in combination with silicon oxide and in presence of the serum proteins, in cell patterning. However, the structural properties of adsorbed serum proteins on these substrates still remain elusive. In this study, we use an optical biosensing technique to decipher the properties of fibronectin (Fn) and serum albumin adsorbed on parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates. Our results show the formation of layers with distinct structural and adhesive properties. Thin, dense layers are formed on parylene-C, whereas thicker, more diffuse layers are formed on silicon oxide. These results suggest that Fn acquires a compact structure on parylene-C and a more extended structure on silicon oxide. Nonetheless, parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates coated with Fn host cell populations that exhibit focal adhesion complexes and good cell attachment. Albumin adopts a deformed structure on parylene-C and a globular structure on silicon ...
To investigate the effects of silicon on the growth characteristics and the reduction of the powdery mildew damage to Zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jacq. ʻMagellanʼ), an experiment was carried out as a factorial experiment in the form of a randomized complete block design with two factors including eight treatments and three replications. The first factor included silicon concentrations at four levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mg L-1 Si) and the second factor consisted of the Si application methods (foliar spray and medium drenching). Depending on the concentration and method of silicon supplied, several horticultural traits were improved as a result of Si supplementation. Silicon content of Si-treated plants (100 and 150 mg L-1 Si foliar spray) significantly increased as compared with untreated controls. Disease severity of powdery mildew was reduced by sodium silicate. The results of our study demonstrated that foliar spray treatments were more effective in managing disease than drenches treatments.
Read Influence of the temperature-time conditions on the textural and structural properties of mesoporous silicon dioxide synthesized in an ammonia-alcohol medium, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Abstract. This study is focused on the optical emission spectroscopy of silicon, porous silicon (PS) and their oxides. It allows us to understand the effect of the angle and porosity on optical radiations emitted when substrates of silicon, PS and their oxides are bombarded at low-pressure less than 10-7 torr by Kr+ ions at 5 keV. The comparison of the spectra shows that the spectral lines attributed to Si(I) have a similar behavior and the maximum of the signal is obtained for θ=70°. These lines show a significant exaltation when the density of porosity of similar samples is larger. This exaltation depends on the desactivation of the excited states and it may reach a quite important factor with intensity saturation for maximum silicon surface porosity. The intensity in a reverse behavior for the line Si(III) at λ=254.4nm and associated to Si++ matched for the first time in our results. However, the signal amplification is caused by an enrichment of oxygen on the porous surfaces, which become ...
Indeed, carbon and silicon share many characteristics. Each has a so-called valence of four--meaning that individual atoms make four bonds with other elements in forming chemical compounds. Each element bonds to oxygen. Each forms long chains, called polymers, in which it alternates with oxygen. In the simplest case, carbon yields a polymer called poly-acetal, a plastic used in synthetic fibers and equipment. Silicon yields polymeric silicones, which we use to waterproof cloth or lubricate metal and plastic parts. But when carbon oxidizes--or unites with oxygen say, during burning--it becomes the gas carbon dioxide; silicon oxidizes to the solid silicon dioxide, called silica. The fact that silicon oxidizes to a solid is one basic reason as to why it cannot support life. Silica, or sand is a solid because silicon likes oxygen all too well, and the silicon dioxide forms a lattice in which one silicon atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms. Silicate compounds that have SiO4-4 units also exist in ...
Porous silicon is a nano material in which pores with different sizes, densities and depths are infiltrated in conventional silicon imparting it augmented properties including biodegradability, biocompatibility, photoluminescence. Here, we realized porous silicon substrates in which the pore size and the fractal dimension were varied over a significant range. We loaded the described substrates with a PtCl(O, O′ − acac)(DMSO) antitumor drug and determined its release profile as a function of pore size over time up to 15 days. We observed that the efficacy of delivery augments with the pore size moving from small (∼ 8nm, efficiency of delivery ∼ 0.2) to large (∼ 55nm, efficiency of delivery ∼ 0.7). Then, we verified the adhesion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells on the described substrates with and without the administration of the antitumor drug. This permitted to decouple and understand the coincidental effects of nano-topography and a controlled dosage of drugs on cell adhesion and ...
