Contrast discrimination is an important type of information for establishing image quality metrics based on human vision. We used a dual-masking paradigm to study how contrast discrimination can be influenced by the presence of adjacent stimuli. In a dual masking paradigm, the observers task is to detect a target superimposed on a pedestal in the presence of flankers. The flankers (1) reduce the target threshold at zero pedestal contrast; (2) reduce the size of pedestal facilitation at low pedestal contrasts; and (3) shift the TvC (Target threshold vs. pedestal contrast) function horizontally to the left on a log-log plot at high pedestal contrasts. The horizontal shift at high pedestal contrasts suggests that the flanker effect is a multiplicative factor that cannot be explained by previous models of contrast discrimination. We extended a divisive inhibition model of contrast discrimination by implementing the flanker effect as a multiplicative sensitivity modulation factor that account for ...
The observed shift in the contrast gain function is consistent with previous measures of spatial vision loss with age. For instance, Sloane, Owsley, and Jackson (1988) measured contrast sensitivity for young and old observers with spatial frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 8 c/deg and luminance levels ranging from mesopic to photopic. At a low temporal frequency, the slope of the sensitivity function (inverse of the threshold function) spanning the range of luminance was steeper for older than younger observers at spatial frequencies below 4 c/deg. This means that older observers required more contrast at low luminance levels to detect a sine-wave grating than their younger counterparts. This pattern of contrast sensitivity loss is consistent with a reduction in the contrast gain slope of the underlying mechanism at low spatial frequencies. In addition, suprathreshold measures of spatial vision performance also support a reduction in contrast gain within one (or both) of the pathways. Losses in ...
The observed shift in the contrast gain function is consistent with previous measures of spatial vision loss with age. For instance, Sloane, Owsley, and Jackson (1988) measured contrast sensitivity for young and old observers with spatial frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 8 c/deg and luminance levels ranging from mesopic to photopic. At a low temporal frequency, the slope of the sensitivity function (inverse of the threshold function) spanning the range of luminance was steeper for older than younger observers at spatial frequencies below 4 c/deg. This means that older observers required more contrast at low luminance levels to detect a sine-wave grating than their younger counterparts. This pattern of contrast sensitivity loss is consistent with a reduction in the contrast gain slope of the underlying mechanism at low spatial frequencies. In addition, suprathreshold measures of spatial vision performance also support a reduction in contrast gain within one (or both) of the pathways. Losses in ...
A classification method of ultrasonic liver image is studied based on threshold segmentation.Under the condition of minimizing the false-negative probabilityt,he confidence intervals of gray levels which are normal distributions in normal and fatty liver images can be obtained by minimizing the false-positive rate.Then classify the images by comparing the seg-mented images with the interval thresholds.The experimental results show that the classification rate of normal livers reaches to 100% for testing or training datat,he classification rate of fatty livers reaches to 96.3% for testing or training data.Com-pared with the Back Propagation Neural Network(BP NN) methodt,he method costs less time than BP NN method when they have the same performance.
Effects of bilateral kindling or bilateral sub-threshold stimulation of the amygdala or septum on muricide, ranacide, intraspecific aggression and passive avoidance in the rat Academic Article ...
Auditory fatigue is now known as Temporary Threshold Shift (subsequently abbreviated to TTS). It has been defined as the temporary elevation in the absolute threshold of hearing for a given test sound resulting from preceding auditory stimulation by a given stimulus sound (see Hirsh, 1952, page 177). Associated with the phenomenon there are six physical variables which sub-divide themselves into stimulus, test and recovery factors. In IMS study each of the latter factors was systematically Investigated using four groups of six undergraduate subjects. Thresholds were measured using the Bek6sy (1947) technique of threshold measurement. Control experiments were carried out to verify that TTS results from the application of the stimulus tone, to study the mechanisms involved in the Bekesy technique of threshold measurement and the effects of this technique on the measurement of TTS, to investigate any additive effects of TTS and to study the possibility of any measurement errors resulting from the ...
