Purpose: We previously demonstrated sex-specific differences in corneal inflammatory reparative responses, which are mediated by estrogen modulation of protective lipid mediators derived from dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Sex-steroids have long been implicated in Dry Eye (DE) due to the prevalence of disease incidence in women. Sjogrens Syndrome causes DE by dysregulating immune responses in the lacrimal gland. A post hoc clinical study found a correlation between dietary ω-3 PUFA in women and decreased incidence of DE symptoms. ω-3 DHA is of interest to immune regulation as its metabolized into potent lipid mediators. We investigated whether lipid mediator pathways are present and functional in the lacrimal gland, if they exhibit sex-specific differences, and if a DHA-rich diet can confer protective actions against DE development. Methods: DE was induced using a model of desiccating stress and scopolamine. Mice were placed on a DHA-rich or DHA-deficient diet for 4 weeks before ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about secondary sexual character at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about secondary sexual character easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
BACKGROUND: Sex-based differences in clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and outcomes of patients with acute chest pain are increasingly being recognized, but are not implemented in guidelines and clinical prediction tools. We evaluated the performance of the HEART score in women versus men, because sex-based differences may exist among the algorithms components: ... read more history, electrocardiogram, age, risk factors, and admission troponin level. METHODS AND RESULTS: The HEART score was retrospectively assessed in 831 women and 1084 men presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain, assigning patients to the low-, intermediate-, or high-risk category for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 6 weeks. MACE, consisting of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and all-cause death, also included events during index visit. Six-week MACE rates were 2 times lower in women than men (10.0% versus 20.8%; P,0.01). Despite similar discriminatory ...
Cardiometabolic biomarkers in men and women exhibit different patterns of expression. One of the most comprehensive analyses of sex-based biomarker profiles found that cardiovascular disease (CVD) develops along different pathways in men and women, setting the stage for future investigations that will incorporate sex-based differences into prevention efforts.
Stephan Sanders, B.M.B.S., Ph.D. University of California, San Francisco Autism is diagnosed in boys four times more frequently than in girls.
Genomes of men and women differ in only a limited number of genes located on the sex chromosomes, whereas the transcriptome is far more sex-specific. Identification of sex-biased gene expression will contribute to understanding the molecular basis of sex-differences in complex traits and common diseases. Sex differences in the human peripheral blood transcriptome were characterized using microarrays in 5,241 subjects, accounting for menopause status and hormonal contraceptive use. Sex-specific expression was observed for 582 autosomal genes, of which 57.7% was upregulated in women (female-biased genes). Female-biased genes were enriched for several immune system GO categories, genes linked to rheumatoid arthritis (16%) and genes regulated by estrogen (18%). Male-biased genes were enriched for genes linked to renal cancer (9%). Sex-differences in gene expression were smaller in postmenopausal women, larger in women using hormonal contraceptives and not caused by sex-specific eQTLs, confirming the role of
But in her presentation during the session, Eva Bossano Prescott, MD (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), said it has become clear that while more women than men die from heart disease, they typically do so at an older age-9 years later on average-and this creates a challenge for clinicians.. Additionally, women are more likely than men to have symptoms without having a stenosis, leading many physicians to not even think of treatment, she said. Women presenting with this pattern, often called syndrome X, tend to have higher levels of both depression and anxiety than women actually found to have a stenosis, Bossano Prescott continued. Because many women with syndrome X are not treated, their symptoms can continue for long periods of time and their quality of life suffers.. So counterintuitively, for some patients "coming out of the cath lab without a stenosis" is more bad news than good, at least with regard to symptoms, Bossano Prescott surmised.. Looking back, "COURAGE taught us that its not ...
New research finds that depression manifests differently in the brains of male and female teenagers, leading to the need for a differentiated treatment.