In the search for extraterrestrial life, scientists and science fiction writers have proposed life based on the element silicon, instead of life that is based on carbon, like the life on earth. This article will research the possibility of silicon-based life. It will focus on life with a molecular design similar to terrestrial life. We have decided to do this, because it is very difficult to come up with a totally different structure of life than life as we know it. We need something to model our silicon-based life after. In a section at the end of the article (section 9) we will devote some time to the possibility of these totally different kinds of life, but these will not be the main focus of the project, because we can t say much scientific about them. They are only speculation and we want hard facts ...
Its All in the Coating. For the graphene cages to work, they have to fit the silicon particles exactly. The scientists accomplished this in a series of steps: First they coated silicon particles with nickel, which can be applied in just the right thickness. Then they grew layers of graphene on top of the nickel; happily the nickel acts as a catalyst to promote graphene growth. Finally they etched the nickel away, leaving just enough space within the graphene cage for the silicon particle to expand.. Researchers have tried a number of other coatings for silicon anodes, but they all reduced the anodes efficiency, said Stanford postdoctoral researcher Kai Yan, who carried out the experiments with graduate student Yuzhang Li. The form-fitting graphene cages are the first coating that maintains high efficiency, and the reactions can be carried out at relatively low temperatures.. Now the team will work on fine-tuning the process, Li added, and on producing caged silicon particles in large ...
The drain bias induced threshold voltage variation in short channel (L=0.4 μm) polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (TFTs), with different gate oxide thicknesses, is investigated with combined experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and floating body effects (FBEs), triggered by impact ionization, are the main causes of such variations. However, the effects are counterbalancing, with a reducing oxide thickness reducing DIBL, while, at the same time, increasing the relative impact of the FBE. Hence, drain bias induced threshold voltage changes, when normalized by oxide thickness, are independent of the gate oxide thickness in these TFTs ...
Russia] For the past four years, a team of scientists from the Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), Russian Academic Excellence Project participant, and an international group of toxicologists have been studying the effects of carbon and silicon nanoparticles on marine organisms (Environmental Research, Effects of carbon and silicon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers on marine microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo).. We already have data on the impact that these elements-which are used in plastic composites and products-have on terrestrial flora and fauna, but there has been no systematic study of the potential damage that nanoparticles can cause to marine life, said FEFUs Provost for Research, professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Doctor of Biology Kirill Golokhvast. Meanwhile, up to 80% of the plastic and composites on the planet end up in the World Ocean, where they decompose over a period of several hundred years.. Using carbon and silicate nanocomponents significantly improves ...
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Nanowires (NWs) are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW) is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW), is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method for producing nanowires of the same substrate material. The process conditions are adjusted to find the best quality of Si NWs. Morphology of Si NWs is studied using a field emission scanning electron microscopic technique. An energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer is also used to provide elemental identification and quantitative compositional information. Subsequently, Schottky type solar cell samples are fabricated on Si and Si NWs using ITO and Ag contacts. The junction properties are calculated using I-V curves in dark
The use of intrinsic silicon oxide as a buffer layer at the p-i interface of thin-film silicon solar cells is shown to provide significant advantages. For microcrystalline silicon solar cells, when associated with highly crystalline i-layers deposited at high rates, all electrical parameters are improved. Larger efficiency gains are achieved with substrates of increased roughness. For cells with an improved i-layer material quality, there is mainly a gain in short-circuit current density. An improvement in carrier collection in the blue region of the spectrum is systematically observed on all the cells. The presence of a silicon oxide buffer layer also promotes the nucleation of the subsequent intrinsic microcrystalline silicon layer. In amorphous silicon solar cells, the silicon oxide buffer layer is proven to act as an efficient barrier to boron cross-contamination, eliminating the need for additional processing steps (e.g. water vapor flush), while providing a wide bandgap material at the ...
Porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) have been prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching method on the n-Si substrate. The presence of nano-pores with pore size ranging between 10-50nm in SiNWs was confirmed by electron tomography (ET) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The PSiNWs give strong photoluminescence peak at red wavelength. Ultra-low reflectance of ,5% span over wavelength 250 nm to 1050 nm has been measured. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been employed to model the optical reflectance for both Si wafer and PSiNWs. Our calculation results are in agreement with the measured reflectance from nanowires length of 6 µm and 60% porosity. The low reflectance is attributed to the effective graded index of PSiNWs and enhancement of multiple optical scattering from the pores and nanowires. PSiNW structures with low surface reflectance can potentially serve as an antireflection layer for Si-based photovoltaic devices ...
We created different TiO2-based coatings on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) by using either thermal metallization or atomic layer deposition (ALD). The fabricated surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and reflectivity measurements. Surfaces with different TiO2 based coating thicknesses were then used for phosphopeptide enrichment and subsequent detection by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). Results showed that the best enrichment and LDI-MS detection were obtained using the silicon nanowires covered with 10 nm of oxidized Ti deposited by means of thermal evaporation. This sample was also able to perform phosphopeptide enrichment and MS detection from serum.
Pentagon-shaped silicon wires with linewidth around 300 nm are successfully fabricated by using the Si/SiGe epitaxy technique, reactive ion etching, and subsequent selective chemical etching. The nanowires are oxidized in wet O2 at 750 ◦C and 850 ◦C. The oxide and interface morphology are characterized by cross-sectional scanning electron microscope images. It is found that the oxidized nanowire following oxidation at 750 ◦C still keeps its pentagon shape even if it has been oxidized for 19 h. However, the oxidized samples at 850 ◦C become circular in shape. The oxidation-temperature dependence of the sample shapes is discussed. Our results should be useful in generating silicon nanowires coated with SiO2 in microelectronic technology with careful selection of the SiO2 growth temperatures. PACS: 85.42; 81.15; 81.60 Field-effect devices having SiO2-coated silicon nanowires acting as trenches have recently received great attention, since new physical phenomena with applications in future verylarge
Silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride are materials used extensively in mechanical and electronic devices due to their outstanding properties. Thin films of silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride can be deposited on a silicon surface. In this study, nitridation of silicon wafers by a rapid thermal heating process with both nitrogen and ammonia as precursors was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ellipsometry analyses. It was found that, under ammonia gas, the growth of nitride film was limited to 0.5 nm, whilst under the nitrogen atmosphere, a nitride film of 5-10 nm could be formed at 1200î The limited growth in ammonia suggests formation of high-quality passivating layer ...
Press Release issued Mar 7, 2017: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a silicon-based organic polymer, which is commonly known as silicon oil. Silicon oil is a group of polymeric and monomeric compounds that constitutes of silicon-oxygen bonds named organosiloxane. Because of the viscous nature and water repellant characteristic, it is termed as silicon oil. Silicon oil is transparent, odorless, and thermally stable in nature. It also exhibits properties such as hydrophobicity, non-flammability, and physiological inertness. Silicon oil is used as a release agent, anti-foam agent, mechanical fluid, and lubricant among others. It is widely used in personal care applications, beauty care products, mechanical applications, and in a lot more. High molecular PDMS with amino alkyl copolymers are used to make hair conditioning products. Silicon oil is also used to make skin care products such as sunscreen creams, facial cleansers, and lip glosses & lipsticks due to its glossy, smooth, and hydrophobic nature. Owing
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We describe a method of detecting nanometer-level gap and tip/tilt alignment between a focusing zone plate mask and a silicon substrate using interferometric-spatial-phase-imaging (ISPI). The zone plate mask is used to generate submicrometer focused light spot to induce silicon nanowire growth in a CVD process. ISPI makes use of diffracting fringes from gratings and checkerboards fabricated on the mask to determine the correct gapping distance for the focusing zone plates. The method is capable of detecting alignment inside a gas-flow chamber with variable pressure ...