0079] In another example implementation, electrical sensing module 86 and capture detection module 90 determine whether capture has occurred based on the LVP-RVS conduction times, as described above, as well as the evoked response in the LV. In particular, electrical sensing module 86 and evoked response detection module 94 of capture detection module 90 determine whether there has been an evoked response by measuring the amplitude of the response in the LV as well as time between the LVP and the evoked response in the LV. In order for capture to have occurred, the time between the LVP and the evoked response in the LV should be within a prescribed window, and the amplitude of the response should be greater than some threshold value. Processor 80 may retrieve the previously stored threshold value from memory 82 and capture detection module 90 may compare the measured amplitude of the response to the threshold value. In addition, for each vector tested at each particular voltage, processor 80 may ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spike-Threshold Adaptation Predicted by Membrane Potential Dynamics In Vivo. AU - Fontaine, Bertrand. AU - Peña, José Luis. AU - Brette, Romain. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Neurons encode information in sequences of spikes, which are triggered when their membrane potential crosses a threshold. In vivo, the spiking threshold displays large variability suggesting that threshold dynamics have a profound influence on how the combined input of a neuron is encoded in the spiking. Threshold variability could be explained by adaptation to the membrane potential. However, it could also be the case that most threshold variability reflects noise and processes other than threshold adaptation. Here, we investigated threshold variation in auditory neurons responses recorded in vivo in barn owls. We found that spike threshold is quantitatively predicted by a model in which the threshold adapts, tracking the membrane ...
Functions reliably describing perception of motion in depth have been established experimentally by using psychophysical methods of size and distance estimations and threshold measurements. The stimuli were generated with a new hybrid technique yielding a. ...
a) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold increases when the head of the agency determines the supplies or services are to be used to facilitate defense against or recovery from cyber, nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological attack; to facilitate provision of international disaster assistance; or to support response to an emergency or major disaster. (See 2.101.). (b) Simplified acquisition threshold. The threshold increases when the head of the agency determines the supplies or services are to be used to facilitate defense against or recovery from cyber, nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological attack; to facilitate provision of international disaster assistance; or to support response to an emergency or major disaster. (See 2.101.). (c) Treating certain items as commercial. Contracting officers may treat any acquisition of supplies or services as an acquisition of commercial items if the head of the agency determines the acquisition is to be used to facilitate the defense against ...
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misc{71171638-c472-49a9-84cf-124384b2c492, author = {Hellman, Johan and Sikström, Sverker}, keyword = {Memory,Signal Detection Theory,ROC curve,Attention}, language = {eng}, title = {The Generalized Signal Detection Theory}, year = {2012 ...
At high contrast, performance of both patients and controls deteriorated as the stimulus size increased (F(2,27) = 38; p , 0.001) (Fig. 3, right panel). This pattern of results can be construed as an indicator of the presence of antagonistic center-surround interactions (Tadin et al., 2003). At high contrast, no main effects of group were found (F(1,28) = 1.76; p = 0.19). The only observed deficit was in a condition in which patients discriminated a small (1°) high-contrast motion (t(28) = 2.29; p = 0.03). The magnitude of the observed deficit was comparable with the threshold increases observed for low-contrast moving stimuli (Fig. 3). Importantly, as the stimulus size increased, the difference between patient and control data were eliminated. The interaction, however, was not significant (F(2,27) = 1.72; p = 0.19). This pattern of results might indicate that patients are selectively impaired in perceiving small moving objects. However, we find no evidence for such selective impairment in the ...
Auditory function declines with age, with reductions in threshold sensitivity and speech discrimination, particularly in noise, commonly observed (Working Group on Speech Understanding, Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics, 1988; Goŕdon-Salant, 2005). Understanding of the cellular changes that lead to these outcomes remains fragmentary, and clinical assessments provide an incomplete picture of the sites of involvement and the perceptual impacts of auditory aging.. The loss of threshold sensitivity that accompanies auditory aging is primarily peripheral in origin, and often sensory (i.e., related to hair cell damage or loss) in nature. Much experimental effort has focused on correlating such age-related threshold shifts with hair cell loss, and therapeutic interventions have concentrated on improving audibility through amplification. However, threshold sensitivity loss is not the only, and arguably not the primary, handicapping dysfunction of auditory aging. Aging listeners ...
