TY - JOUR. T1 - Noradrenaline triggers GABAA inhibition of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis neurons projecting to the ventral tegmental area. AU - Dumont, Éric C.. AU - Williams, John. PY - 2004/9/22. Y1 - 2004/9/22. N2 - The lateral part of the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (v1BNST) is a critical site for the antiaversive effects of noradrenergic drugs during opioid withdrawal. The objective of the present study is to identify the cellular action(s) of noradrenaline in the v1BNST after withdrawal from a 5 d treatment with morphine. The v1BNST is a heterogeneous cell group with multiple efferent projections. Therefore, neurons projecting to the midbrain were identified by retrograde transport of fluorescent microspheres injected in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Whole-cell voltage clamp recordings of these neurons and of those sharing physiological properties were done in brain slices. Noradrenaline activated α1-adrenergic receptors to increase-GABAA-IPSC frequency. ...
Intrinsic neuronal excitability has been reported to change during normal aging. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic forebrain structure, is involved in fear, stress and anxiety; behavioral features that exhibit age-dependent properties. To examine the effect of aging on intrinsic neuronal properties in BNST we compared patch clamp recordings from cohorts of female mice at two ages, 3-4 months (Young) and 29-30 months (Aged) focusing on 2 types of BNST neurons. Aged Type I neurons exhibited a hyperpolarized resting membrane potential (RMP) of circa -80 mV compared to circa -70 mV in the Young. A key finding in this study is a hyper-excitability of Type II neurons with age reflected in an increase in firing frequency in response to depolarizing current injections; activation of Type II neurons is believed to dampen anxiety like responses. Such age-related changes in intrinsic neurophysiological function are likely to modulate how the limbic system, acting via BNST, shapes ...
Morphine-induced behaviour of cats and neurotransmission processes within raphe, striatal and septal nuclei: introduction of a new method in ...
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The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is a limbic forebrain structure involved in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and stress adaptation. Inappropriate adaptation to stress is thought to compromise the organisms coping mechanisms, which have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. However, the studies aimed at investigating BNST involvement in depression pathophysiology have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of temporary acute inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST by local microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in rats subjected to the forced swimming test (FST). Rats implanted with cannulae aimed at the BNST were submitted to 15 min of forced swimming (pretest). Twenty-four hours later immobility time was registered in a new 5 min forced swimming session (test). Independent groups of rats received bilateral microinjections of CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL) before or immediately after pretest or
Previous tract-tracing studies demonstrated the existence of projections from the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) to the mesencephalic central gray (GCt) in quail. GCt contains a significant number of aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) fibers and punctate structures, but no ARO-ir cells are present in this region. The origin of the ARO-ir fibers of the GCt was investigated here by retrograde tract-tracing combined with immunocytochemistry for aromatase. Following injection of fluorescent microspheres in GCt, retrogradely labeled cells were found in a large number of hypothalamic and mesencephalic areas and in particular within the three main groups of ARO-ir cells located in the POM, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the bed nucleus striae terminalis ...
RESULTS: In the medial subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the central amygdala (CeA), the number of pCREB immunoreactive (pCREB-ir) cells in the clean-bedding exposed group was significantly larger than in the home cage group, while the number of pCREB-ir cells in the OVX+E2-bedding exposed group did not differ from that in the home cage group. The bedding soiled by OVX rats was less effective. No significant difference in the number of pCREB-ir cells was detected in the other regions of the extended amygdala among all groups ...
Role of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and amygdala AMPA receptors in the development and expression of context conditioning and sensitization of startle by prior ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cholinergic cell loss and hypertrophy in the medial septal nucleus of the behaviorally characterized aged rhesus monkey. AU - Stroessner-Johnson, H. M.. AU - Rapp, P. R.. AU - Amaral, David G. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Quantitative studies were conducted to determine the number and size of cholinergic neurons in the medial septal nucleus of four aged (23-25 years old) and four young (10-12 years old) rhesus monkeys. All of the animals had been tested on an extensive battery of learning and memory tasks prior to these experiments. Two of the aged monkeys displayed a pattern of recognition memory deficits that resembled the effects of medial temporal lobe damage. The postmortem anatomical data were analyzed in relation to both the age and behavioral status of the animals. Across all rostrocaudal levels of the medial septal nucleus, there was a 19.3% decrease in the number of cholinergic neurons in the aged monkeys. The loss was regionally selective, however, and ranged from a low ...