There is significant interest in utilizing microalgae as a source for biofuels. Diatoms are a class of single-celled microalgae which make silica cell walls and require dissolved silicon as a substrate for cell division. Manipulation of soluble silicon delivery to the culture offers a route to control cell cycle and lipid production. A two-stage, semi-continuous photobioreactor cultivation process was developed to induce the production of lipid-rich algal biomass from the centric diatom Cyclotella sp. In Stage I of the process, algal cells were grown up to high density until all of the dissolved silicon in the feed medium was consumed. The cells were in the silicon-starved state when the cell density was constant for 24 hours and the dissolved silicon concentration was near-zero and ceased to change. In Stage II, fresh medium containing dissolved silicon was perfused into the reactor for a 48, 72 or 96 hours. The silicon was rapidly consumed by the silicon-starved cells under a surge uptake ...
Results: Extruding silicon oil as well as F6H8 through polycarbonate membranes with pore sizes of 100 nm into water resulted in the production of stable vesicles. Whereas F6H8-vesicles disappeared after 24h, silicon oil vesicles remained stable after that time. The mean vesicle diameter was similar (F6H8: 6.54±1.47 µm, silicon oil 1000s: 6.03±2.8 µm, silicon oil 5000s: 5.03±2.3 µm). The size distribution of the produced vesicles was different in F6H8-vesicles or silicon oil vesicles. Extruding F6H8 through a 100 nm membrane resulted in vesicle diameter from 1.25 to 7.25 µm. Silicon oil extrusion resulted in 1.75 to 16.76 µm or 1 to 12.79 µm diameter vesicles when using 1000s or 5000s oil, respectively. After incubation of isolated human mononuclear lymphocytes with F6H8-vesicles or silicon oil vesicles for 18 hours in different concentrations we detected only in a small number of F6H8-vesicle treated cells phagocytized vesicles and an even lower percentage of phagocytized vesicles in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaporation of phosphorus in molten silicon by an electron beam irradiation method. AU - Hanazawa, Kazuhiro. AU - Yuge, Noriyoshi. AU - Kato, Yoshiei. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - The evaporation behavior of phosphorus in molten silicon during electron beam irradiation was investigated with the aim of producing solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) from metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) by a sequential metallurgical process. Batch experiments showed that the evaporation rate of phosphorus increased in proportion to the power of the electron beam and phosphorus content. The phosphorus removal rate was controlled by free evaporation from the molten silicon surface. Electron beam irradiation makes it possible to secure a higher temperature at the free liquid surface, which results in more efficient dephosphorization. A continuous flow experiment indicated that the phosphorus concentration at the outlet increased when the silicon feed rate was raised, which was attributed to the fact that ...
The conventional, brittle, silicon nitride barrier layer and gate insulator in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors (a-Si:H TFTs) on 50 μm thick polyimide foil was replaced by a resilient, homogeneous, hybrid of silicon dioxide and silicone polymer. The transistor structures can be bent down to 0.5 mm radius (5% strain) in tension and down to 1 mm radius (2.5% strain) in compression. This pronounced flexibility shifts the criterion for reversible bending away from a-Si:H TFT backplanes and toward the materials for substrate and encapsulation. It qualifies a-Si:H TFTs for pull-out display screens in handheld devices ...
