We conducted a seroepidemiologic study during an outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in a boarding school in England. Overall, 353 (17%) of students and staff completed a questionnaire and provided a serum sample. The attack rate was 40.5% and 34.1% for self-reported acute respiratory infection (ARI). Staff were less likely to be seropositive than students 13-15 years of age (staff 20-49 years, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.30; >50 years AOR 0.20). Teachers were more likely to be seropositive than other staff (AOR 7.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31-24.2). Of seropositive persons, 44.6% (95% CI 36.2%-53.3%) did not report ARI. Conversely, of 141 with ARI and 63 with influenza-like illness, 45.8% (95% CI 37.0%-54.0%) and 30.2% (95% CI 19.2%-43.0%) had negative test results, respectively. A weak association was found between seropositivity and a prophylactic dose of antiviral agents (AOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30-0.99); prophylactic antiviral agents lowered the odds of ARI by 50 ...
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease with severe manifestations in HIV-positive human patients. In 1978 the overall sero-prevalence of toxoplasmosis in human patients in South Africa was found to be 20%. Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients is known to be a cause of sometimes fatal complications, such as encephalomyelitis and ocular lesions. According to the literature, mutton infected with the cysts of Toxoplasma gondii is an important route of transmission to humans who ingest under-cooked meat, or eat with unwashed hands after working with meat. There is no data on the sero-prevalence in sheep in South Africa, although this is available for most other countries, including Zimbabwe. The aim of this study was to estimate the sero-prevalence of T.gondii in sheep in South Africa and to discuss the zoonotic aspects related to the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in humans. Three-stage cluster sampling was done where five different provinces randomly chosen from all the provinces in South Africa ...
This study describes the seroprevalence of infection with the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in an enclosed institutional environment and provides evidence of widespread infection among both students and staff before the outbreak became evident to public health authorities. Attack rates for infection were estimated as 40.5% by serologic testing and as 34.1% by clinical illness (ARI). An estimated 44.7% serology-positive persons did not report symptoms of ARI, which agreed with previous findings (10,23). No significant association was found between seropositivity and prophylaxis with antiviral drugs, although some evidence showed that it reduced the odds of ARI. The point estimate of the AOR indicated nonsignificant increased odds of infection (indicated by serologic results) for persons who had received the 2008-09 seasonal influenza vaccine, although it did not increase the odds for ARI.. Our study has some limitations, however. The uncertainty regarding the associated illness of pandemic (H1N1) ...
Academic Journals Database is a universal index of periodical literature covering basic research from all fields of knowledge, and is particularly strong in medical research, humanities and social sciences. Full-text from most of the articles is available. Academic Journals Database contains complete bibliographic citations, precise indexing, and informative abstracts for papers from a wide range of periodicals.
To evaluate prospectively the association between serological markers of selected infections, including HPV, and risk of developing cervical cancer (CC) and precancer, we performed a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study that included 184 cases of invasive CC (ICC), 425 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or carcinoma in situ (CIS), and 1,218 matched control women. At enrollment participants completed lifestyle questionnaires and provided sera. Subjects were followed-up for a median of 9 years. Immunoassays were used to detect serum antibodies to Human Herpes Virus 2 (HHV-2), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Chlamydia pneumoniae, L1 proteins of mucosal and cutaneous HPV types, E6/E7 proteins of HPV16/18, as well as to four polyomaviruses. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) [and 95% confidence intervals (CI)] for CIN3/CIS and ICC risk were respectively: 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.8 (1.1-2.7) for L1 seropositivity to any mucosal HPV
Background : Major risk factors for invasive cervical cancer include infection with human papillomavirus HPV, infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens e.g., Chla-mydia trachomatis, and smoking. Since exposures to these risk factors can be related, the contribution of any single factor to cervical carcinogenesis has been difficult to...
Background: Hepatitis is a disease causing inflammation of the liver and impairment of its function .It is often transmitted through contaminated blood and blood products and may become chronic presenting with flu like symptoms .Also fatigue , loss of appetite , myalgia and arthralgia , nausea and vomiting are its remarkable symptoms. The aim ...
Author summary SARS-CoV-2 virus is transmitted via close contact with infected persons, airborne droplets, and contaminated surfaces. People in closed settings with COVID-19 patients, such as healthcare workers and household contacts, were more likely to become infected. Egypt, like all other countries, is currently facing the COVID-19 pandemic. However, data on incidence and seroprevalence in this country is lacking. We followed 290 households participating in an ongoing cohort study of influenza and coronavirus incidence and prevalence. The incidence of COVID-19 was 6.9% and the household secondary attack rate was 89.8%. Transmission within households occurred within two-days of confirming the index case. Infections were asymptomatic or mild with symptoms resolving within 10 days. The majority developed a neutralizing antibody titer by day 14 post onset. The overall seroprevalence among cohort participants was 34.8%. The majority of subjects with three months apart paired-samples continued to be
A sero-prevalence survey provides a snapshot of the current epidemiological situation as it identifies all individuals currently infected, regardless of diagnosis-status, and can provide representative estimates of prevalence for the population under investigation.
