Selection bias is common in clinic-based HIV surveillance. Clinics located in HIV hotspots are often the first to be chosen and monitored, while clinics in less prevalent areas are added to the surveillance system later on. Consequently, the estimated HIV prevalence based on clinic data is substantially distorted, with markedly higher HIV prevalence in the earlier periods and trends that reveal much more dramatic declines than actually occur. Using simulations, we compare and contrast the performance of the various approaches and models for handling selection bias in clinic-based HIV surveillance. In particular, we compare the application of complete-case analysis and multiple imputation (MI). Several models are considered for each of the approaches. We demonstrate the application of the methods through sentinel surveillance data collected between 2002 and 2008 from India. Simulations suggested that selection bias, if not handled properly, can lead to biased estimates of HIV prevalence trends and
VH-A was designated as a nationally notifiable infectious disease in 2000, and a sentinel surveillance system for this disease was established. The number of reported cases has steeply increased between 2007 and 2009 and reached its peak in 2009 (15,231 cases reported by the sentinel surveillance system). Given the high chance of the disease becoming epidemic, VH-A has been redesignated as one of the group 1 nationally notifiable infectious diseases, which are acquired through ingestion of contaminated food or water. A mandatory surveillance system has been operating since 2011. Every physician is required to mandatorily report patients presenting with typical VH-A manifestations and identified to be infected with HAV to the KCDC through the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System.. Although the total number of cases identified by the surveillance system has considerably decreased until 2013, the number of cases is re-increasing recently. Particularly the reported number of VH-A in 2016 ...
Introduction: Dengue poses a significant socioeconomic and disease burden in Sri Lanka, where the geographic spread, incidence and severity of disease has been increasing since the first dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) epidemic occurred in 1989. Periodic epidemics have become progressively larger, peaking in 2012 with 44 456 cases. Passive surveillance was established nationwide more than a decade ago but dengue notifications have been based on clinical diagnosis, with infrequent laboratory confirmation. To obtain more accurate data on the disease burden, a laboratory-based enhanced sentinel surveillance system was established in Colombo Municipality, the area with the highest dengue incidence. Here we describe the study design and the results of the first 2 years (2012-2014).. Methods: Three government hospitals and two outpatient clinics in Colombo District were selected for the sentinel surveillance. All patients presenting with undifferentiated fever were enrolled, if consent given, ...
Local disease burden data are necessary to set national influenza vaccination policy. In 2010 the population of South Africa was 50 million and the HIV prevalence was 11%. We used a previously developed methodology to determine severe influenza burden in South Africa. Hospitalized severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) incidence was calculated, stratified by HIV status, for four age groups using data from population-based surveillance in one site situated in Gauteng Province for 2009-2011. These rates were adjusted for each of the remaining 8 provinces based on their prevalence of risk factors for pneumonia and healthcare- seeking behavior. We estimated non-hospitalized influenza-associated SARI from healthcare utilization surveys at two sites and used the percent of SARI cases positive for influenza from sentinel surveillance to derive the influenza-associated SARI rate. We applied rates of hospitalized and non-hospitalized influenza-associated SARI to census data to calculate the national ...
Abuse of reformulated OxyContin: Updated findings from a sentinel surveillance sample of individuals assessed for substance use disorder
Lippincotts Evidence-Based Practice Network offers the latest evidence-based research resources from our journals and the Joanna Briggs Institute.
Cases of whooping cough have been recorded by the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network Sentinella (SSSN) since June 1991 to monitor pertussis trends in Switzerland and to assess the current vaccination strategy. The Sentinella network consists of a sampl
National sentinel surveillance data show that HIV infections are increasing fast among men who have sex with men(MSM) in China. In some cities HIV prevalence among MSM is higher than 10%.It is urgent for China to explore innovative intervention to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission among this population.. The purposes of this study are:. ...
Even though National sentinel surveillance data show that the increase rate of HIV new infections among IDUs in China has become stabilized and slowed down, the new HIV infection is still on the rise, especially in the Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Xinjiang and Sichuan. This study attempts to further reduce the new infection among MMT clients, and particularly to prevent the transmission from HIV infected clients to their sexual partners with comprehensive intervention.. The purposes of this study are:. ...