Nanorobot-Based Handling and Transfer of Individual Silicon Nanowires: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5125-8.ch041: Presented is a new experimental implementation for well-directed handling of silicon nanowires with diameters of less than 100 nm and length of up to 10 µm.
in Plant and Soil (2010), 336(1-2), 99-106. Abstract : Silicon uptake by terrestrial plants impacts the Si land-ocean fluxes, therefore inducing significant modifications for biogeochemical cycle of Si. Understanding the mechanisms that control Si ... [more ▼]. Abstract : Silicon uptake by terrestrial plants impacts the Si land-ocean fluxes, therefore inducing significant modifications for biogeochemical cycle of Si. Understanding the mechanisms that control Si uptakes by forest vegetation is of great interest for the study of the global Si cycle as the worlds total forest area corresponds to about 30% of the land area. Our study compares Si uptake in controlled conditions by two coniferous species (Pseudotsuga menziensii and Pinus nigra) exhibiting contrasting Si uptake in the field. For this purpose, seedlings were grown for 11 weeks under controlled conditions in hydroponics with different Si concentrations (0.2 to 1.6 mM) in nutrient solutions. The Si concentrations were greater in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mie Scattering with Silicon Oil Droplets in Combustion Field. AU - Ueda, Toshihisa. AU - Yahagi, Yuji. AU - Mizomoto, Masahiko. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Mie scattering technique with silicon oil droplets (MSOD) has been applied in a laminar premixed flame in a stagnation point flow. A 1.2W laser beam of 514.5 nm wavelength has been used as a light source, and fine silicon oil droplets (diameter ,2 µm, boiling point =300°C) are added in the combustible mixture of propane with air. High-intensity Mie scattering from silicon oil droplets is observed in the upstream region of the flame zone. In the downstream region of the flame zone, very low-intensity Mie scattering is observed, though droplets are vaporized at the flame zone. It is confirmed that the low-intensity Mie scattering comes from solid particles (silicon dioxide, ⋯) made from vapor of the silicon oil droplets at the flame zone. The results also show that no difference of the flame location and the ...
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In this thesis properties and influence of modification techniques of porous silicon were studied by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). This device permits to visualize the surface topography and to study properties of the samples on atomic scale, which was necessary for recent investigation. Samples of porous silicon were obtained by electrochemical etching. Nickel particles were deposited by two methods: electrochemical deposition and extracting from NiCl2 ethanol solution. Sample growth was conducted in Saint-Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, LETI ...
Substantial downscaling of the feature size in current CMOS technology has confronted digital designers with serious challenges including short channel effect and high amount of leakage power. To address these problems, emerging nano-devices, e.g., Silicon NanoWire FET (SiNWFET), is being introduced by the research community. These devices keep on pursuing Mooreâ s Law by improving channel electrostatic controllability, thereby reducing the Off â state leakage current. In addition to these improvements, recent developments introduced devices with enhanced capabilities, such as Controllable-Polarity (CP) SiNWFETs, which make them very interesting for compact logic cell and arithmetic circuits. At advanced technology nodes, the amount of physical controls, during the fabrication process of nanometer devices, cannot be precisely determined because of technology fluctuations. Consequently, the structural parameters of fabricated circuits can be significantly different from their nominal values. Moreover
A method for enhancing the equilibrium solubility of boron and indium in silicon. The method involves first-principles quantum mechanical calculations to determine the temperature dependence of the equilibrium solubility of two important p-type dopants in silicon, namely boron and indium, under various strain conditions. The equilibrium thermodynamic solubility of size-mismatched impurities, such as boron and indium in silicon, can be raised significantly if the silicon substrate is strained appropriately. For example, for boron, a 1% compressive strain raises the equilibrium solubility by 100% at 1100.degree. C.; and for indium, a 1% tensile strain at 1100.degree. C., corresponds to an enhancement of the solubility by 200%.