Finally, for regions with less data, borrowing strength from other regions may have hidden patterns of transmission between years and sex amid the pooled data. Although the data may be analyzed correctly using the hierarchical model, the problem with meta-analysis being used to make causal inferences has been highlighted, i.e., the studies included are observational and group-level correlations may be mistakenly attributed to individual-level causes.24, 25 Three distinct epidemiological profiles of HCV transmission have been described and can be used as a basis for interpreting the age-specific seroprevalence curves in this meta-analysis. In the first transmission type, prevalence is low among younger persons, and then rises steadily or sharply through middle age. After peak prevalence is reached, the seroprevalence declines in older ages. The peak prevalence seen in type 1 transmission is commonly referred to as the cohort effect. In type 2 transmission, prevalence is low in younger ...
We demonstrated very low rates of protection against three of the vaccine preventable diseases of childhood-diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. Booster vaccinations are required in adult life in accordance with national and international adult vaccination guidelines. The concept of lifelong vaccinat …
A method that allows the simultaneous analysis of large numbers of serum samples (i.e., ,500) for antibodies against multiple viral antigens would be useful for seroepidemiologic studies on prevalence and disease association of human papillomaviruses (HPVs). 2 HPV serology is complex for several reasons. More than 100 different types of HPV can infect the epithelia of skin or mucosa (1) and induce proliferative diseases(2). Fifteen high-risk types have been identified that can cause malignant tumors, predominantly cancer of the cervix of the uterus; HPV type 16 alone accounts for more than 50% of cervical cancer cases worldwide (3). HPV antibodies are type specific(4). Those targeting the major viral capsid protein L1 are markers of infection, and those targeting the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 are markers for HPV-associated cancer (5)(6).. Conventional serologic methods such as ELISA allow the analysis of sera for antibodies to only 1 antigen per well. Different multiplexing technologies for ...
We evaluated West Nile (WN) virus seroprevalence in healthy horses, dogs, and cats in New York City after an outbreak of human WN virus encephalitis in 1999. Two (3%) of 73 horses, 10 (5%) of 189 dogs, and none of 12 cats tested positive for WN virus-neutralizing antibodies. Domestic mammals should be evaluated as sentinels for local WN virus activity and predictors of the infection in humans ...
The TWiVites discuss Zika virus seroprevalence in wild monkeys, Zika virus mRNA vaccines, and a gamete fusion protein inherited from viruses.
This chapter attempts to frame the issues surrounding the association of atherosclerosis and infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. The results of seroepidemiologic and histopathologic studies are discussed in addition to data from animal experiments. In vivo and in vitro experiments regarding the cell biology of C. pneumoniae and the immune response it engenders are explored. The chapter highlights features pertinent to a possible role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Finally, results from two recent antibiotic intervention studies are examined. A chlamydial infection was first associated with myocarditis as early as 1930, but the first series of patients with heart disease and a chlamydia infection was reported in 1967. The association between the C. pneumoniae and atherogenesis can build on a seroepidemiologic link. Murine and rabbit models have traditionally been used to study atherosclerosis and recently have been adapted for study of C. pneumoniae pathogenesis. There have been two recently
The objective was to assess the potential bias in unlinked anonymous HIV-seroprevalence surveys from objections to specimens being included. Objection rates in seroprevalence surveys were examined. Statistically large clusters of objections were considered to be the result of health care worker behaviour, and were disregarded. Underlying objection rates were estimated from remaining data and compared to seroprevalence. Overall objection rates approached or exceeded seroprevalence in many participating centres. However, underlying objection rates declined with time while prevalences were generally unchanging. Also, underlying rates correlated poorly with observed seroprevalences. Findings were therefore consistent with processes producing the clusters of objections and underlying objection rates independently of serostatus of individuals. Although national seroprevalence estimates produced by the surveys are reasonably free from objection bias, regional seroprevalence estimates outside
The EMCDDA has developed draft guidelines for the national focal points to collect the existing prevalence and notification data and a draft protocol for primary data collection through sero-prevalence studies. This draft protocol is currently in the process of revision and being transformed into a modular toolkit. Please contact the EMCDDA in case you need the latest formats and proposals for this toolkit. For more information on the current tools and methods (but not the latest revision proposals), see the DRID key indicator page.. To further improve the comparability of prevalence data in IDUs, data are collected and reported on prevalence of HIV and hepatitis in young IDUs (under 25 years of age) and new IDUs (who have injected for less than two years). These indicators, and especially the HCV data for new IDUs, may be more sensitive to changes in incidence than in prevalence in all IDUs.. In practice, the target group differs slightly between settings: sero-prevalence data from needle ...