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Psychology Definition of SEPTAL AREA (Septal Region, Septum): A region of the brain lying beneath the forward end of the corpus callosum, the connection between the two hemispheres. It is part of the limbic system.Exp
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O Brasil é o terceiro maior produtor de frutas no mundo, sendo estas ricas em muitos nutrientes e compostos antioxidantes, os quais se concentram majoritariamente nas cascas e sementes. A indústria de processamento de frutas produz uma grande quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, causando problemas ambientais e custos para as empresas. Estes resíduos são ricos em pigmentos que podem representar uma fonte potencial de obtenção de corantes naturais. Na indústria de alimentos, os carotenoides e as antocianinas são usados como corantes alimentares naturais, além de apresentarem importantes funções fisiológicas como a prevenção da degeneração celular, de doenças cardiovasculares, de processos anti-inflamatórios e anticancerígenos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a obtenção de corantes naturais a partir dos resíduos da indústria de processamento de polpas de frutas, utilizando três tipos de resíduos provenientes do processamento do morango, da amora e do pêssego. As ...
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The medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBB) is crucial for hippocampal theta rhythm generation (4-12Hz). However, the mechanisms behind theta rhythmogenesis are still under debate. The MS/DBB consists, in its majority, of three neuronal populations that use either acetylcholine, GABA or glutamate as neurotransmitters. While the firing patterns of septal neurons enable the MS/DBB to generate rhythmic output critical for the generation of the hippocampal theta rhythm, the ability to synchronize these action potentials is dependent on the interconnectivity between the three major MS/DBB neuronal populations. Yet little is known about intraseptal connections. Here we assess the connectivity between pairs of MS/DBB neurons using paired patch-clamp recordings. We found that glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons provide intraseptal connections and produce sizable currents in MS/DBB postsynaptic cells. We also analyzed linear and non-linear relationships between the action potentials fired by pairs ...
The brain regions that may be functionally involved in the control of anxiety and the development of seizures were examined using quantitative 1-14C-deoxyglucose autoradiography. For this purpose, beta- carbolines FG 7142 and DMCM were employed. They exert their effects via the benzodiazepine receptor, and whereas both possess anxiogenic properties, FG 7142 is a proconvulsant and DMCM a potent convulsant. The pattern of increases of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) induced by FG 7142 was mainly restricted to limbic structures, such as the lateral septal nucleus, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the mamillary nuclei. However, structures involved in motor regulation were also affected. A pronounced increase in LCGU was observed in the posterior part of the substantia nigra, pars reticulata. Further, the LCGU of the globus pallidus, the ventral thalamic nucleus, and the cerebellum was increased. DMCM likewise increased LCGU of the mamillary body and the lateral septal nucleus. In contrast ...