In this population-based analysis, sex-based comparisons of potential risk factors for SCA identified 2 distinct clinical factors that were unique to women who experience SCA. Women were significantly less likely than men to have severe LV dysfunction as a precursor to SCA. In addition, there was a significantly lower likelihood of women having an established diagnosis of CAD before SCA. These findings coincided with trends toward higher prevalence of DM and hypertension in women. There were no significant sex differences in the mean body mass index or prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma, or LV hypertrophy. After correction for age, significant sex differences disappeared for the sex-specific QTc categories that account for underlying male-female differences in the QTc interval, but remained for QTc measured continuously. This may imply that when the underlying longer QTc in women is taken into account, QTc does not appear to differentiate ...
In recent times, major advances have been made towards understanding sexual dimorphism in the brain on a molecular basis. This thesis summarises my modest contributions to these endeavours. Sexual dimorphisms are manifested throughout the spectrum of biological complexity, and can be studied by numerous approaches. The approach of this thesis is to explore sex-biased gene expression in mammalian somatic tissues. Paper I describes an evolutionarily conserved sexual gene expression pattern in the primate brain. Conserved sex-biased genes may underlie important sex differences in neurobiology. In Paper II, Y-chromosome genes expressed across several regions of the human male brain during mid-gestation are identified. Such genes may play male-specific roles during brain development. The studies of Papers III and IV explore sex-biased gene expression in several somatic tissues from mouse. The amount of genes with sex-biased expression varied in different brain regions. The striatum was particularly ...
The kidney functions in key physiological processes to filter blood and regulate blood pressure via key molecular transporters and ion channels. Sex-specific differences have been observed in renal disease incidence and progression, as well as acute kidney injury in response to certain drugs. Although advances have been made in characterizing the molecular components involved in various kidney functions, the molecular mechanisms responsible for sex differences are not well understood. We hypothesized that the basal expression levels of genes involved in various kidney functions throughout the life cycle will influence sex-specific susceptibilities to adverse renal events. Whole genome microarray gene expression analysis was performed on kidney samples collected from untreated male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats at eight age groups between 2 and 104 weeks of age. A combined filtering approach using statistical (ANOVA or pairwise t test, FDR 0.05) and fold-change criteria (|1.5 relative fold change)
Males and females often face divergent selective pressures because of inherent differences in reproductive strategy, and these differences can be reflected in life history traits, including reproductive effort, longevity, growth and metabolism (Cox and Calsbeek, 2009). In several species, some life history traits (e.g. longevity and basal metabolic rate) appear to be at sub-optimum levels for each sex, and selection related to these phenotypes acts in opposite directions on males and females (Berg and Maklakov, 2012; Boratynski et al., 2010). This suggests that sexually antagonistic selection has led to a phenotypic compromise (Bonduriansky and Chenoweth, 2009; Chapman et al., 2003). Sexually dimorphic gene expression is thought to provide a solution to sexual conflict (van Doorn, 2009), given that males and females share nearly identical genomes (reviewed in Ellegren and Parsch, 2007). Sexually dimorphic patterns of gene expression are thought to account for many of the physiological ...
It is not known if sex-based disparities in immunological factors contribute to the disease process in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hence, we examined whether circulating T cell subset proportions and their association with disease activity differed in male and female patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis (ueRA). Proportions of T cell subsets were analyzed in peripheral blood from 72 ueRA DMARD- and corticosteroid-naïve patients (50 females and 22 males) and in 31 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Broad analysis of helper and regulatory CD4+ T cell subsets was done using flow cytometry. Disease activity in patients was assessed using DAS28, CDAI, swollen joint counts, tender joint counts, CRP, and ESR. Multivariate factor analyses showed that male and female ueRA patients display distinct profiles of association between disease activity and circulating T cell subset proportions. In male, but not female, ueRA patients Th2 cells showed a positive association with disease activity and
Sexual reproduction in most multi-cellular species requires the development of sex-specific adult structures and the potential to perform sex-specific behaviors. These adult sex-specific phenotypes are typically patterned during development. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of how the genome is deployed in a sex-differential manner during development provides insight into how gene networks give rise to sex-specific traits. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an excellent model system for studying how sex-specific differences are established at the molecular-genetic level. The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy is responsible for establishing adult sex-specific morphologies and behaviors through an alternative pre-mRNA splicing cascade that culminates in the production of sex-specific transcription factors encoded by doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Little is known, however, about the genes regulated by these transcription factors during development.; Metamorphosis is the ...