The EMCDDA has developed draft guidelines for the national focal points to collect the existing prevalence and notification data and a draft protocol for primary data collection through sero-prevalence studies. This draft protocol is currently in the process of revision and being transformed into a modular toolkit. Please contact the EMCDDA in case you need the latest formats and proposals for this toolkit. For more information on the current tools and methods (but not the latest revision proposals), see the DRID key indicator page.. To further improve the comparability of prevalence data in IDUs, data are collected and reported on prevalence of HIV and hepatitis in young IDUs (under 25 years of age) and new IDUs (who have injected for less than two years). These indicators, and especially the HCV data for new IDUs, may be more sensitive to changes in incidence than in prevalence in all IDUs.. In practice, the target group differs slightly between settings: sero-prevalence data from needle ...
A TischerN AndrewsG KafatosA NardoneG BerbersI DavidkinY AboudyJ BackhouseC BarbaraK BarthaB BruckovaA DuksA GriskeviciusL HeskethK JohansenL JonesO KuersteinerE LupulescuZ MihnevaM MrazovaF de OryK ProsencF SchneiderA TsakrisM SmelhausovaR VranckxM ZarvouE Miller ...
Data on the effective burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in pediatric population are very limited, mostly because of the higher rate of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic cases among children. Updated data on COVID-19 prevalence are needed for their relevance in public health and for infection control policies. In this single-centre cross-sectional study we aimed to assess prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection through IgG antibodies detection in an Italian pediatric cohort. The study was conducted in January 2021 among both inpatients and outpatients referring to Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health
TY - JOUR. T1 - 台灣新竹地區C型肝炎病毒感染之血清流行病學研究. AU - Hu, Neng Yeou. AU - Fan, Chia-Kwung. AU - Chung, Wen Cheng. AU - Wang, Cheng Yi. AU - Hsueh, Yu-Mei. AU - Chen, Chien-Ho. AU - Lin, Chin-Fong. AU - Su, Tsen-Ten AU - Jong, Yuh-Shiun. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The aim of this study is to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among different populations in the Hsin-Chu area. From July 1994 to June 1996, a total of 890 serum samples, including 589 serum samples from HaKKa Chinese, 33 serum samples from MinNan Chinese and 286 serum samples from aborigines, were tested for anti-hepatitis C antibodies by means of a 2nd generation enzyme immunoassay. Results showed that the overall seropositive rate was 7.6%. The seroposivive rate was 12.1% for the MinNan group, 8.0%for the HaKKa group and 6.3% for the aboriginal group (ρ>0.05). The seroposivive rate was 16.1% in the age group over 80 years old, 15.2% in the 70 to 79 year age group, ...
(CIDRAP News) - At least 63 million Americans, 21% of the population, may have been infected by pandemic H1N1 influenza, Pittsburgh researchers estimate-creating enough population-wide immunity to potentially explain the lack of a third wave of H1N1 so far.
Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. events between EV-A89 and these EV-A types might have occurred. Long-term evolution of these EV types originated from the same ancestor provides the spatial and temporal circumstances for recombination to BRL 44408 maleate occur. An antibody sero-prevalence survey against EV-A89 in two Xinjiang prefectures […]. ...
CIDRAP News) In a birds eye view of pandemic H1N1 seroprevalence studies published so far, the World Health Organization (WHO) said today the reports consistently show older people had partial protection and that infection rates were higher in younger people, but its too soon to estimate a global attack rate. ...
Meanwhile, the seroprevalence among persons aged above 18 years was found to be 7.1 percent; as against this, seroprevalence was found in only 0.73 percent adults in the first sero-survey that was conducted in May.
SEROEPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF CANINE LEPTOSPIROSIS IN TEHRAN, IRAN. Rad MA, Zeinali A, Yousofi JV, and Tabatabai AH. Objective: To survey the prevalence rate of canine leptospirosis in the Tehran area.. Conclusions: 1. The prevalence rate of reacted dogs examined by IFA (7.7%) technique was almost the same rate as examined by MAT (7. 6%) at 1:400 dilution of serum samples.. 2. All of the three leptospiral serotypes revealed the equal sensitivity and specificity rates at 1:100 dilution of serum samples in both MAT and IFA technique for canicola (9. 0%, 9.3%), icterohemorrhagiae (8.7%, 8.7%) and grippotyphosa (4.7%, 4.7%) serotypes, respectively. 3. It seems that IFA technique is more sensitive and reliable than MAT for diagnosis of canine leptospirosis in daily clinical practice.. 4. To prevent and control of leptospirosis as a potential zoonotic disease in Iran, using potent vaccines against three major serotypes of canicola, icterohemorrhagiae and grippotyphosa in all urban and farmer dogs (older ...