Safe and proven testing patterns developed at the Mayo Clinic® assist in the assessment of sensory abnormalities due to neurologic disease, help in the determination of type of dysfunctional fibers, and quantitatively verify the effectiveness of small and large unmyelinated nerve fibers.. The CASE IV QST lab utilizes two stimulators to determine sensory threshold. Patient responses to safe, effective stimuli are used to generate a sensory threshold level which are then compared to reference data available with the WR TestWorks software.. The CASE IV QST lab includes stimulators, patient instruction cards for clear, concise, and standardized instruction, a patient supply kit, an equipment cart, and a computer running the WR TestWorks software with printer. Get more functionality from your lab by adding a Q-Sweat or Cardiac system. On-site installation and training is included for all labs in the United States and Canada. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The relationship and precision of four methods for measuring the low-contrast detail detectability in fluoroscopic imaging were studied. These included the physical measurement of the accumulation rate of the square of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRrate2), two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) experiments, sixteen-alternative forced-choice (16-AFC) experiments and subjective determination of the threshold contrast. The precision and sensitivity of the threshold contrast measurement were seen to be modest in the constancy testing of fluoroscopic equipment: only large changes in system performance could be reliably detected by that method. The measurement of the SNRrate2 is suggested instead. The relationship between the results of the various methods were studied, and it was found that human performance can be related to SNRrate2 by introducing the concept of the effective image information integration time (teff). When measured for an unlimited observation time, it depicts the saturation of ...
A heart monitor is disclosed. The monitor computes ST segment deviations and stores the results in heart rate based histograms. Periodically, the monitor analyzes the histogram data to determine a normal range of ST deviation for a particular heart rate range. The monitor computes heart rate dependent ischemia detection thresholds based on the upper and lower boundaries of the normal range. A current threshold for a heart rate range is set as a weighted average of the prior threshold and a provisional threshold based on recent data, thereby limiting the amount the actual detection threshold changes from period to period.
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Aims We investigated the applicability of the Ventricular Capture Control (VCC) and Atrial Capture Control (ACC) algorithms for automatic management of cardiac stimulation featured by Biotronik pacemakers in a broad, unselected population of pacemaker recipients. Methods and results Ventricular Capture Control and Atrial Capture Control were programmed to work at a maximum adapted output voltage as 4.8 V in consecutive recipients of Biotronik pacemakers. Ambulatory threshold measurements were made 1 and 12 months after pacemaker implant/replacement in all possible pacing/sensing configurations, and were compared with manual measurements. Among 542 patients aged 80 (73-85) years, 382 had a pacemaker implant and 160 a pacemaker replacement. Ventricular Capture Control could work at long term in 97% of patients irrespectively of pacing indication, lead type, and lead service life, performance being superior with discordant pacing/sensing configurations. Atrial Capture Control could work in 93% of ...
Since Ive just broken the anime taboo, I figured Id illustrate my second law of psychology. Every person has a perceptual ceiling. If they are stimulated beyond this, their rational mind will disengage to reduce anxiety. Pupil dilation and contraction generally adjusts to ambient light. However, it also corresponds to the rate at which your…
Many frameworks, such as the socioecological model and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), highlight the importance of considering intrapersonal variables alongside context. The SD model of thresholds for clinical decision-making proposes specific mechanisms to describe the relationship between the individual and his or her setting. For a wide range of parameter values, the assumption that screening directly increases accuracy while having an ambiguous effect on thresholds yields predictions that are broadly consistent with implementation trials of developmental-behavioral screening, including that not all positive screens will be referred and that changes in referral rates attributable to the implementation of screening may range widely depending on context and even decline in some circumstances. The key insight is that depending on the perspective of the decision-maker, increased accuracy may reduce FP errors and FN errors to different degrees. If only the former, ...