GISP is a CDC-supported sentinel surveillance system that has monitored N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibilities since 1986, and is the only source in the United States of national and regional N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility data. During September-December 2011, CDC and five external GISP principal investigators, each with N. gonorrhoeae-specific expertise in surveillance, antimicrobial resistance, treatment, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, reviewed antimicrobial susceptibility trends in GISP through August 2011 to determine whether to update CDCs current recommendations (2) for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Each month, the first 25 gonococcal urethral isolates collected from men attending participating STD clinics (approximately 6,000 isolates each year) were submitted for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the lowest antimicrobial concentration that inhibits visible bacterial growth in the laboratory, is used ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential impact of various pneumococcal conjugate vaccination strategies, it is critical to ascertain the pre-vaccination epidemiology and to have a detailed evaluation of the current burden of pneumococcal disease. METHOD: A variety of national data sources and GP sentinel surveillance systems were used to estimate the incidence, number of hospital admissions, deaths, and GP consultations due to pneumococcal disease in England and Wales. Clinical outcomes included pneumococcal meningitis, bacteraemia, pneumonia and otitis media. A statistical model was used to attribute GP consultation recorded as pneumonia and acute otitis media to specific aetiological causes when these were not recorded. RESULTS: The burden of pneumococcal disease is considerable, with incidence rates of both invasive and non-invasive disease peaking in children (,5 years) and in the elderly (75+ years). Around 5800 hospitalisations specifically mentioning Streptococcus pneumoniae are estimated to ...
Age/sex registries have been examined as a method of estimating the number of individuals served by a primary care practice. These data can be used in estimating disease frequency from primary care encounter data. The experience with age/sex registries in the Ambulatory Sentinel Practice Network (ASPN) has identified three major sources of error when registry data are used to estimate disease rates: (1) studies using medical encounter data exclude those individuals who do not seek medical care, (2) visitation is not random and is a function of variables in addition to disease incidence, and (3) encounter data from primary care practices are incomplete due to reporting problems and patient-initiated visits to other health care providers. Despite these limitations, age/sex registries can provide a practical tool for estimating disease rates in appropriate settings, assessing the generalizability of results, and assessing the feasibility of studies in practice based research. Further research about ...
Recommendations of first choice antibiotic therapy need to be based on actual antibiotic susceptibility data. We determined the antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli in uncomplicated UTI among women and compared the results with 2004 and 2009. In 30 sentinel general practitioner practices of Nivel Primary Care database, urine samples were collected from women with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI. Patient characteristics, E. coli susceptibility, and ESBL production were analyzed. Six hundred eightynine urine samples were collected; E. coli was the most isolated uropathogen (83%). Antibiotic susceptibility was stable over time except for ciprofloxacin (96% in 2004, 97% in 2009, and 94% in 2014; P , 0.05). The susceptibility to co-amoxiclav was 88%, 87%, and 92% in 2004, 2009, and 2014, respectively. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli increased from 0.1% in 2004 to 2.2% in 2014 (P , 0.05). Regional differences in antibiotic susceptibility for co-trimoxazole were found being the highest in the ...
Sentinel influenza surveillance in the WHO European Region is based on nationally organized networks of primary care physicians, mostly general practitioners (GPs), covering at least 1-5% of the population in their countries (see table below). Depending on the country, physicians report the weekly number of patients seen with ILI and/or ARI, or both, to the national focal point for influenza surveillance. Primary care surveillance for influenza in the European Region is based mainly on these sentinel systems (i.e. data are collected and reported only from selected facilities), although some countries collect data on ILI or ARI from all health facilities in the country (universal surveillance). A subset of specimens from sentinel ILI and ARI patients is tested for influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. In addition, some countries, mainly in the eastern part of the Region, conduct sentinel surveillance for hospitalized cases presenting with SARI, according to standard case ...
Weidle, P., Ganea, C., Irwin, K., Pieniazek, D., McGowan, J., Olivo, N., ... Ernst, J. (2000). Presence of HIV-1 Group M, Non-B Subtypes in Bronx, New York: A Sentinel Site for Monitoring the Genetic Diversity of HIV in the United States. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 181, 470 - 475 ...
KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province in South Africa has the highest HIV disease burden in the country, with an estimated population prevalence of 24.7%. A pilot sentinel surveillance project was undertaken in KZN to classify the proportion of adult patients failing first-line ART and to describe the patterns of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in patients with virological failure (VF).VF in adults in KZN was <8% up to 3?years post-ART initiation but was associated with a high frequency of DRMs. These data identify key groups for intensified adherence counselling and highlight the need to optimize first-line regimens to maintain viral suppression.
An opinion column was published by the BC Centre for Disease Control and the Offices of the Provincial Health Officer and Deputy Provincial Health Officer on sustained community transmission of COVID-19 in B.C., and how B.C.s response may look like in the months ahead.. Below is an excerpt from the British Columbia Medical Journal:. "If sustained local transmission occurs, the focus of the intervention will shift. Testing for COVID-19 will decrease even as community cases increase, as we shift from containment to mitigation. People with mild symptoms consistent with COVID-19 (or with other respiratory illnesses), in whom knowledge of the infectious agent would not change management, will be asked to self-isolate without testing. Testing capacity will focus on severe cases and on sentinel surveillance, which will allow us to estimate the total disease burden and monitor trends in disease activity in our communities.". BC Medical Journal ...
You see it when radicals run for office or stop elections in other secular Islamic coun- tries.Sentinel surveillance, according to Woodhall, represents an
This book contains 46 summaries of positive findings from youth interventions based on 64 evaluations. Each of the summaries follows an outline that includes these components: an overview, population information, evidence of effectiveness, key components, contributing factors, study methodology, geographic areas, and contact information (plus a section of additional resources for some studies). The summaries are organized in three sections: education and career development, building strong communities, and of interest (recent studies dealing with a variety of topics about youth policies and practices). Among the best known approaches described are the following: Career Academies, School-to-Work, Tech Prep, Boys and Girls Clubs of America, 4-H, Teen Outreach Program, Youth as Resources, and programs recognized by PEPNet (the Promising and Effective Practices Network). The report also summarizes evaluations of community schools and after-school, juvenile justice, and English language
A profound shift toward coordinated, responsive care is underway in American medicine. This shift has the power to transform health care by improving quality, reducing costs and boosting satisfaction, while making care available to more people, at their convenience.. For example, imagine that your aging mother has been ill all day. She tells herself it was something she ate, but shes feeling woozy. She doesnt want to call you at work, and she is reluctant to dial 911 because she believes ambulances are embarrassing and expensive.. Patients and their families face dilemmas like this every day. But leading-edge medical thinkers are redesigning health care to make it more patient-centered and coordinated, integrating the possibilities of technology and the requirements for business success.. For instance, in some OptumCare medical practice networks, the mother in the example above has a phone number she can call any time. If she needs in-person evaluation, but not a trip to the ER, a nurse ...
This collection of papers provides an update on HIV estimation, exploring a variety of methods and analyses of primary data. The collection is one of a series where papers have focused on the tools used in the current round of estimates (in this case the 2011 set), the data and parameter estimates applied, proposals for future developments, some results and other related topics.. The 2011 set of UNAIDS/WHO estimates builds on improvements in estimation methods and assumptions: Bao et al1 describe the flexible epidemiological model that allows HIV infection risk to vary over time. The force of infection parameter, r, is allowed to vary over time through a random walk formulation, which can represent a greater variety of epidemic shapes continuing beyond the simple epidemic curve used previously. This has the advantage of allowing a closer representation of the data and the new patterns emerging as HIV epidemics age in populations. An informative prior distribution is used to improve short-term ...
Artigos em autoria/coautoria de elementos da José de Mello Saúde, publicados em Revistas com Fator de Impacto: Bousquet J, Schunemann HJ, Fonseca J, Samolinski B, Bachert C, Morais-Almeida M, et al. MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis (MASK-rhinitis): the new generation guideline implementation. Allergy. 2015;70(11):1372-92.