Abstract. We used a seroepidemiologic study to estimate Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) seroprevalence, seroincidence, and risk factors for seroconversion in two deployed military populations in 2005. The first study group resided in an area with a known Q fever outbreak history (Al Asad, Iraq). Of this population, 7.2% seroconverted for an incidence rate of 10.6 seroconversions per 1,000 person-months. The second population included personnel transiting through Qatar on mid-deployment leave from southwest/central Asia. In this group, we found 2.1% prevalence with 0.92 seroconversions per 1,000 person-months. However, no significant risk factors for Q fever seroconversion were found in either population.
Hepatitis B infection among Chinese STD patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence and condom use among female sex workers in Italy
We assessed hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody seroprevalence in a sample of the adult population in Germany. Overall HEV IgG prevalence was 16.8% (95% CI 15.6%-17.9%) and increased with age, leveling off at |60 years of age. HEV is endemic in Germany,
Objective: Although Chlamgdia pneumoniae is considered a common cause of pneumonia worldwide, the evidence is mainly serologic. Therefore, we examined whether the currently used chlamydial microimmunofluorescence MIF antibody test is specific for C pneumonoae infection. Design and setting: Secondary analysis of data from a cohort study of...
Three main research products are reported in this dissertation. This research focused on estimation of the seroprevalence rates in agricultural workers with exposure to pigs and poultry, and determination of risk factors for infection. Chapter 2, Are swine workers in the United States at increased risk of infection with zoonotic influenza virus?, reports controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among farmers, meat processing workers, veterinarians, and control subjects. Using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against six influenza A virus isolates, all 3 exposed study groups demonstrated markedly elevated titers against the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus isolates, compared with control subjects. Chapter 3, Infection due to 3 avian influenza subtypes in United States veterinarians, describes a controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence study that examined veterinarians in the United States for evidence of previous avian influenza
The proportion of the population with access to clean drinking water, the value of the human development index (HDI), and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) are all inverse predictors of HAV infection rates. Declining infection rates were observed in 65.6% of the surveys. Discussion This work d …
Since the implementation of a series of blood donation safety improvements in Kenya, information about seroprevalence and determinants of transfusion transmissible infections among voluntary blood donors especially in high HIV burden regions of Homabay, Kisumu and Siaya counties remain scanty. A cross-sectional study examining HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C virus sero-markers and associated determinants was conducted among voluntary blood donors. Their demographic characteristics and previous risk exposure were recorded in a pre-donation questionnaire, while blood samples collected were screened for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency viruses by ELISA and RPR (syphilis), then confirmed using CMIA. Overall TTIs seroprevalence was 114 (9.4%), distributed among HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis at 14 (1.15%), 42 (3.46%), 39 (3.21%) and 19 (1.56%), respectively, with co-infections of 3 (0.25%). There were no significant differences in proportions distributions among demographic variables. ...
Chawla R, Bhalla P, Bhalla K, Singh MM, Garg S. Community-based study on seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in New Delhi. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008; 26(1): 34-9 ...
Estimates from the national and the state-based serosurveys of the proportion of young adults born between 1968-82, resident in Victoria and immune to measles in 2002, were in close agreement (84.2% and 85.5%, respectively). Neither serosurvey provided evidence of increased immunity in young adults following the targeted MMR campaign. The important difference in the serosurveys was the higher estimate of young adult immunity in Victoria from the first national serosurvey. An apparent decline in immunity among young Victorian adults in the national serosurveys, evident in all except one of the Victorian laboratories but not evident from the state-based serosurveys, is not easy to explain on a population basis.. In the results of the national evaluation, other states did not demonstrate a decrease in immunity among young adults between serosurveys and immunity in Victoria in 1996-9 was similar to other states [12]. The higher estimate of young adult immunity in the first national serosurvey may be ...
Introduction and objective: The aim of the presented cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was to determine the current presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the high-risk groups of the Slovak population, and to identify potential risk factors to LB infections. Material...
Reduction of hospital mortality from acute myocardial infarction by anticoagulant therapy. Mean waiting time was reduced by about 30 minutes (from 39.6 to 9.5 mins) over the six months. We propose that the seven markers could be used with marker-assisted selection to breed a new variety of common carp, and the six candidate genes could help in understanding the scale cover mechanism. Anatomical distribution of immunoreactivity in the rat brain and hypophysis with quantification of the hypothalamic cell group. The suggested PBM irradiation and dosimetric parameters, which are potentially effective for these complications, are intended to provide guidance for well-designed future studies. Seroepidemiologic studies of Epstein-Barr virus levitra antibody in monkeys. medical community to speak out against possible detainee abuse by the U.S. Nonarticular rheumatism, sports-related injuries, and related conditions. Antioxidants partially restore glutamate transport defect lipitor in leber hereditary ...
Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs . Aline Gouveia de Souza Lins ; Michely da Silva Tenório ; Diogo Tiago da Silva ; Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena ; Rosangel. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Drs. Marshall and Purnell are correct that our study group had a low seroprevalence of HSV-1 infection. Most serosurveys suggest that approximately half of the persons with HSV-2 antibody also have HSV-1 antibodies [1]. In our cohort of patients with a first episode of genital herpes, only 13% were seropositive for HSV-1 infection. As we have shown [2], previous HSV-1 infection lessens the severity of HSV-2 infection and increases the frequency of unrecognized genital HSV infection. As such, we would expect this distribution of HSV antibodies in a study designed to evaluate the natural history of ...
Poliovirus seroprevalence did not differ by gender but was higher among those aged 6-11 years compared to those aged 12-19, 20-39 and 40-49 years (p , 0.001 for each comparison, Table 1, Fig.1). Those aged 12-19 and 40-49 years had a higher seroprevalence than those aged 20-39 years (p , 0.05 and p , 0.001, respectively). When stratified by gender, those aged 6-11 years had a higher seroprevalence than those aged 12-19, 20-39, and 40-49 for both males and females (p , 0.05, p , 0.001, and p , 0.001, respectively for males and p , 0.001, p , 0.001, and p , 0.05, respectively for females). Those aged 40-49 years had a higher seroprevalence than those aged 12-19 and 20-39 years for females (p , 0.05 and p , 0.001, respectively) and those aged 12-19 years had a higher seroprevelance than those aged 20-39 years for males (p , 0.05). Among those aged 40-49 years, males had a higher seroprevalence than females (p , 0.05). Within the other age groups, no differences by gender were observed. No ...
Discussion. HIV seroprevalence in South Africa is high.1-5 Many studies of prevalence are hampered by the low recruitment rate (Table I). This can have a bearing on the interpretation of results obtained. The prevalence will be different in different population groups (Table II). High risk groups have been reported as young women and men between the ages of 20 and 49 years with a mean age of 34. This is the population group that normally would present to a casualty after an acute traumatic event. This study and the reports from Martison4 and Bowley5 show a high seroprevalence in a trauma setting. From this evidence one would extrapolate that almost a quarter of all patients that present to casualties after a traumatic episode are likely be HIV positive. Since 1986 when Aids was first identified, and the isolation of the virus thereafter, every medical discipline has been faced with challenges in managing HIV/Aids patients. HIV/Aids presents specific challenges in the discipline of ...
NDO - A programme was held, in Hanoi on June 14, to honour outstanding volunteer blood donors from home and abroad and to celebrate the World Blood Donor Day 2017.
Introduction. The occurrence of infectious diseases is monitored on the basis of surveillance data from morbidity and mortality registers and data from laboratories. Important additional information can be derived from serosurveillance: the study of the prevalence of specific antibodies in the population. Particularly for the control of the immunity for diseases against which people are vaccinated following the National Immunization Programme serosurveillance or immunosurveillance is necessary. Therefore, the RIVM has taken the initiative to establish a serum bank of a random sample of the Dutch population and the so-called PIENTER-project has been started. In 1994 a pilot study was carried out. Aim. The pilot study had a twofold aim: firstly, the assessment of the feasibility of the design and the development of an ascertained protocol for the final nation-wide data collection, secondly the judgement of the possibility to obtain a representative data set (by means of an comprehensive ...
A seminar aimed at strengthening the role and contribution of voluntary blood donors was held at the Orotta Hospital Hall on 28 November.
Analysis of antibody positivity profile.(a): Percentage of positive tests (Mean ±SEM) for each patient group. (b): Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of sero
Jay Bhattacharya: It has generated a huge reaction. I mean I kind of anticipated the reaction. I said early in the epidemic when I worked on these seroprevalence studies, I didnt anticipate the reaction. So, I wasnt quite ready for that. But, this time I was more ready, sort of emotionally, to deal with it.. I dont regret signing it at all. I think, I have this position for a purpose. Its not simply to be comfortable and have a happy life. I feel some sense of responsibility to express what my ideas are on this. I mean, I may be right, I may be wrong. And, of course its for folks who are listening to decide. But, I mean, I think we all, as academics, have that responsibility--which is to say what we think.. Actually, its been discouraging that we see both economists and non-economists, other scientists--I thought that we were in a liberal profession. Liberal, in the sense of free exchange of ideas. Were not aiming to destroy one and another: Were aiming to learn from one another. I might ...