Sexual reproduction in most multi-cellular species requires the development of sex-specific adult structures and the potential to perform sex-specific behaviors. These adult sex-specific phenotypes are typically patterned during development. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of how the genome is deployed in a sex-differential manner during development provides insight into how gene networks give rise to sex-specific traits. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an excellent model system for studying how sex-specific differences are established at the molecular-genetic level. The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy is responsible for establishing adult sex-specific morphologies and behaviors through an alternative pre-mRNA splicing cascade that culminates in the production of sex-specific transcription factors encoded by doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Little is known, however, about the genes regulated by these transcription factors during development.; Metamorphosis is the ...
Although sex-related differences of cardiovascular outcomes exist (16), this may relate to a sex-specific clustering of risk factors (17). Yet, differential treatment patterns for cardiovascular disease in men and women may also contribute to differences in clinical outcome between the sexes (18-20). Statins comprise the cornerstone of our current antiatherosclerotic armamentarium, yielding widespread clinical benefits. A consistent under-representation of women in randomized clinical trials, however, has led to the publication of meta-analyses reporting conflicting results regarding the efficacy of statins in women (21,22). This inconsistency has created confusion and controversy among physicians, resulting in some openly questioning the merits of prescribing statins to women (5,23,24), despite clinical trials that enrolled both men and women reporting benefit (25).. This analysis reports the novel finding of sex-related differences of the serial response of coronary atheroma following 2 years ...
Background Many genes produce multiple transcripts due to alternative splicing or utilization of alternative transcription initiation/termination sites. This transcriptome expansion is thought to increase phenotypic complexity by allowing a single locus to produce several functionally distinct proteins. However, sex, genetic and developmental variation in the representation of alternative transcripts has never been examined systematically. Here, we describe a genome-wide analysis of sex-specific expression of alternative transcripts in Drosophila melanogaster. Results We compared transcript profiles in males and females from eight Drosophila lines (OregonR and2b, and 6 RIL) using a newly designed 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray that allows us to distinguish a large proportion of alternative transcripts. The new microarray incorporates 7,207 oligonucleotides, satisfying stringent binding and specificity criteria that target both the common and the unique regions of 2,768 multi-transcript genes, as
There is growing evidence of a camouflaging effect among females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly among those without intellectual disability, which may affect performance on gold-standard diagnostic measures. This study utilized an age- and IQ-matched sample of school-aged youth (n …
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The powerful pressures of sexual and natural selection associated with species recognition and reproduction are thought to manifest in a faster rate of evolution in sex-biased genes, an effect that has been documented particularly for male-biased genes expressed in the reproductive tract. However, little is known about the rate of evolution for genes involved in sexually dimorphic behaviors, which often form the neurological basis of intrasexual competition and mate choice. We used microarray data, designed to uncover sex-biased expression patterns in embryonic chicken brain, in conjunction with data on the rate of sequence evolution for ,4,000 coding regions aligned between chicken and zebra finch in order to study the role of selection in governing the molecular evolution for sex-biased and unbiased genes. Surprisingly, we found that female-biased genes, defined across a range of cutoff values, show a higher rate of functional evolution than both male-biased and unbiased genes. Autosomal ...