The World Health Organization has been diligently promoting quality of health care at all levels. In 2008, the WHO with its 36 member states formed a global network to conduct surveillance for invasive bacterial vaccine-preventable diseases (IB-VPD) in sentinel hospitals. …. ...
... Welcome to this story thread, I hope it proves to be a long, enjoyable, constructive and prosperous thread. Sentinels, is a pe...
As if the Sentinel wasnt already a threat, it too benefits from the ERA upgrade making it a bigger threat to armored divisions anywhere.
Some hospitals allow patients to receive visits from their own pets as a means of improving the mood and possibly the health of those in their care
Ever since his teenage body turned on him, Kyle Rodas realized he'll never be carried off the field as the hero, despite defeating a foe far scarier than the Pittsburgh Steelers. Still, he would gladly settle for visiting the place Super Bowl heroes famously go after winning it all: Disney World.
No matter how many practices he misses and treatment he receives, the 39-year-old guard has faced what he calls a day-to-day struggle in ensuring he stays ahead of Father Time.
By Alana Melanson [email protected] T heyve beaten the odds, saved lives and have accomplished the seemingly impossible.
Due to the lack of ILI surveillance in Togo, there was no information about the epidemiology of ILI or influenza viruses until 2010. The first samples collected were processed in May 2010 and the presence of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 virus was confirmed in Togo one year after the novel pandemic influenza occurred in Mexico (April 2009). This is the first report that describes the epidemiology of influenza in Togo using data from the ILI sentinel surveillance system. During the two and half year period of ILI sentinel surveillance, influenza viruses were detected in 236 (25%) of 955 samples. The average percentage positive in this study was higher than the positivity rate observed in 15 other African countries between 2006 and 2010 [17]. However, during the same timeframe, other countries in the temperate climate region: Madagascar (40%), Morocco (27%) and South Africa (40%) did show a high positivity rate as well as Peru (35%; 2006-2008) [18].. There are several reasons to explain the ...
In June 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) expanded its 2004 recommendation for routine influenza vaccination of children aged 6--23 months to include children aged 24--59 months. The 2006 ACIP recommendations also reemphasized that previously unvaccinated children aged ,9 years should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered at least 1 month apart to be fully vaccinated (1). In 2007, using data from six immunization information system (IIS)* sentinel sites, CDC conducted the first assessment of influenza vaccination coverage among children aged 6--59 months during the 2006--07 influenza season. The findings demonstrated that, at all six sites, ,30% of children aged 6--23 months and ,20% of children aged 24--59 months were fully vaccinated. Vaccination coverage data from national and state surveys for an influenza season generally are not available until the next influenza season. Rapid assessment of influenza vaccination coverage can help direct activities of ...
Background: Plasmodium vivax is the second most common species among malaria patients diagnosed in Europe, but epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria are limited. The TropNetEurop surveillance network has monitored the importation of vivax malaria into Europe since 1999. Objectives: To present epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria collected at European level. Material and methods: Data of primary cases of P. vivax malaria reported between January 1999 and September 2003 were analysed, focusing on disease frequency, patient characteristics, place of infection, course of disease, treatment and differences between network-member countries. Results: Within the surveillance period 4,801 cases of imported malaria were reported. 618 (12.9%) were attributed to P. vivax. European travellers and immigrants were the largest patient groups, but their proportion varied among the reporting countries. The main regions of infection in descending order were the ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific. (‎1979)‎. Working Group on Acute Respiratory Infections (‎Sentinel Surveillance Unit Methodology)‎, Goroka, Papua New Guinea, 28-30 January 1979 : report. Manila : WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/207180 ...
Abstract. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the epidemiology of pandemic-prone influenza viruses in urban settings. Using data from a prospective sentinel surveillance network, we characterized the emergence, epidemiology, and transmission dynamics of 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza (H1N1pdm09) in Kampala, Uganda. After virus introduction via international air travel from England in June 2009, we estimated the basic reproductive number in Kampala to be 1.06-1.13, corresponding to attack rates of 12-22%. We subsequently identified 613 cases of influenza in Kampala from 2009 to 2015, of which 191 (31.2%) were infected with H1N1pdm09. Patients infected with H1N1pdm09 were more likely to be older adult (ages 35-64) males with illness onset during rainy season months. Urban settings in sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to importation and intense transmission of pandemic-prone influenza viruses. Enhanced surveillance and influenza pandemic preparedness in these settings is needed.