Water and sanitation interventions in developing countries have historically been difficult to evaluate. We conducted a seroepidemiologic study with the following goals: 1) to determine the feasibility of using antibody markers as indicators of waterborne pathogen infection in the evaluation of water and sanitation intervention projects; 2) to characterize the epidemiology of waterborne diarrheal infections in rural Guatemala, and 3) to measure the age-specific prevalence of antibodies to waterborne pathogens. Between September and December 1999, all children 6-36 months of age in 10 study villages were invited to participate. We collected sufficient serum from 522 of 590 eligible children, and divided them into six-month age groups for analysis (6-12, 13-18, 19-24, 25-30, and 31-36 months). The prevalence of antibodies was lowest in children 6-12 months old compared with the four older age groups for the following pathogens: enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (48%, 81%, 80%, 77%, and 83%), Norwalk virus
In the present study, we detected anti-HEV IgM and IgG in a cohort of 497 women at mid-term pregnancy and at 6 years postpartum and also in their 497 children. We found that the positive rate of anti-HEV IgM or the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was constant in women at the two time points. The unchanged positive rates do not reflect that there was no novel HEV infection occurred during the observation period, but it was resulted from the balance of seronegative conversion due to the natural decay of anti-HEV IgG and the seropositive conversion caused by the novel infections. Additionally, we found that anti-HEV prevalence in Chinese children was extremely low.. Previous studies have indicated that commercially available immunoassays for detection of anti-HEV antibodies differ dramatically in the sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity could range from 72 to 98 % in detecting the same diagnostic sensitivity panel [20], and highly discrepant results existed in evaluation of anti-HEV IgG ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adeno-associated virus seropositivity and HPV-induced cervical cancer in Spain and Colombia. AU - Smith, Jennifer. AU - Herrero, Rolando. AU - Erles, Kerstin. AU - Grimm, Dirk. AU - Muñoz, Nubia. AU - Bosch, F. Xavier. AU - Tafur, Luis. AU - Shah, Keerti V.. AU - Schlehofer, Jörg R.. PY - 2001/11/15. Y1 - 2001/11/15. N2 - Extensive experimental and limited epidemiologic data suggest that adeno-associated viruses (AAV) can have anti-oncogenic activity and may be protective factors for the development of cervical cancer. To examine the association between AAV-2 IgG antibodies and cervical neoplasia in Spain and Colombia, we tested for AAV-2 antibodies using an ELISA assay for 109 women with invasive cervical cancer, 100 population-based controls age-matched to the invasive cases, 77 women with carcinoma in situ (CIN III) and 100 clinic-based controls age-matched to the CIN III cases. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was detected in cervical exfoliated cells by polymerase chain ...
AUTHOR:UGWU AMAUCHE MARTINA DEPARTMENT: MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA This study was designed to assess the iron stores and haematological parameters of voluntary blood donors. Three hundred and fifty voluntary blood donors between 18 and 50 years were recruited, for these study, 150 donated 1-5 units of blood in two years (group…
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused a major two-wave seventeen-month-long outbreak in La Réunion Island in 2005-2006. The aim of this study was to refine clinical estimates provided by a regional surveillance-system using a two-stage serological assessment as gold standard. Two serosurveys were implemented: first, a rapid survey using stored sera of pregnant women, in order to assess the attack rate at the epidemic upsurge (s1, February 2006; n = 888); second, a population-based survey among a random sample of the community, to assess the herd immunity in the post-epidemic era (s2, October 2006; n = 2442). Sera were screened for anti-CHIKV specific antibodies (IgM and IgG in s1, IgG only in s2) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Seroprevalence rates were compared to clinical estimates of attack rates. In s1, 18.2% of the pregnant women were tested positive for CHIKV specific antibodies (13.8% for both IgM and IgG, 4.3% for IgM, 0.1% for IgG only) which provided a congruent estimate with the 16.5%
Results: Seropositivity (43%), usually unknown (72% of seropositives), was predicted by injection drug use, alcohol use, older age, and risky sexual behavior. No regular source of care, risky sexual behavior, less case management, and greater age predicted not knowing ones positive status. Health insurance, younger age, alcohol use, perceived bad health and more medical conditions predicted emergency room (ER) use; ER use was less likely among seropositives. Hospitalizations were predicted by more medical conditions and greater percentage of life homeless and were less frequent among African Americans and males. Ambulatory visits were predicted by a regular source of care, case management, more education and perceived bad health; they were less likely among seropositives ...
The RCGP RSC will be used to collect the biological specimens. Practices who participated in the virology swabbing scheme will be invited.. The project proposes to pilot a population based seroprevalence survey, involving 100-150 individuals across the following age range: 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70+ years, following the 2017/2018 influenza season. Patients, who attend their pilot sentinel network practice for routine blood test during the study period, will be asked to also provide an additional blood sample for serology. This will provide information on seroprevalence to set in context other measures of impact of an influenza season/epidemic in a population, and provide the most accurate measures of population exposure. This new approach to serology banking represents a compromise between using residual serum samples from laboratories where less is known about the patients medical and immunisation history and formal surveys that can collect such data, but can have non-response ...
