Background Pneumococcal serotype identification is essential to monitor pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness and serotype replacement. Sequetyping PCR failed in 7/40 (18%) Jaceosidin manufacture isolates. For the rest of the isolates, sequetyping designated the right serotype/-group to 29/33 (88%) control isolates. From the 132/135 (98%) nasopharyngeal pneumococcal isolates that may be typed, 69/132 (52%) and 112/132 (85%) had been assigned the right serotype/-group by rmPCR and sequetyping respectively. The serotypes of 63/132 (48%) isolates werent contained in the rmPCR -panel. All except three isolates (serotype 25A and 38) had been theoretically amplified and differentiated in to the right serotype/-group with some strains providing ambigous outcomes (serotype 13/20, 17F/33C, and 11A/D/1818F). From the pneumococcal serotypes recognized with this scholarly research, 69/91 (76%) werent contained Jaceosidin manufacture in the current PCV13. Probably the most determined serotypes had been 11A ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is both a commensal and a major pathogen that causes invasive disease in people of all ages. The introduction of serotype-specific pneumococcal vaccines has reduced the burden of disease but has also led to replacement with new strains; thus, serotyping remains important for vaccine-related disease surveillance. Conventional serotyping methods are laborious and expensive. We developed an easy-to-perform genotypic TaqMan array card (TAC) to identify S. pneumoniae strains, including lytA-based sequences, and 53 sequence-specific PCRs to identify 74 serotypes/serogroups covering all current vaccine types as well as prevalent nonvaccine types. The TAC method was evaluated on 146 clinical S. pneumoniae isolates and 13 nonpneumococcal species that naturally inhabit the upper respiratory tract and yielded 97% (142/146) sensitivity and 100% (13/13) specificity versus results of standard Quellung serotyping. The calculated limit of detection was 20 to 200 fg (∼8 to 84 genome
Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotyping remains critical in the epidemiological surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The Quellung reaction is the gold standard for serotyping pneumococci. In recent years, some alternative serotyping procedures that include PCR, real-time PCR, sequencing analysis of specific genes, and whole genome sequencing, have been developed.1 Some of these techniques are reduced to a limited number of detectable serotypes2 or require expensive equipment (sequencing analysis).1 Recently, a commercial assay S. PneumoStrip test (Operon S.A., Zaragoza, Spain) for pneumococcal serotyping in strains isolated in culture, based on PCR followed by reverse strip hybridisation, has been reported as easy, sensitive and specific procedure.3 The targets of the test are 76 serotypes (42 individually and 34 in pairs). The objective of this work was to assess the performance of the S. PneumoStrip test for the detection of S. pneumoniae serotypes directly in ...
The Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA) is a multiplex, nucleic acid-based assay for use in identifying the serotype of a Salmonella isolate.
The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and non-labour-intensive molecular method to identify the phase 1 H antigens of Salmonella. The variable region of the flagellin gene, fliC, from 96 Salmonella strains representing 51 different phase 1 H antigens was sequenced in one direction. Unique sequences were found for 45 of the 51 different antigens. We were not able to separate either H:z42 from H:d; H:g, q from H:g, m, q; H:l, w from H:Rl, z40 or H:l, (v),z13 from H:l,z,13. Several phase 2 H antigens were found to be encoded by fliC. Polymorphism, at the subspecies level, was observed in fliC of H:b, H:d, H:z10, H:z and especially H:k. By this method we were also able to confirm that one monophasic strain possesses a new antigen, H:z91. This study shows that sequence-based typing of the phase 1 H antigen of Salmonella is a good alternative to serotyping when strains are non-typable by serological methods ...