Introduction: Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has the highest prevalence of cardiovascular ‎disease (CVD) in Canada. Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study ‎compares the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the NL population with the rest of Canada.‎Methods: A cross-sectional study, using data from the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel ‎Surveillance Network (CPCSSN), was undertaken. The study population included adults, ‎excluding pregnant women, aged 20 years and older. Canadian guidelines were used for ‎classifying dyslipidemia. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to compare the ‎lipid levels and prevalence of dyslipidemia between NL and the rest of Canada.‎Results: 128,825 individuals (NL: 7,772; rest of Canada‎: 121,053) were identified with a mean ‎age of 59 years (55% Females). Mean levels of total Cholesterol (4.96 vs. 4.93, P=0.03), LDL ‎‎(3.00 vs. 2.90 mmol/L, PConclusion: The NL population has a significantly higher rate of
and contributes to relatively high treatment failure rates (26% because most patients will have positive serologic results in one study).5 Understanding antimicrobial resistance patterns can guide therapy and increase H. pylori treatment success in Treat H. pylori infection with an FDA-approved regimen accounting for local antimicrobial resistance patterns. In Alaska Native patients, metronidazole-based quadruple therapy regimens (usually containing tetracycline, The Arctic Investigations Program (AIP), Centers for Disease bismuth, and a proton pump inhibitor [PPI]) have shown Control and Prevention (CDC) H. pylori Sentinel Surveillance System cultures H. pylori from endoscopic biopsy tissue Test individuals treated for H. pylori infection 2 months submitted from five hospitals that provide care to Alaska Native people across five regions of Alaska. The AIP Consider other therapies (e.g., PPI, H2 blockers, or pro- laboratory conducts minimum inhibitory concentration testing kinetic drugs) ...
Introduction Data on the burden and risk groups for influenza-associated mortality from Africa are limited. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk-factors for in-hospital influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) deaths.. Methods Hospitalised patients with SARI were enrolled prospectively in four provinces of South Africa from 2009-2013. Using polymerase chain reaction, respiratory samples were tested for ten respiratory viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA. The incidence of influenza-associated SARI deaths was estimated at one urban hospital with a defined catchment population.. Results We enrolled 1376 patients with influenza-associated SARI and 3% (41 of 1358 with available outcome data) died. In patients with available HIV-status, the case-fatality proportion (CFP) was higher in HIV-infected (5%, 22/419) than HIV-uninfected individuals (2%, 13/620; p = 0.006). CFPs varied by age group, and generally increased with increasing age amongst individuals ,5 years ...
The current study compared the seroprevalence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in pregnant women in The Gambia between May 2000 and August 2001 with the seroprevalence ...
Action contre la Faim (ACF) has been implementing cash-based interventions since the late 1990s. ACF s main focus is the treatment and prevention of acute malnutrition, and it has used cash-based responses to pursue this objective, including using vouchers to increase access to fresh foods (vegetables, fruit, eggs, meat, milk and fish). Fresh food vouchers (FFV) have provided households with complete food baskets, or have been used to supplement staple foods with fresh micronutrient-rich foods. FFV programmes also support local markets and traders. Fresh food vouchers can be used in slow-onset as well as acute crises to provide short- or longer-term support to people highly vulnerable to acute malnutrition.. ACF commissioned a meta-evaluation of five of its FFV programmes in Bolivia, Kenya, Haiti, Pakistan and the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). The evaluation was funded by the Cash Learning Partnership (CaLP) and ECHO, and the results were used as the basis for the development of a good ...
The Somalia Cash and Voucher Monitoring Group (CVMG) was formed in September 2011. Monitoring activities involved the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data relating to the implementation process, and market and household impacts. Quantitative data were collected by the implementing NGOs, and qualitative data were collected by 18 IFMs hired specifically for the CVMG exercise.. For the cash projects, $43.9 million was distributed to 94,699 households through six hawala companies. The actual amount paid to beneficiaries varied among the NGOs and between regions according to the specific aim of the project and local market prices. The size of the cash transfer ranged from $75 to $125 a month, depending on the actual cost of the Minimum Expenditure Basket (MEB) in the local area.+The MEB was developed by the Somalia Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit (FSNAU). It represents a household s minimum daily food and non-food requirements. For the voucher projects, over 7,000 tonnes and ...