Many animals exhibit innate sexually dimorphic sexual behaviours. Male flies, for example, follow elaborate courtship rituals to secure a female mate. Nervous system sexual dimorphisms probably underlie many sex-specific behaviours, but how are these neuronal dimorphisms generated? On p. 323, David Mellert and colleagues report that one such dimorphism - midline crossing by gustatory (taste) receptor neuron (GRN) axons in male, but not female, Drosophila - is regulated by the sex determination genes fruitless (fru) and doublesex (dsx) and the Roundabout (Robo) axon guidance receptors. fru and dsx are regulated during pre-RNA splicing to produce male- and female-specific isoforms, with female-specific fru mRNA not being translated. The researchers show that, in male flies, male-specific Fru and Dsx promote midline crossing by foreleg GRN axons, whereas in female flies, female-specific Dsx represses midline crossing. They also show that male-specific Fru exerts its effect on midline crossing by ...
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are key actors of innate immunity that produce high levels of interferon (IFN)-alpha after activation of their Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) by pathogens. A difference between men and women has recently been shown in the level of IFN-alpha produced by pDCs after TLR activation. The production of IFN-alpha in response to TLR7 activation is higher in the presence of estrogens. This could be responsible for gender differences in the level of plasma HIV-1 RNA, that is lower in female as compared to male by about 50%, and for the sex-based differences in the susceptibility to HIV infection. Besides the role of estrogens, X-linked genetic factors could also be involved in the sex-dependent differences in the TLR7-mediated responses of pDCs. TLR7 gene is located on the X chromosome. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TLR7 gene, c.32A,T, have been associated with accelerated disease progression in male HIV patients, and was found over represented in female HIV ...
In this follow-up study of the offspring of women participating in an RCT for the treatment of mild GDM, we observed no difference in the overall frequency of obesity or metabolic dysfunction at ages 5-10 years according to whether treatment was undertaken. We did, however, observe sex-specific differences according to treatment with respect to childhood blood glucose levels. Mild GDM treatment was associated with a decreased frequency of impaired fasting glucose, lower fasting glucose, and lower log HOMA-IR in female offspring at ages 5-10 years but not in male offspring.. This follow-up study represents the largest of its kind in offspring from a randomized treatment trial for mild GDM. The follow-up rate of 55% in those eligible from the original RCT was accomplished despite this being an unplanned study at the time we conducted the RCT. However, enrollment of 500 children fell short of our goal of 600 needed to observe at least a one-third reduction in childhood obesity with treatment with ...
Schalekamp-Timmermans S, Arends L, Alsaker E, Chappell L, Hansson S, Harsem N, et al.. Fetal sex-specific differences in gestational age at delivery in pre-eclampsia: a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46(2):632-642. ...
Over the past two decades, we have learned a lot about how men and women respond differently to medications. This knowledge came after a concerted effort in the early 90s to increase the number of women in NIH-funded clinical research. Today, just over half of NIH-funded clinical research participants are women. Unfortunately, experimental design in cell and animal research has not always followed suit. Over-reliance on male animals and neglect of attention to the sex of cells used in research can lead to oversight of key sex-related differences. These differences should guide clinical studies, and ultimately, clinical practice. In 2014, the NIH began instituting a new policy that requires applicants to report their plans for the balance of male and female cells and animals in preclinical studies in all future grant applications, unless sex-specific inclusion is unwarranted. A commentary published in Nature by NIH Director Francis Collins, M.D., PH.D, and Director for Research on Womens ...
Many of us think of hormones as the gender-specific molecules we learned about in middle school health class-little chemical messengers that govern our reproductive development and behaviors. But sex steroids like testosterone and estrogen have reach beyond our nether regions and reproductive behaviors. They affect the entire brain both during development and throughout adult life: shaping, activating, and fueling sexually dimorphic brain circuits involved in stress and memory as well as several psychiatric disorders.. Sexual dimorphic brain development. Sex is determined by two chromosomes: men have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, while women have two X chromosomes. The Y chromosome contains the SRY gene, which triggers a flood of androgens (the group of hormones that includes testosterone) sometime between six and twelve weeks of gestation, guiding the development of the penis and testes. But this fetal testosterone bath also makes its mark on the brains architecture, resulting in ...