Video created by Technical University of Denmark (DTU) for the course Whole genome sequencing of bacterial genomes - tools and applications. Whole genome sequencing tools- demonstration of analysis tools for Serotyping of Salmonella and ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a bacterium commonly found in the throat of young children. Pneumococcal serotypes can cause a variety of invasive and non-invasive diseases such as meningitis and pneumonia. In 2000 a vaccine was introduced in the USA that not only prevents vaccine type disease but has also been shown to eliminate carriage of the vaccine serotypes. One key problem with the vaccine is that it has been observed that the same sequence types (genetic material found in the serotypes) are able to manifest in more than one serotype. This is a potential problem if sequence types associated with invasive disease may express themselves in multiple serotypes. We present a basic differential equation mathematical model for exploring the relationship between sequence types and serotypes where a sequence type is able to manifest itself in one vaccine serotype and one non-vaccine serotype. An expression for the effective reproduction number is found and an equilibrium and then a ...
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2017 The Authors. The competitive pressure from non-vaccine serotypes may have helped pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to limit vaccine-Type (VT) serotype prevalence. We aimed to investigate if, consequently, the indirect protection of vaccines targeting most pneumococcal serotypes could fall short of the profound effects of current formulations.We compared three previously described pneumococcal models harmonized to simulate 20 serotypes with a combined pre-vaccination prevalence in children younger than 5-years-old of 40%. We simulated vaccines of increasing valency by adding serotypes in order of their competitiveness and explored their ability to reduce VT carriage by 95% within 10 years after introduction. All models predicted that additional valency will reduce indirect vaccine effects and hence the overall vaccine impact on carriage both in children and adults. Consequently, the minimal effective coverage (efficacy against carriage vaccine coverage) needed to eliminate VT carriage ...
We present here a parsimonious mechanistic model, developed as a generalization of existing deterministic models of pneumococcal transmission, which is capable of reproducing many of the distinct features of S. pneumoniae. We show that the means of non-specific and specific immunity are capable of governing the patterns of between-host competition and coexistence, and that stochastic effects in low prevalent serotypes may result in apparent epidemics, if these serotypes also have a high propensity to cause invasive disease (as has been observed in several countries with serotype 1, for instance). We further show that high carriage prevalence observed in developing country settings [25] and in native populations [36] might arise from a less effective immune response (owing to malnutrition, genetic differences or other factors) rather than differences in the number of contacts alone. Moreover, we use the model to assess the impact of vaccination, and contrast a vaccine targeted at the most ...
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), caused by infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, has a substantial global burden. There are over 90 known serotypes of S. pneumoniae with a considerable body of evidence supporting serotype-specific mortality rates immediately following IPD. This is the first study to consider the association between serotype and longer-term mortality following IPD. Using enhanced surveillance data from the North East of England we assessed both the short-term (30-day) and longer-term (⩽7 years) independent adjusted associations between individual serotypes and mortality following IPD diagnosis using logistic regression and extended Cox proportional hazards models. Of the 1316 cases included in the analysis, 243 [18·5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16·4-20·7] died within 30 days of diagnosis. Four serotypes (3, 6A, 9N, 19 F) were significantly associated with overall increased 30-day mortality. Effects were observable only for older adults (⩾60 years). After ...
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors of various serotypes are considered to have high potential for gene therapy applications. Currently, manufacturing
Ready-to-use AAV available from Addgenes viral service. Control EGFP vectors in various serotypes for serotype testing: AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV8 and AAV9
Serotype distribution and PCV immunization coverage among the S. pneumoniae isolates. a. Serotypes and immunization coverage rates of PCVs among all age groups.
CDC DENV-1-4 : real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and serotype identification of dengue virus : instructions for use package insert [Spanish] : El ensayo de RT-PCR en tiempo real para DENV-1-4 de los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enf ...
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Veterinary Sciences, VETERINARY SCIENCES, HIGH-PATHOGENICITY ISLAND, IN-VIVO EXPRESSION, FIBRONECTIN-BINDING, SERUM RESISTANCE, P-FIMBRIAE, FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE, SALMONELLA-ENTERITIDIS, COMPLEMENT RESISTANCE, AGGREGATIVE FIMBRIAE, CURLI PRODUCTION ...