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In this study, we explore characteristic fluctuation of gate-all-around silicon nanowire MOSFETs induced by random discrete dopants (RDDs) resulting from source/drain extensions. Compared with the results of source extension, asymmetric variations of characteristics induced by RDDs in the drain extension are suppressed owing to the different extent of screening effect on the surface of channel; in particular, the fluctuations of voltage gain and cut-off frequency are reduced from 24% and 21% to 7% and 10%, respectively, because of the effective fluctuation reduction of maximum transconductance near the drain extension.
A study by Triton Market Research with the title Global Silicon Photonics Market, covers the Global Analysis and Forecast for 2019-2028 by Components (Interconnects, Optical Modulators, LED, Waveguides, Wavelength Division Multiplexer Filters, Photodetector), by Product Type (Optical Transceiver, Sensors, Photovoltaic Cells/Solar Cells, Integrated Circuits, Optical Switches), by Application (Telecommunication, Information Processing, Other Application), and by Geographical Region (North America, Middle East and Africa, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific).. Silicon photonics is a novel technology used to manufacture optical devices from silicon. It makes use of photons to transfer huge amounts of data at high speed, using extremely low power.. Request Free Sample of the Global Silicon Photonics Market Report @ https://www.tritonmarketresearch.com/reports/silicon-photonics-market#request-free-sample. As per the report, the global silicon photonics market will account for revenue worth $3294.55 ...
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To thoroughly understand the role that estrogen receptors partake in regulation of gene expression, characterization of estrogen receptors (ERs) and estrogen-response elements (EREs) interactions is essential. In the work, we present a highly sensitive and reusable silicon nanowire (SiNW) biosensor to study the interactions between human ER proteins (ER, alpha and beta subtypes) and EREs (dsDNA). The proteins were covalently immobilized on the SiNW surface. Various EREs including wild-type, mutant and scrambled DNA sequences were then applied to the protein-functionalized SiNW surface. Due to negatively charged dsDNA, binding of the EREs to the ERs on the n-type SiNW biosensor leads to the accumulation of negative charges on the surface, thereby inducing increase in resistance. The results show that the specificity of the ERE-ERalpha binding is higher than that of the ERE-ERbeta binding, what is more, the mutant ERE reduces the binding affinity for both ERalpha and ERbeta. By applying
Hong, I.-H., Liao, Y.-C. and Yen, S.-C. (2009), Self-Organization of a Highly Integrated Silicon Nanowire Network on a Si(110)-16 × 2 Surface by Controlling Domain Growth. Adv. Funct. Mater., 19: 3389-3395. doi: 10.1002/adfm.200900974 ...
In the present study, we attempted to quantify the absorption of silica particles by using ICP-OES to measure the silicon content in the liver and blood after 28-day oral exposure. However, we did not detect the silicon content in the biological tissue with this analytical protocol (data not shown; detection limit of the protocol, 0.1 μg). ICP-OES protocols are regarded to be suitable for measuring silica; however, our attempt to measure ultratrace levels of the silicon content derived from silica particles may have been hindered by interference from nitrogen present in the air. Other groups have also been unable to determine the level of the silicon content derived from with ICP-OES after oral exposure because of interference [11]. We therefore tried to measure the absorption of silica particles through the intestine by means of a combination of the everted gut sac method and ICP-OES. The advantages of this model are that there is a relatively large surface area available for absorption and ...
This is the first demonstration of high performance thermoelectric capability in silicon, an abundant semiconductor for which there already exists a multibillion dollar infrastructure for low-cost and high-yield processing and packaging, said Arun Majumdar, a mechanical engineer and materials scientist with joint appointments at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley, who was one of the principal investigators behind this research.. Weve shown that its possible to achieve a large enhancement of thermoelectric energy efficiency at room temperature in rough silicon nanowires that have been processed by wafer-scale electrochemical synthesis, said chemist Peidong Yang, the other principal investigator behind this research, who also holds a joint Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley appointment. Majumdar, who was recently appointed director of Berkeley Labs Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD) and is a member of the Materials Sciences Division, is an expert on energy conversion and nanoscale science ...