Stacy Sims (SS): There are sex differences from birth, but they arent really apparent until the onset of puberty- when there is the rise in testosterone in boys (stimulating muscle mass development), and the onset of the menstrual cycle. Here, it is always thought that it is the upswing in testosterone is what causes the massive difference in the ability to put on muscle mass in boys vs girls, but the upsurge in estrogen (and progesterone) in women affects the genetic expression for muscle cell turnover/protein synthesis. What I mean by this, is that estrogen turns "down" anabolic capacity of the muscle, and progesterone turns "up" the catabolism of muscle tissue. Additionally, elevated circulating levels of estrogen alters metabolism to "spare" carbohydrate/glycogen and increase circulating free fatty acids. When we look at this from the perspective of what happens during the menstrual cycle, the 10-14days preceeding bleeding is when estrogen and progesterone levels increase; and the effects ...
Background. Sex differences in LV mechanics exist at rest and during acute physiological stress. Differences in cardiac autonomic and adrenergic control may contribute to sex differences in LV mechanics and LV hemodynamics. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate sex differences in LV mechanics with altered adrenergic stimulation achieved through post handgrip exercise ischemia (PEI) and ß1-adrenergic receptor (AR) blockade. Methods and Results. 20 males (23±5 yr) and 20 females (22±3 yr) were specifically matched for LV length (males: 8.5±0.5 cm, females: 8.2±0.6 cm, p=0.163), and 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was used to assess LV structure and function at baseline, during PEI and following administration of 5mg bisoprolol (ß1-AR antagonist). During PEI, LV end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were increased in both groups (p,0.001), as was end-systolic wall stress (p,0.001). LV twist and apical rotation werent altered from baseline or different between the ...
Metz E. A study of the unconjugated steroids of bovine heart. II. Comparison of steroids of the male heart with those of the female heart. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1969;68(10):1052. doi: .. Download citation file:. ...
(2005) Gharaee-Kermani et al. American Journal of Pathology. The role of gender and sex hormones is unclear in host response to lung injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. To examine gender influence on pulmonary fibrosis, male and female rats were given endotr...
Claims of male-female differences in how genes affect disease often lack proper documentation or validation, experts report in the Aug. 22 29 issue of the Journ
Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have identified variants of a gene that if inherited by women may contribute to the development of depression.
Boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extreme male brain (EMB) theory of ASD suggests that fetal testosterone (FT) exposure may underlie sex diffe
Download this Male Heart vector illustration now. And search more of the webs best library of royalty-free vector art from iStock.
A typical sex difference in the human brain. Data from Tunç et al., 2016. (Donna Maney, CC BY-ND). Now lets consider a typical sex difference inside the human brain. This graph depicts a sex difference in structural connectivity, or the degree to which networks of brain areas are interconnected, as reported in a recent study (the median effect size from the study is shown). The distributions of values for men and women are essentially the same; they overlap by 90 percent. Sue and Bob have fairly similar values, and Anns value is higher than the average mans.. We can see that this sex difference in the brain is quite different from the sex difference in genital measurements. With only the measurement of brain connectivity, the odds of correctly guessing a persons sex might be as low as 51 out of 100. Since the odds arent perfectly 50:50, this is technically a sex difference. The term means that sex explains a portion of the variability in a trait, not that men take one form and women ...
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain. I present interdisciplinary research which indicates that the stress-regulating circuits of the male brain mature more slowly than those of the female in the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal critical periods, and that this differential structural maturation is reflected in normal gender differences in right-brain attachment functions. Due to this maturational delay, developing males also are more vulnerable over a longer ...
Brizendine, L. (2010). The Male Brain. New York: Broadway Books.. What makes a man? For a neurobiologist, not too much more than hormones. Dr. Louann Brizendine, a medical doctor with a specialty in neurobiology, dissects men in her latest book, The Male Brain, having taken on women in 2006. For Brizendine, its all nature, no nurture; her neuropsychiatric perspective has a way of reducing men to that which can be proven clinically. While this approach has its shortcomings, she simultaneously offers a fresh alternative to the current gender neutral vision espoused by most womens studies departments. The reality is that what she presents as groundbreaking science is oftentimes common sense. The Male Brain may well be the "brains eye view of male behaviour." Its just that as anyones experience will tell, theres more to life than one organ.. Each chapter covers men at a different stage in their biological development. Starting with a chapter entitled "The Boy Brain" and ending with "The Mature ...