Thirty-one farrow-to-finish pig units with a Zoonoses National Control Programme (ZNCP) for Salmonella above the UK target of 10 per cent during the previous 12 months were selected for the study. Pooled faecal samples were collected from different groups of pigs. Furthermore, mice, rat and bird faeces and carcases were collected, if found on the unit. In total, 937 samples were collected on-farm and analysed for Salmonella. The four carcases selected monthly per producer by the slaughterhouse for the British Pig Executive ZNCP Salmonella Programme were tested for antibodies to groups B and C with a mix-ELISA test. The same four carcases were swabbed externally and internally, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were collected and colonic contents were swabbed. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars was isolated from the samples. Most of the isolates were detected in the rearing herd (on-farm) and in the MLNs (slaughterhouse). There was no correlation between ELISA results from the meat juice and ...
A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was found to be 49, in which 39, 4 and 6 for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. We found the differences in Toxoplasma seroprevalence rates among the races were significant: the highest rate was in the Malays (55.7), followed by the Indian (55.3) and the Chinese (19.4) (-0.05) populations. An increase in Toxoplasma seroprevalence with increasing parity was detected (-0.05). Women with no children had a prevalence of 39.7, while women with one or more than two children had a prevalence of 44.2 and 62.9, respectively. In this study, there was no significant association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and various possible risk factors in pregnant women (P�,�0.05). When multivariate analysis was performed, no significant association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and history of contact with ...
VALDESPINO, José Luis et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A in Mexico: a detector of social inequity and monitor of immunization policies. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2007, vol.49, suppl.3, pp.s377-s385. ISSN 0036-3634.. OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) in Mexico has traditionally been considered a disease with a homogeneous pattern of transmission, high rates of infection at early ages, and infrequent complication rates. The purpose of this study was to take advantage of the 2000 NHS, a probabilistic population-based survey, in order to describe the seroepidemiology of HAV infection in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is based on information obtained from the National Health Survey that was conducted in 2000. The present report is based on 4 907 randomly selected samples that were studied to determine the prevalence of HAV antibodies using immunoenzymatic assay. Sera were collected from November 1999 to June 2000. RESULTS: Seroprevalence among the general population was 81.3% ...
Different serological methods are being used, and the different results may be related to the choice of method.Some investigators have used methods detecting the species-specific MOMP antibodies (4, 11, 14, 22, 23), and some have used methods detecting the genus-specific LPS antibodies (5, 11, 17, 22). The MIF technique has generally been regarded as a gold standard for the detection of C. pneumoniae antibodies in seroepidemiological studies. However, MIF methods differ from commercial methods to in-house MIF techniques, and the antigen composition varies between tests. In addition, some authors have focused on IgA positivity, some have focused on IgG, and some have used a combination of the two.. The use of several different methods would be no problem if the agreement between the tests is generally high. Our observations regarding the number of seropositives obtained by the different methods suggest that the sensitivity of the MIF method was higher than that of the Labsystems EIA, while the ...
PLX-4720 variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737C176,882 children per year are born in India having a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. Author Summary Toxoplasmosis is definitely a protozoan parasitic disease generally transmitted and propagated by pet cats as family household pets. Infection acquired during pregnancy can lead to congenital abnormalities in the fetus, still birth or intrauterine death. Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in Indian ladies of child bearing age offers remained a contentious issue. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data unreliable. There is no published pan-India seroprevalence study. Hence, a seroprevalence study was PLX-4720 undertaken comprising 1464 ladies of reproductive age representing four unique geographical regions of India. This ...
Looking for online definition of seroconversions in the Medical Dictionary? seroconversions explanation free. What is seroconversions? Meaning of seroconversions medical term. What does seroconversions mean?
Seroprevalence surveys identify people in the community who have developed antibodies against the disease. Blood samples of the participants are collected and tested for the presence of the Immunoglobulin G antibody. We dont know how long the immunity lasts, said Kolthur. Based on the second survey results, we will select a cohort and study this aspect. In the city of Pune, a Covid-19 hotspot 150 miles east of Mumbai, the recently released serosurvey data showed 51% of people have antibodies. In Delhi, the countrys capital, the second round of serosurvey concluded recently and results are expected soon. The first round, carried out in July, showed 23% of people had antibodies. It is estimated that India would need 60% to 70% of the population to have antibodies to achieve herd immunity. But this may vary, given the vast differences in the countrys urban and rural populations and their living conditions. Herd immunity cannot be a fixed number for the whole country, said Dr. Jayaprakash ...