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The COLENBRANDER DIOPTER RULER. The ruler shows inches and centimeters. Most important, however, is the center scale, which. shows DIOPTERS. Recording the reading distance in diopters (the reciprocal of the distance in meters) greatly simplifies calculations and comparisons. It replaces the use of a visual acuity fraction. (V = m / M = distance in meters / letter size) with a multiplication (1/V = M.x.D = letter size x. distance in diopters).. Measuring the reading distance in diopters provides a simple check on the power of the. reading add.. The diamonds on the ruler represent steps that are equivalent to the print sample steps. For. each diamond that the print is brought closer, the patient should be able to read one print size smaller, provided that the reading add is adjusted accordingly.. The short end of the ruler provides an M-unit scale to measure the size of unknown print. samples.. ...
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Absolute amplitude threshold can be set in the Positive threshold field. This means that SIGVIEW will only consider amplitudes over that value as possible peak candidates. The default value will be set to 75% of the maximal signal amplitude. • If you would also like to detect negative peaks, enable the Detect negative peaks check-box and set the corresponding threshold in the Negative threshold field. The value should be entered as absolute amplitude, so you do not need a minus sign. • Minimal peak width can be defined in samples or signal units (for example, Hz, or seconds). Setting this property to a higher value will prevent detection of very small peaks where only few values cross the threshold limit. • Allow multiple peaks inside one threshold crossing option allows SIGVIEW to detect local peaks inside one threshold crossing. Turning this option on will usually result in an increase of detected peak count. ...
At this level, the finger will not move at all. However, the action of mind upon the finger will continue. You will continue the action of mind by willing the finger to push into the table - but at a force incapable of actually moving it. This is concentration.. Mental thought to physical action is a spectrum. Thoughts cross a point on the spectrum and become physical actions. Most people usually leap from thought to physical action in a binary step. However, as the exercise just now showed, you can in fact approach the point where a thought becomes a physical action, and stay just beneath it - creating a continuing action of mind which is sub-threshold for creating an actual physical action. You can continue to create this action of mind for long periods. This is concentration.. This action of mind will still cause nerves to fire in the finger, despite its not moving. These nerve impulses can be perceived as a tingling sensation in the chest and neck where the nerves supplying the finger ...
We hypothesized that currents are grouped into distinct modules that shape specific neuronal characteristics or signatures, such as resting potential, sub-threshold oscillations, and spiking waveforms, for several classes of neurons. For such a grouping to occur, the currents within one module should have minimal functional interference with currents belonging to other modules. This condition is satisfied if the gating functions of currents in the same module are grouped together on the voltage axis; in contrast, such functions are segregated along the voltage axis for currents belonging to different modules. We tested this hypothesis using four published example case models and found it to be valid for these classes of neurons ...
Abstract: Detection thresholds for auditory stimuli, specified in terms of their amplitude or level, depend on the stimulus temporal envelope and decrease with increasing stimulus duration. The neural mechanisms underlying these fundamental across-species observations are not fully understood. Here, we present a ``continuous look model, according to which the stimulus gives rise to stochastic neural detection events whose probability of occurrence is proportional to the 3rd power of the low-pass filtered, time-varying stimulus amplitude. Threshold is reached when a criterion number of events have occurred (probability summation). No long-term integration is required. We apply the model to an extensive set of thresholds measured in humans for tones of different envelopes and durations and find it to fit well. Subtle differences at long durations may be due to limited attention resources. We confirm the probabilistic nature of the detection events by analyses of simple reaction times and verify ...