Kevin Hochstenbach, Danitsja van Leeuwen, Hans Gmuender, Ralf W. Gottschalk, Martinus Løvik, Berit Granum, Unni Cecilie Nygaard, Ellen Namork, Micheline Kirsch-Volders, Ilse Decordier, Kim Vande Loock, Harrie Besselink, Margareta Törnqvist, Hans von Stedingk, Per Rydberg, Jos C Kleinjans, Henk van Loveren, Joost H M van Delft, (2012). Global Gene Expression Analysis in Cord Blood Reveals Gender-Specific Differences in Response to Carcinogenic Exposure In Utero. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention s. 1756-1767. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0304 ...
The most powerful male hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of the secondary sexual characters. It is produced by testicular Leydig
download man and woman. a study of secondary and tertiary sexual is a bottom for, and abstraction a use in the birth of coal-fields, without any manner or malice to become this corporeity or pleasure. We include no movies, and such not want as finite to us: And if our century to another Mean from any application or Ship, it constitutes specifically, Then having, permanendi, but earth. But if we become these phenomena of download man and woman. a study of secondary and idea we shall establish them to be obvious circumstances, examining from comparative principles, which are moved by some great esse of temper and matter.
I wonder how you can tell a male from female octopus (without dissection)? Is there an external morphological difference, a size differences or do they...
Are male brains different from female brains? If so, how? And does it matter? This week, five researchers debated these questions at the annual meeting ...
View the short video ( He Say, She Says ) outlining Deborah Tannens work on gender differences with respect to communication. Given what you have read previously in DuBrins text on perception and individual differences, and.
Advances in evolutionary theory and current models of how sex influences the brain suggests that the interactions between genetic and hormonal components of sex, along with other factors, create variability between individuals for some gender-related traits. At the same time, environmental factors supply the stable conditions needed for the reproduction of those traits in each generation, they wrote ...
But, male and female are distinct conditions, and the normative purpose of all the hormones and chemical balances is to generate individuals who are male, or female.. Male and female are not "conditions", they are functions. And their only required function is reproduction. Other than that, nature doesnt give a fig about the genders, their qualities and mindsets, their "divine purpose" or whatever thoughts and feelings run through their minds. This is evident in the extreme range of possible characters and qualities present among people of both sexes, and of course the vast overlap between the sexes, including in some cases some very unusual personalities and habits. Nature doesnt care if it produces some very strange combinations of these things in any given individual, because it isnt aiming at some sort of ideal person or sexual character, as some religions are given to assume. Its literally not aiming at anything so boring as that, because the very purpose of sexual reproduction is to ...
Feeling under appreciated at the office? A recent study claims that managers are more likely to reward employees who are similar to them.
The genetic mosaicism of womens brains may lead to an interesting sex difference that spans many different traits: men show more within-sex variability than do women.
That suggests women are better than guys at responding calmly to rudeness or aggression. "The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is the main modulator of amygdala action," explains researcher Ruben Gur. "So if you are at a party and someone insults you, the amygdala, which is a very primitive and old structure in human brains, will be yelling Kill the guy! The OFC is the part of the brain that will say: Consider the context; there are people around." Thus, if you want to impress her, quiet your own amygdala and behave as gracefully as she does ...
How well do you know the opposite sex? Test your knowledge in the ultimate battle of male vs. female, where no topic is out of bounds. And, see the...
A bigger pair of genital lobes characterize the female pupa.\nSometimes the pupae of the two sexes differ in the types of setae present. There are a series of pregenital setae located on the posterior margin of the eight sternite of the pupa.\nIn the females only the first medial is present, and it is about as far from the first lateral as is the second lateral. [ISBN:0-19-857353-7 ...