The HIV sero-prevalence among antenatal clinic attendees in Nigeria has risen from 1.8% in 1991, to 3.8% in 1993, 4.5% in 1995 and 5.8% in the most recent survey in 2001 (Federal Ministry of Health of Nigeria). In this KAP study of Nigerian surgery trainees in 1997, the majority of the respondents showed a lack of awareness of the seroprevalence of HIV in their area of practice and poor perception of risk posed by exposure to patients with HIV. This lack of awareness has been reported in many other countries at the early stages of the HIV epidemic and among other categories of HCW in Nigeria[8, 10] and previous studies of Nigerian HCW suggested that there is a positive association between risk perception and utilization of universal precautions [11].. The incidence of percutaneous exposure to patients body fluids was similar to that reported from one of the training centers encompassed by this study two years earlier by Olubuyide and Olawuyi [12]. Non-availability of relevant devices remains ...
Looking for online definition of seropositivity in the Medical Dictionary? seropositivity explanation free. What is seropositivity? Meaning of seropositivity medical term. What does seropositivity mean?
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CARMEN RODRÍGUEZ HERNÁNDEZ, JUAN CARLOS SANZ MORENO. Published: 11 September 2020. http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/086.2020. The coronavirus are a wide group of viruses among that the SARS-CoV-2 is included (family Coronaviridae, subfamily Coronavirinae, genus Betacoronavirus and subgenus Sarbecovirus). Its main structural proteins are the membrane (M), the envelope (E), the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S). The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 involves the cellular and the humoral sides, with neutralizing antibodies fundamentally directed against the S antigen. Although the seroprevalence data are frequently assumed as protection markers, no necessarily they are. In Spain, it is estimated that, to assure the herd immunity, at least four-fifths of the population should be immunoprotected. Due the high fatality rate of COVID-19, the acquisition of the protection only by the natural infection it not assumable and other measures as the mass immunization are required. Currently, there are several ...
It found that sero-prevalence of antibodies to COVID-19 reduced to 25 per cent in September from nearly 29 per cent found in the August exercise in the national capital. Medical Director of Rajiv Gandhi Super Speciality Hospital, a dedicated COVID-19 facility, said the fall in figures indicate that immunity to the vir
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), a lymphotropic gammaherpesvirus, is the etiologic agent of Kaposis sarcoma (KS). Results from serologic assays for HHV-8 infection have variable concordance, primarily in low risk populations. The detection of HHV-8 infection could be improved by optimization of existing serologic tests, development of new assays and effective algorithms, better understanding of the immune response, and identification of new diagnostic antigens. To address this, a number of HHV-8 serologic tests were developed or modified and compared to existing methods. IgG, IgK and IgA isotype seroprevalences against the Orf 65 antigen were 93%, 87%, and 40% in KS samples, respectively---much higher than observed in USA blood donors (BDs: ,3%). In comparison studies, the K8.1 IgG ELISA had the best overall diagnostic performance. For seropositive BDs, there was poor agreement among multiple tests. HHV-8 seroprevalence in non-KS samples was highest in Africa (9%--42%), followed by the Middle East ...
October 2 (Gandhi Jayanti) should be celebrated as voluntary blood donation day, said Health and Family Welfare Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad.
The Stanford Epidemiology COVID-19 Research Collaborative is a brand new set of initiatives developed by researchers in Stanfords Department of Epidemiology & Population Health (E&PH), in collaboration with scientists from Stanford, other academic organizations, and Bay Area public health professionals. Our common goal is to apply powerful epidemiological tools, such as mobile survey apps and seroprevalence studies, to collect data that will yield invaluable real-time insights into the nature and impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic as it evolves.. ...
Read HIV/AIDS/STD/HCV, Coinfection, Seroprevalence and Education in Severe Mental Illness: Health Education Pilot, Psychiatric Quarterly on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
I know what he is, but as they say, he giveth and he taketh away. While Mr. Northman is quite apt at receiving donations, he is just as good at giving it away. Of course, he donated to the stunning Pam. However, if you have not seen the results of Mr. Northmans very generous donations to both Sookie and Lafayette, then I prescribe a good heaping dose of True Blood episodes ...
Immunogenicity: Seropositivity rate as determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Neutralization test (NT) at Days 7, 14 and 21 after the second vaccination, in stratum A and B separately, and in the two age strata combined ...
Serostatus refers to the presence or absence of a serological marker in the blood. The presence of detectable levels of a specific marker within the serum is considered seropositivity, while the absence of such levels is considered seronegativity. ...
Final part of the ELISA discussion. In this video we highlight what kind of test the ELISA is, and why. Questions: How does the ELISA test work? What can you do an ELISA test on? Also, what kind of… ...