This operator finds the threshold for given prediction confidences of soft classified predictions in order to turn it into a crisp classification. The optimization step is based on ROC analysis. ROC is discussed at the end of this description.. The Find Threshold operator finds the threshold of a labeled ExampleSet to map a soft prediction to crisp values. The threshold is delivered through the threshold port. Mostly the Apply Threshold operator is used for applying a threshold after it has been delivered by the Find Threshold operator. If the confidence for the second class is greater than the given threshold the prediction is set to this class otherwise it is set to the other class. This can be easily understood by studying the attached Example Process. Among various classification methods, there are two main groups of methods: soft and hard classification. In particular, a soft classification rule generally estimates the class conditional probabilities explicitly and then makes the class ...
Power/performance characteristics of FD-SOI will be 30% to 40% superior to bulk HKMG CMOS at 20nm. Analog porting of FD-SOI will be easier than with the other options because of the superior sub-threshold characteristics.. Today, FD-SOI is the only technology that can operate safely in the 0.6V to 0.7V range at 28nm. While there is some reduction in performance, operating power is reduced, giving a very compelling performance-power advantage against other technologies.. Although the real competition is likely to be between FinFETs and FD-SOI at 20nm, FinFETs are a new technology (from a high-volume production perspective), with significant cost penalties even in Q1/2016.. Bulk HKMG CMOS will have low parametric yields at 20nm. A major source of yield loss for bulk CMOS is that of random dopant fluctuations from transistor implants. These implants are not required for FD-SOI. ~20nm FinFET structures will be high-cost to manufacture, and parametric yields will be low.. The time to reach defect ...
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I was posting under the handle ummmm earlier in the thread. I have never actually run a marathon, but have used equivalent performance charts to see where I would be at. The reason I use marathon pace as a baseline is from the Lydiard books I have read. His 3/4 effort runs were sub-threshold or marathon pace and were run (if I remember right) for 10 miles twice a week. I use this as a guideline, BUT my high end aerobic runs are whatever feels right for the day. A strong, floating feeling that I know I can hold for a while is my high end aerobic pace for the day. Sometimes its a bit slower than marathon pace, sometimes a little faster. ...
EasyPower provides the option of showing a warning when the short-circuit duty percent is above a user defined safety margin threshold but below the violation level. Short-circuit on any bus results in voltage drop shorh other near buses in the system. You can set a voltage sensitivity threshold in the options such that any bus with voltage below this value will be highlighted red in the single line view and shown in the voltage sensitivity report.. The short-circuit calculation provides the phase angle of the branch currents and the bus voltages at various equipment. The phase angles displayed are relative to the applied equivalent voltage source being at zero angle. Transformers having different winding configurations, such as a delta connection on one side and a star wye connection on the other side, have a designated shift in the phase angles of currents and voltages.. For remote buses and branches across transformers, a phase angle shift is applied accordingly by the short circuit ...
Current range: 0~5A,10A,20A,30A,50A optional; Support Relay ouput,Transistor open-collector output or 12/24V ouput; Alarm Threshold: when current|230mA,relay active,contact get through;When input current|200mA,relay and contact open.The input threshold can be set according to users request in factory. Relay capacity:AC250V/1A, DC30V/1A;Transistor open-collector output capacity:30V/50mA; Active output capacity:20mA. Working Power: 12V or 24V DC. Used for monitoring the equipment running status.
How different must the comparison be from the standard for a person to distinguish the two stimuli? By distinguish, we mean the participant can reliably pick out the odd stimulus when presented two examples of the standard and one of the comparison (or vice versa). There are at least two strategies. (i) With single-cue estimators, estimates could be made independently of each other (without combination). Once the difference between either estimate, ΔS 1 or ΔS 2, reached its own discrimination threshold, ±T 1 or ±T 2, the participant would be able to identify the odd stimulus. The predicted set of thresholds would, therefore, be horizontal and vertical lines (Fig. 1B, left; red lines) whose distance from the origin was determined by the discrimination threshold of the single-cue estimators (13). Comparison stimuli within the rectangle would be indistinguishable from the standard. Performance would be no better in one quadrant than in any other. (ii) With a mandatory combined estimator, only ...