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The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) has been known to contain estrogen (E)-concentrating neurons. In addition, injections of E into BST have been reported to potentiate the sympathoinhibitory arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) responses elicited by glutamate (Glu) stimulation. In this study, the effect of glutamate antagonist receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) on the cardiovascular responses to Glu stimulation of BST (0.25 M; 20 nl) was investigated in the chloralose anaesthetized, ovariectomized (OVX; n=6) or OVX+E-treated (30 pg/ml plasma E; n=10) female Wistar rats. Glu stimulation of the BST decreased AP (-15 ± 5 mmHg) and HR (-25.23± 2 bpm) in the OVX+E animals and in OVX only animals (AP, -29.78 ± 4.17 mmHg; HR, -17.3 ± 3.1 bpm). Microinjection of glutamate antagonist receptors, kynurenic acid (5.0 mM, 100nl) into the ipsilateral RVLM reversibly attenuated glutamate-induced bradycardi and depressor responses to BST stimulation in OVX only animals (OVX; n=8
Paul Broca considered the limbic lobe to be the fifth lobe of the brain. It is on the medial surface of each hemisphere. It is actually a rim of cortex. This cortex is not well convoluted and is phylogenetically among the oldest structures of the brain. This circular area includes the septal region, hippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus and island of Reil. The limbic system includes the olfactory bulb and tract, hippocampus, fornix, amygdaloid body, and septal nuclei. The principal effectors of the limbic system are the reticular formation and the hypothalamus. This old brain, especially the amygdala is quite involved in emotion and in reacting to danger. A recent functional MRI study done by faculty at Harvard University and New York University showed that the amygdala reacted to faces of people of a difference race. Two other areas: the cingulate gyrus and the anterior prefrontal cortex reacted to the alarm signals by accessing the danger and giving the all clear. The hippocampus is also ...
Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1, also known as NPBW1 and GPR7, is a human protein encoded by the NPBWR1 gene.[1] As implied by its name, it and related gene NPBW2 (with which it shares 70% nucleotide identity) are transmembranes protein that bind Neuropeptide B (NPB) and Neuropeptide W (NPW), both proteins expressed strongly in parts of the brain that regulate stress and fear including the extended amygdala and stria terminalis. When originally discovered in 1995, these receptors had no known ligands (orphan receptors) and were called GPR7 and GPR8,[2] but at least three groups in the early 2000s independently identified their endogenous ligands, triggering the name change in 2005.[3] ...
Brinkmann, L., Buff, C., Feldker, K., Neumeister, P., Heitmann, C.Y., Hofmann, D., Bruchmann, M., Herrmann, M.J., & Straube, T. (2018). Inter-individual differences in trait anxiety shape the functional connectivity between the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the amygdala during brief threat processing. NeuroImage, 166, 110-116 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Innate differences in medial septal area burst firing neurons and the hippocampal theta rhythm during ambulation in selectively bred rat lines. AU - Breen, Timothy E.. AU - Morzorati, Sandra L.. PY - 1996/4/1. Y1 - 1996/4/1. N2 - Previous studies have demonstrated a higher mean peak frequency of the hippocampal (HPC) theta rhythm during REM sleep in alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats when compared with alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Burst firing neurons of the medial septal area (MS/VDB) are thought to pace the HPC theta rhythm during REM sleep and ambulation. Therefore, extracellular action potentials of MS/VDB burst firing neurons and HPC-CA1 field potentials were recorded simultaneously in ambulating P and NP rats. These recordings revealed that the mean peak frequency of the HPC theta rhythm during ambulation was higher in NP rats (7.62 ± 0.12 Hz) as compared with P rats (7.21 ± 0.14 Hz) (P , 0.05). Consistent with the difference in the HPC theta rhythm, the burst pattern of ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that has vast functions, ranging from behavioral, to endocrine, cardiovascular, and cellular, in which often these effects are biphasic. This paper will focus on the effects of PACAP within the central nervous system (CNS), specifically in response to stress and anxiety. PACAP has been extensively researched in terms of its effect on the stress response and is well-known for its effects in inducing anxiety-like behaviors. PACAP induces such effects through working in regions of the CNS such as the amygdala, hypothalamus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Research has shown that injecting PACAP into the BNST produces anxiogenic effects; this is backed up by in situ hybridization and mRNA studies. While it is known that BNST-PACAP signaling produces such behavior, it is not fully clear how these processes are connected to other CNS regions that are implicated in the stress-response or have been shown to hold
Brain Regions (94): CTX (Cerebral cortex) MOB (Main olfactory bulb) AOB (Accessory olfactory bulb) AON (Anterior olfactory nucleus) TT (Taenia tecta) PIR (Piriform area) NLOT (Nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract) PAA (Piriform-amygdalar area) COA (Cortical amygdalar area) TR (Postpiriform transition area) CA (Ammons Horn) DG (Dentate gyrus) RHP (Retrohippocampal region) SUB (Subiculum) CP (Caudoputamen ) ACB (Nucleus accumbens ) FS (Fundus of striatum) OT (Olfactory tubercle ) LS (Lateral septal nucleus ) CEA (Central amygdalar nucleus ) AAA (Anterior amygdalar area) MEA (Medial amygdalar nucleus ) PALd (Pallidum_ dorsal region) PALv (Pallidum_ ventral region) BST (Bed nuclei of the stria terminalis ) PALm (Pallidum_ medial region) AM (Anteromedial nucleus) AV (Anteroventral nucleus of thalamus ) LD (Lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus) RT (Reticular nucleus of the thalamus) LAT (Lateral group of the dorsal thalamus) LP (Lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus) LGv (Ventral part of the ...