ViroTag® ADVX (for manual sampling) utilizes a fluorescently-labeled, high-affinity antibody which binds to a unique epitope specifically expressed on adenovirus. The product has been shown to quantify multiple serotypes (2-6) and is considered pan-reactive. With the Virus Counter 3100, use this rapid, no-wash labeling procedure and take adenovirus quantification to new levels of accuracy, speed and simplicity!. Product specifications: The ViroTag ADVX kit (catalog number 92097) contains all reagents and consumables necessary to analyze 200 samples using the Virus Counter 3100 instrument for manual sampling, including:. ...
abms RNAi Expression System is now available in Adeno-Associated Virus format, combining the efficient expression of any siRNA with the advantage of non-integrating AAV for a new, powerful gene knockdown tool for gene therapy. The system is based on a unique convergent promoter design for greater efficiency of target gene knockdown without the need for a hair-pin loop structure commonly utilized in single promoter vectors, and includes a GFP reporter for monitoring transduction. abm offers a comprehensive library of human, mouse, and rat siRNAs in vector or pre-packaged AAV formats, available in multiple serotypes for tissue-specific knockdown.
Hi, I am trying to locate a commercial source for rabbit polyclonal antibodies to HIV P24 and gp120. I hope to use these in Western blots of clinical iso- lates and would hope that they would have cross-reactivity with multiple serotypes. Thanks, --Tom ...
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Isolation, serotyping, antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentration and phatogeneticity determination of erysipelothrixrhusiopathiae from tonsils of apparently healthy slaughter pigs.
E. coli serotype K99 Pili Antibody (K9912-418.2), MA1-10797, from Invitrogen™. Species Reactivity: Bacteria; Applications: ELISA Shop E. coli serotype K99 Pili Mouse
Some of the worlds top scientists are gathering at Penn State next week for an invitation-only workshop to discuss how to reach a consensus on techniques to identify new serotypes of E. coli. Penn States 50-year-old E. coli Reference Center is hosting the international meeting. We hope the workshop here can lead to a consensus, said… Continue Reading. ...
Some of the worlds top scientists are gathering at Penn State next week for an invitation-only workshop to discuss how to reach a consensus on techniques to identify new serotypes of E. coli. Penn States 50-year-old E. coli Reference Center is hosting the international meeting. We hope the workshop here can lead to a consensus, said… Continue Reading. ...
AAV serotypes 1 and 6 share 99% homology in that only a 6 amino acid difference separates the two. Researchers were able to individually change these amino acids to represent the residue expressed by the other serotype and vice versa. The amino acids and their changes are listed below for this plasmid and include the parental residue, position of the residue, and residue changed to. XR1.3-E531K ...
AAV serotypes 1 and 6 share 99% homology in that only a 6 amino acid difference separates the two. Researchers were able to individually change these amino acids to represent the residue expressed by the other serotype and vice versa. The amino acids and their changes are listed below for this plasmid and include the parental residue, position of the residue, and residue changed to. XR1.1-L129F ...