The results of our study suggest a higher adherence to the German guideline for the management of CAP patients after active implementation. The proportion of guideline conformity increased concerning the indicators "duration of antibiotic treatment in outpatients" (+9.2%), "antibiotic treatment in inpatients" (+5.6%) and its duration (+5.0%), whereas in the CG, a decrease could be observed in all the said indicators (−7.9%, −4.7% and −2.9%, respectively) except the "antibiotic treatment in outpatients" (+0.6%). Nevertheless, the logit loglinear analyses showed no effect of intervention or time period on the process of care. In addition, no significant effect could be observed on the 30-days overall mortality, the CAP-related mortality and the length of hospital stay.. Our study differs from previous investigations in this area in several aspects. We recruited patients not only in hospitals but also in sentinel practices, which allowed us to estimate the effect on the process of care in ...
University of Limericks Centre for Interventions in Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (4i) represents recognition by like-minded researchers from across the University and distributed clinical campuses, in addition to the General Practice network now associated with the GEMS, of the need to provide the sense of identity, infrastructure support, vision and guidance that will enable existing and new researchers as they contribute to medical knowledge and, critically, by doing so to advance health outcomes for patients in the mid-West, nationally and beyond.. ...
Dr. Mario DiSaverio practices network spinal analysis in annapolis maryland. He also uses Cerebrospinal Fluid Technique (CSFT) and his innate intuition to help your inner physician to heal itself.
The Greater Accra and Ashanti Regions are currently having the highest HIV rates in the country, according to a recent report.. Per the latest figures, the two regions have overtaken Brong Ahafo and Volta Regions which topped in 2016.. The revelation was contained in the 2017 HIV Sentinel Survey (HSS) and Estimates Report, jointly released by the National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NACP).. In the report, the two regions both had 3.2 percent while the Northern Region had the lowest rate of 0.6%.. The Western Region followed with 2.4% taking the third position and Volta Region occupying the fourth position with 2.3%.. The report also placed Eastern Region at the 5th position, Brong Ahafo, 6th, Central Region, 7th, and Upper West and Upper East taking the 8th and 9th positions respectively.. About 18, 711 samples were collected nationwide for the report and drawn from 40 sentinel sites strategically located at 17 rural sites, 23 urban sites and 69 antenatal clinics within a period of four ...
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Study VII - Genetic and Pediatric Diseases flashcards from Rechie Mae Abear - Gabales's Davao Medical School Foundation Inc. class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Study VII - Genetic and Pediatric Diseases flashcards from Augi Yap's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
package Some::Class; use Sentinel; sub foo :lvalue { my $self = shift; sentinel get =, sub { return $self-,get_foo }, set =, sub { $self-,set_foo( $_[0] ) }; } sub bar :lvalue { my $self = shift; sentinel value =, $self-,get_bar, set =, sub { $self-,set_bar( $_[0] ) }; } sub splot :lvalue { sentinel obj =, shift, get =, \&get_splot, set =, \&set_splot; } sub wibble :lvalue { sentinel obj =, shift, get =, get_wibble, set =, set_wibble ...
Blood tests. A technician obtains a sample of your blood by inserting a needle into a vein, usually in your arm.. Urine tests. This painless test requires you to urinate into a container. To avoid potential contamination of the sample, you may be instructed to cleanse your genital area with an antiseptic pad and to collect the urine midstream.. Throat swabs. Samples from your throat, or other moist areas of your body, may be obtained with a sterile swab.. Stool sample. You may be instructed to collect a stool sample so a lab can check the sample for parasites and other organisms.. Spinal tap (lumbar puncture). This procedure obtains a sample of your cerebrospinal fluid through a needle carefully inserted between the bones of your lower spine. Youll usually be asked to lie on your side with your knees pulled up toward your chest. ...