The goals of this study were to evaluate the influence of CGRP within the BNST on anxiety and on neural activation patterns. We found that intra-BNST CGRP infusions produced an anxiogenic behavioral profile and enhanced neural activation in a number of anxiety-related brain areas, and that antagonism of these receptors prevented anxiety-like responses to TMT odor. CGRP infused bilaterally into the BNST enhanced the acoustic startle response in a dose-dependent manner (experiment 1). This increase was attenuated by prior administration of the CGRP antagonist, αCGRP8-37, at a dose that did not significantly affect startle when given alone (experiment 2). This suggests that the effects on startle were indeed mediated by activation of CGRP receptors. Intra-BNST CGRP infusions (800 ng/side) also decreased the percentage of time spent on the open arms and the percentage of total entries into the open arms of the elevated plus maze (experiment 6). These anxiety-like behavioral results are consistent ...
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A neural circuit that connects the lateral septum to the other brain structures in a manner that directly influences anxiety has now been discovered by a team of researchers
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Pet podcast #36 features an interview with Dr. Lee a veterinarian in Mesa and Phoenix Arizona. In this interview we discuss 6 diseases that humans can get from their pets. The term for diseases that you can get from your …. ...
Background and purpose: Endocannabinoids in the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) are involved in modulating nociception and unconditioned stress-induced analgesia, however, their role in fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) has not been examined. The present study examined the role of the endocannabinoid system in the dorsolateral (dl) PAG in formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour, conditioned fear and FCA in rats. Experimental approach: Rats received intra-dlPAG administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant, or vehicle, prior to re-exposure to a context paired 24hrs previously with footshock. Formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour and fear-related behaviours (freezing and 22kHz ultrasonic vocalisation) were assessed. In a separate cohort, alterations in levels of endocannabinoids (2-arachidonoyl glycerol [2-AG] and N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide [anandamide; AEA]) and the related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) (N-palmitoyl ethanolamide [PEA] and N-oleoyl ethanolamide [OEA]) were ...
MS/nDB - Medial Septum/Nucleus of the Diagonal Band. Looking for abbreviations of MS/nDB? It is Medial Septum/Nucleus of the Diagonal Band. Medial Septum/Nucleus of the Diagonal Band listed as MS/nDB
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on neuronal function in the non-human primate BNST. AU - Pleil, Kristen E.. AU - Helms, Christa M.. AU - Sobus, Jon R.. AU - Daunais, James B.. AU - Grant, Kathleen A.. AU - Kash, Thomas L.. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function contribute to many of the adverse behavioral effects of chronic voluntary alcohol drinking, including alcohol dependence and mood disorders; limbic brain structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) may be key sites for these effects. Here, we measured circulating levels of several steroid hormones and performed whole-cell electrophysiological recordings from acutely prepared BNST slices of male rhesus monkeys allowed to self-administer alcohol for 12 months or a control solution. Initial comparisons revealed that BNST neurons in alcohol-drinking monkeys had decreased membrane resistance, increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory ...