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Definition of quellung reaction in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of quellung reaction. What does quellung reaction mean? Information and translations of quellung reaction in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent. Serotypes 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 14 and 1/2 are the most prevalent serotypes of this pathogen. However, almost all studies were carried out on serotype 2 strains. Therefore, characterization of genomic features of other serotypes will be required to better understand their virulence potential and phylogenetic relationships among different serotypes. Four Chinese S. suis strains belonging to serotypes 1, 7, 9 and 1/2 were sequenced using a rapid, high-throughput approach. Based on the 13 corresponding serotype strains, including 9 previously completed genomes of this bacterium, a full comparative genomic analysis was performed. The results provide evidence that (i) the pan-genome of this species is open and the size increases with addition of new sequenced genomes, (ii) strains of serotypes 1, 3, 7 and 9 are phylogenetically distinct from serotype 2 strains, but all serotype 2 strains, plus the serotype 1/2 and 14 strains, are
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent. Serotypes 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 14 and 1/2 are the most prevalent serotypes of this pathogen. However, almost all studies were carried out on serotype 2 strains. Therefore, characterization of genomic features of other serotypes will be required to better understand their virulence potential and phylogenetic relationships among different serotypes. Four Chinese S. suis strains belonging to serotypes 1, 7, 9 and 1/2 were sequenced using a rapid, high-throughput approach. Based on the 13 corresponding serotype strains, including 9 previously completed genomes of this bacterium, a full comparative genomic analysis was performed. The results provide evidence that (i) the pan-genome of this species is open and the size increases with addition of new sequenced genomes, (ii) strains of serotypes 1, 3, 7 and 9 are phylogenetically distinct from serotype 2 strains, but all serotype 2 strains, plus the serotype 1/2 and 14 strains, are
A number of investigators in a variety of countries have compared these two serotyping protocols in terms of the strengths and advantages of each and what they have achieved since their introduction; however, it is difficult to compare O antigen typing results to those of HL antigen typing given that each scheme is used to detect different antigens on the bacterium. In 1985, Patton et al. (21) performed a comparative study using the Penner and Lior methods for serotyping Campylobacter. Their findings indicated that 96.1% of isolates were typeable by the Penner method and that 92.1% were typeable by the Lior method. In 1993, a second study by the same group determined that, of a representative sample of 298 Campylobacter isolates from across the United States, a total of 24 O antisera were needed to serotype 84.6% of the strains by the HS scheme (20). Among the most common serotypes were O:1 (or O:1,8), O:13,16,43,50, O:8 (or O:8,17), O:4, O:5−,5+, O:2, O:3, O:6,7,25,29, O:19, and O:15,38. One ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diagnostic accuracy of a serotype-specific antigen test in community-acquired pneumonia. AU - Huijts, S.M.. AU - Pride, M.W.. AU - Vos, J.M.. AU - Jansen, K.U.. AU - Webber, C.. AU - Gruber, W.. AU - Boersma, W.G.. AU - Snijders, D.. AU - Kluijtmans, J.A.J.W.. AU - van der Lee, I.. AU - Kuipers, B.A.. AU - van den Ende, A.. AU - Bonten, M.J.M.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. U2 - 10.1183/09031936.00137412. DO - 10.1183/09031936.00137412. M3 - Article. C2 - 23397295. VL - 42. SP - 1283. EP - 1290. JO - European Respiratory Journal. JF - European Respiratory Journal. SN - 0903-1936. IS - 5. ER - ...
New serotypes of pneumococcus have begun to colonize the nasopharynx of children since the introduction of the PCV13 vaccine in 2010, according to recent research data.. Here we provided analysis of 9 years of results, 2006 to 2015, and showed the adaptability of the pneumococcus to respond to vaccine pressure, Ravinder Kaur, PhD, at the center for infectious diseases and immunology at Rochester General Hospital Research Institute, and colleagues wrote. PCVs effectively eliminate all or nearly all of the strains expressing capsules corresponding to the polysaccharide-protein antigens in the vaccines. However, new serotypes quickly emerge to take the place of the strains eliminated.. After the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in 2000 in the United States, the researchers wrote, there was a decrease in nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by vaccine serotypes. Within 2 years, however, there was an increase in NP colonization ...