Worldwide silicon wafer revenues declined by 13 percent in 2013 compared to 2012 according to the SEMI Silicon Manufacturers Group (SMG) in its year-end analysis of the silicon wafer industry. Worldwide silicon wafer area shipments increased 0.4 percent in 2013 when compared to 2012 area shipments.. Silicon wafer area shipments in 2013 totaled 9,067 million square inches (MSI), slightly up from the 9,031 million square inches shipped during 2012. Revenues totaled $7.5 billion down from $8.7 billion posted in 2012. Annual semiconductor silicon shipment levels have remained essentially flat for the past three years, said Hiroshi Sumiya, chairman of SEMI SMG and general manager of the Corporate Planning Department of Shin-Etsu Handotai Co., Ltd. However, industry revenues have declined significantly for the past two years.. Rudolph Technologies, Inc. announced this week the sale of its first NSX 320 TSV Metrology System to CEA-Leti, a research organization based in Grenoble, France, which, in ...
A semiconductor pressure transducer assembly comprising a silicon diaphragm assembly and a glass covering member. The silicon diaphragm assembly has a circular diaphragm portion of thin silicon which is formed using etching, and a thick supporting portion therearound. Piezoresistive elements of a piezoresistive bridge circuit and conducting paths for electrically connection thereof are formed on the silicon diaphragm assembly. On a surface of the silicon diaphragm assembly, a passivating layer of silicon dioxide are formed in uniform thickness, and further on a surface of the passivating layer is formed a layer of polysilicon on the supporting portion of the silicon diaphragm assembly. In the passivating layer, a contacting window is formed, through which the polysilicon layer is electrically connected to the silicon diaphragm assembly. The covering member of borosilicate glass having a circular well is mounted and bonded onto the silicon diaphragm assembly in contact with the polysilicon layer using
Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film solar cells have potential for low cost photovoltaic (PV) applications. Poly-Si can be formed via the solid phase crystallisation (SPC) process, where a precursor layer of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) undergoes a phase transformation to the crystalline form during prolonged annealing at temperatures ,550 oC. The SPC process is not well understood, resulting in high dislocation densities in poly-Si resulting in electrical losses in PV devices. With focus on the materials properties, we gain an enhanced understanding of the correlation between the a-Si:H structure and the SPC dynamics on the final grain morphology and the nature of defects in the resulting poly-Si. This improved understanding of the SPC process will allow fabrication of more efficient poly-Si thin film PV devices ...
Define chemical element. chemical element synonyms, chemical element pronunciation, chemical element translation, English dictionary definition of chemical element. Noun 1. chemical element - any of the more than 100 known substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination...
N-type porous silicon can be used to realize electroosmotic pumps with high flow rates per applied potential difference. The porosity and pore size of poro
The use of aluminum as an electrode in metal-insulator-semiconductor devices containing lanthanum oxide is impaired by unacceptable leakage current levels. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiling shows a significant amount of silicon out-diffusion from the substrate and aluminum in-diffusion towards the oxide. By using titanium nitride as the electrode, the silicon out-diffusion is suppressed, which improves the device performance. This indicates that, despite the larger coordination number of the lanthanum ions in the oxide, aluminum acts as a sink for silicon, thus driving the out-diffusion of silicon ...
One aspect of the present subject matter relates to a method for forming strained semiconductor film. In various embodiments, a single crystalline semiconductor film is formed on a substrate surface, and a recess is created beneath the film. A portion of the film is influenced into the void and strained. In various embodiments, the naturally-occurring Van der Waals force is sufficient to influence the film into the void. In various embodiments, a nano-imprint mask is used to assist with influencing the film into the void. In various embodiments, an oxide region is formed in a silicon substrate, and a single crystalline silicon film is formed on the semiconductor substrate and on at least a portion of the oxide region. The oxide region is removed allowing the Van der Waals force to bond the film to the silicon substrate. Other aspects are provided herein.