Kerstetter, KA, Su Z-I., Ettenberg, A. and Kippin, K.E. (2013) Sex and Estrous Cycle Differences in Cocaine-Induced Approach-Avoidance Conflict. Addiction Biology, 18: 222-229. Wenzel, J.M., Cotton, S.W., Dominguez, H.M., Lane, J.E., Shelton, K., Su, Z-I. and Ettenberg, A. (2014) Noradrenergic β-receptor antagonism within the central nucleus of the amygdala or bed nucleus of the stria terminalis attenuates the negative/anxiogenic effects of cocaine. Journal of Neuroscience 34:3467-74. Ettenberg, A., Fomenko, V., Kaganovsky, K., Shelton, K. and Wenzel, J.M. (2015) On the positive and negative affective responses to cocaine and their relation to drug self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 232:2363-75. Ettenberg, A., Cotten, S.W., Klein, A.K., Brito, M.A., Ohana, T.A., Margolin, B., Wei, A. and Wenzel, J.M. (2015) CRF antagonism within the ventral tegmental area but not the extended amygdala attenuates the anxiogenic effects of cocaine in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and ...
Ablation of NK1 receptor bearing neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract blunts cardiovascular reflexes in awake rats.. Abdala AP, Schoorlemmer GH, Colombari E.. Brain Res 1119(1):165-173, 2006.. Cardiovascular function is largely controlled by the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). This work focuses on the baroreflex, cardiopulmonary chemoreflex, and arterial chemoreflex. Rats were injected with either 20 nl of 2 µM SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07) into the subpostremal NTS, or 200 nl into the subpostremal and commissural NTS. Saporin (Cat. #PR-01) was used as a control. It was established that NK-1 receptor-expressing neurons in the NTS are critical for these reflexes.. Noradrenergic inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus underlie hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis but not hypophagic or conditioned avoidance responses to systemic yohimbine.. Banihashemi L, Rinaman L.. J Neurosci 26(44):11442-11453, 2006.. Yohimbine (YO) is an α2 ...
Management. Striae distensae (striae alba) is a very challenging cosmetic problem for dermatologists to treat. Various modalities of treatment have been tried. Although therapeutic strategies are numerous, there is no treatment which consistently improves the appearance of striae and is safe for all skin types.31 Weight loss by diet alone or a combination of diet and exercise do not change the degree of striae distensae.32. Topical treatments. Topical tretinoin (0.1%) ameliorates striae and the improvement may persist for almost a year after discontinuation of therapy.33 More recently, tretinoin has been shown to improve the clinical appearance of stretch marks during the active stage (striae rubra), although with not much effect during the mature stage (striae alba).34 Some of the studies have proven the inefficacy of the vitamin A derivative in the treatment of SD, but most of the patients included in these early studies presented with old lesions that had evolved into whitish atrophic ...
The ventral subiculum (vSUB) plays a key role in addiction, and identifying the neuronal circuits and synaptic mechanisms by which vSUB alters the excitability of dopamine neurons is a necessary step to understand the motor changes induced by cocaine. Here, we report that high-frequency stimulation of the vSUB (HFSvSUB) over-activates ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in vivo and triggers long-lasting modifications of synaptic transmission measured ex vivo. This potentiation is caused by NMDA-dependent plastic changes occurring in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Finally, we report that the modification of the BNST-VTA neural circuits induced by HFSvSUB potentiates locomotor activity induced by a sub-threshold dose of cocaine. Our findings unravel a neuronal circuit encoding behavioral effects of cocaine in rats and highlight the importance of adaptive modifications in the BNST, a structure that influences motivated behavior as well as maladaptive behaviors associated ...
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Septo-hippocampal GABAergic signaling across multiple modalities in awake mice. Kaifosh P, Lovett-Barron M, Turi GF, Reardon TR, Losonczy A. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Sep;16(9):1182-4. doi: 10.1038/nn.3482. Epub 2013 Aug 4. ...
Brainfarma Indústria QuÃ-mica e FarmacÄ™utica S/A. is a large organization in the pharmaceutical preparation companies industry located in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. It opened its doors in 2010 and now has $221 million in yearly revenue and approximately 2,500 employees.
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
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