From the CDCs Pink Book:. Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria are lancet-shaped, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic organisms. They are typically observed in pairs (diplococci) but may also occur singularly or in short chains. Some pneumococci are encapsulated, their surfaces composed of complex polysaccharides. Encapsulated organisms are pathogenic for humans and experimental animals, whereas organisms without capsular polysaccharides are not. Most S. pneumoniae serotypes have been shown to cause serious disease, but only a few serotypes produce the majority of pneumococcal infections. The 10 most common serotypes are estimated to account for about 62% of invasive disease worldwide. The ranking and serotype prevalence differ by patient age group and geographic area. In the United States, the seven most common serotypes isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children younger than 6 years of age account for 80% of infections. These seven serotypes account for only about 50% of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A mathematical model for the spread of Strepotococcus pneumoniae with transmission dependent on serotype. AU - Greenhalgh, David. AU - Lamb, Karen Elaine. AU - Robertson, Christopher. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - We examine a mathematical model for the transmission of Streptococcus Pneumoniae amongst young children when the carriage transmission coefficient depends on the serotype. Carriage means pneumococcal colonization. There are two sequence types (STs) spreading in a population each of which can be expressed as one of two serotypes. We derive the differential equation model for the carriage spread and perform an equilibrium and global stability analysis on it. A key parameter is the effective reproduction number R e. For R e ≤ 1, there is only the carriage-free equilibrium (CFE) and the carriage will die out whatever be the starting values. For R e , 1, unless the effective reproduction numbers of the two STs are equal, in addition to the CFE there are two carriage ...
Antisera against hexons of serotypes 2, 4, 5, and 6 (subgroup III), and 15 (subgroup II) were absorbed with purified hexons of various serotypes representing the different subgroups of human adenoviruses. Group, subgroup, and type specificities of hexons could be distinguished. The subgroup specificity of type 4 hexons resembled that of hexons of subgroup I members (types 3, 11, and 16). Antihexon sera gave a type-specific inhibition of virion-associated hemagglutinin. The inhibiting activity of different sera was found to be inversely related to the length of fibers of the serotype concerned. Virions of serotypes carrying fibers shorter than about 20 nm (types 3, 4, 9, 11, and 15) were readily inhibited, whereas those of serotypes with longer fibers (types 2 and 6) were inhibited only by relatively large amounts of antibody measured in terms of homotypic complement fixation activity. The reciprocal cross-neutralization between serotypes 4 and 16 was studied separately. Hexons of both serotypes ...
Recent nasopharyngeal colonization with a new serotype almost always precedes infection.4,5 Colonization rates are highest in infants and preschool children, where they may be as high as 35%.4 Children may carry different serotypes at different times but are almost always colonized by those limited serotypes responsible for infections in this age group.2 Carriage rates are lower in older children (40-50%) and in adults (5-30%).6,7 PCV7 includes the 7 most common serotypes causing colonization and infection in children (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F). These serotypes and the cross-reactive serotypes (6A, 9A, 9L, 18B, 18F) caused 86% of cases of bacteremia, 83% of cases of meningitis, and 65% of cases of acute otitis media in children younger than 6 years.3 These serotypes also accounted for more than 80% of penicillin-resistant colonizing serotypes.8 ...
Molecular approaches to the rapid analysis of the serotyping antigens of Neisseria meningitidis, the class 2 and 3 outer membrane proteins (OMPs), were developed, evaluated, and used to study 12 antigenic variants of these proteins. A primer set for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the genes encoding these antigens was devised. Low-stringency amplification of meningococcal chromosomal DNA with this primer set resulted in the amplification of two products from each strain, whereas at higher stringencies only one product was amplified in most strains. Southern hybridization techniques and restriction analyses were used to differentiate the PCR products amplified at high stringencies from strains expressing class 2 or class 3 OMPs; these PCR products were further characterized by the determination of their nucleotide sequences, confirming that they represented the amplified class 2 and class 3 OMP genes. Analyses of these and other nucleotide sequences enabled the construction of a
Looking for quellung? Find out information about quellung. Swelling of the capsule of a bacterial cell, caused by contact with serum containing antibodies capable of reacting with polysaccharide material in the... Explanation of quellung
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are a class of single stranded DNA viruses that are not able to replicate without a helper virus. This makes them a perfect tool for the iGEM community, as no special safety requirements have to be fulfilled to work with a non-replication virus, because it is non-pathogenic. Because of their wide range of tropism they are used for transgene delivery in a variety of gene therapeutic approaches. In the class of AAVs, there are several serotypes that have been isolated from humans or non-human primates, the first and most well-known of them being AAV2. AAV serotypes are defined as naturally evolved variants of AAV that do not react to the same antibodies. All serotypes show different tissue specificites when injected into mouse or humans, and this tissue tropism is thought to be mainly due to interactions between the virus capsid and receptors on the cell surface. Most AAVs exhibit a rather broad tropism, AAV2 and AAV9 for example have been shown to transduce liver, ...
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are a class of single stranded DNA viruses that are not able to replicate without a helper virus. This makes them a perfect tool for the iGEM community, as no special safety requirements have to be fulfilled to work with a non-replication virus, because it is non-pathogenic. Because of their wide range of tropism they are used for transgene delivery in a variety of gene therapeutic approaches. In the class of AAVs, there are several serotypes that have been isolated from humans or non-human primates, the first and most well-known of them being AAV2. AAV serotypes are defined as naturally evolved variants of AAV that do not react to the same antibodies. All serotypes show different tissue specificites when injected into mouse or humans, and this tissue tropism is thought to be mainly due to interactions between the virus capsid and receptors on the cell surface. Most AAVs exhibit a rather broad tropism, AAV2 and AAV9 for example have been shown to transduce liver, ...
Despite the fact that more than 180 serotypes were characterised in this laboratory, the majority of incidents were due to only a few serotypes: 13 serotypes were responsible for 67.7 % of the total incidents (Table 1). Serovar Typhimurium was by far the most common, being recorded in 917 incidents (representing 26.8 % of the total), the majority of which occurred in poultry (598 incidents) in which it accounted for 65 % of the incidents. It was also the most common serotype reported in cattle (187 incidents), pigs (90 incidents) and sheep (42 incidents). As expected, the host-adapted serotypes such as S. Dublin, S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis were almost exclusively isolated from cattle, pigs and poultry respectively. The low numbers of S. Gallinarum isolated from chickens was unusual but not unexpected. Biotyping methods identified these bacteria as S. Gallinarum and not S. Pullorum. Serovar Gallinarum is a common cause of septicaemia in layers and is frequently isolated by laboratories ...
About half of all WAIHA cases will have an autoantibody that reacts with all cells tested, including donor cells. The presence of an IgG autoantibody can be confirmed by elution. Elution is the process by which RBC-bound antibody is removed from the red cells and recovered, being sure that antibody reactivity is maintained so that antibody specificity can be determined. The eluate is usually reactive with all cells tested. Most IgG autoantibodies have an Rh-like specificity, such as anti-e. In order to identify the specific antibody, the laboratory would need to have a supply of rare cells such as Rhnull and D-- cells. Other specificities include those to high incidence antigens or a null phenotype. Examples include autoanti-U, autoanti-Wrb, autoanti-Ena, autoanti-Kpb, and autoanti-Vel ...
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Two hundred and thirty-two strains of Escherichia coli belonging to infantile enteropathogenic serotypes isolated in the United Kingdom during 1980 and 1981 were tested for resistance to 10 antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to one or more drugs was found in 134 (57.8%) of the strains, with resistance to sulphonamides, streptomycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin occurring most commonly. Resistance was transferable in 65 out of 104 resistant strains. These findings are a cause for concern because they indicate that the choice of treatment for severe illness is limited and suggest that a large pool of drug-resistant organisms exists in the community. ...
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A biovar is a variant prokaryotic strain that differs physiologically or biochemically from other strains in a particular species.[1][2] Morphovars (or morphotypes) are those strains that differ morphologically. Serovars (or serotypes) are those strains that have antigenic properties that differ from other strains. ...
ONCOS-102 (previously known as CGTG-102) is a genetically modified replication competent oncolytic human adenovirus based on serotype 5. It is armed with GMCSF transgene and has a 24 bp deletion restraining the replication exclusively in tumors. The viral capsid has been modified for effective transduction of tumor cells. ...
Identification of the specific O serogroup(s) responsible for the positive STEC result and verifies that all targets relevant to the definition of a Top 6 STEC (eae, stx and O group) are present within a single ...