Both foveae of light-adapted subjects were stimulated at the same time with monocularly presented lights of increasing or decreasing luminance. Combinations judged just detectable violated predictions of the energy summation and the probability summation hypotheses of binocular interaction. Rather, the results can be explained by independent central neural mechanisms that signal the sum or the difference of stimuli to two eyes. ...
Once it has detected an overheating state, Hmonitor can perform a number of tasks. First, it can sound an audio alarm, then shut down the system or optionally execute any selected application (i.e. sending E-mail alert messages to system administrator). It can also log information each minute to a file on your hard drive. From the settings dialog, Hmonitor enables you to set yellow zone and red zone temperatures for the motherboard and CPU. You can also set minimum fan RPM before a warning is issued. In addition, nominal values and thresholds can be adjusted for voltage parameters ...
You must not use this form if the payments exceed NOK 60,000. If the payments exceed this threshold, you must submit an ordinary a-melding (A02 or A01). If you have already used this form (A04) and it becomes apparent that you are above the thresholds, you must use form A04 for the rest of the year. Childminding and care of children with special care needs (regardless of age) is excluded from this threshold on NOK 60,000.. You do not need to submit an a-melding if payments do not exceed NOK 6,000 per employee during the year.. ...
The eye is made up of critical structures that work together to provide clear, high contrast vision. These include: Cornea Lens Retina At only 8/1000 of an inch thickness, the macular portion of the retina is exquisitely thin. And yet it provides the ability to see visual details for a lifetime.
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Video created by University of Washington for the course Computational Neuroscience. In this module, we turn the question of neural encoding around and ask: can we estimate what the brain is seeing, intending, or experiencing just from its ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Weighted needle pinprick sensory thresholds: a simple test of sensory function in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. AU - Chan, A W AU - MacFarlane, I A AU - Bowsher, David. AU - Campbell, Jacqueline Ann. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - A simple device is described, consisting of 12 weighted 23 gauge disposable needles (0.2 to 5.2 g), for testing sensation in busy diabetic clinics. The pinprick sensory threshold (PPT) is the lightest weighted needle which consistently elicits a sharp sensation. The subjects were 48 healthy controls (hospital staff), 44 diabetic patients without neuropathic symptoms, and 35 diabetic patients with chronic painful neuropathy. In the controls, the mean PPT from the right hand and foot obtained on two test occasions a week apart did not differ significantly. In diabetic patients without symptomatic neuropathy, the mean PPT in the right hand and right foot were significantly higher than in the controls. The diabetic patients with painful neuropathy had ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Threshold Change in CEA as a Predictor of Non-Progression to First-Line Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients with Elevated CEA. AU - Gulhati, Pat. AU - Yin, Jun. AU - Pederson, Levi. AU - Schmoll, Hans Joachim. AU - Hoff, Paulo. AU - Douillard, Jean Yves. AU - Hecht, J. Randolph. AU - Tournigand, Christophe. AU - Tebbut, Niall. AU - Chibaudel, Benoist. AU - Gramont, Aimery De. AU - Shi, Qian. AU - Overman, Michael James. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: [email protected].. PY - 2020/11/1. Y1 - 2020/11/1. N2 - Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels are used in conjunction with imaging to monitor response to systemic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We sought to identify a threshold for CEA change from baseline to predict progressive disease (PD) in mCRC patients receiving first-line therapy. Methods: Patients from ...
Purpose: : Recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of macular degeneration has led to potential new treatments for the disease. There is an increasing demand for new visual function tests that are more sensitive than current standards to monitor disease progression and to evaluate treatment effect. Our previous studies demonstrated that patients with macular degeneration have significant loss in global shape discrimination hyperacuity. In this study, we determined the rate of progressive loss of this hyperacuity in patients with Stargardt macular dystrophy (STGD). Methods: : Sixty-eight patients with STGD were selected on the basis of 20/200 or better visual acuity in at least one eye at their first visit. The average age at the first visit was 33±15SD years, and the average follow-up was 4.3±2.8SD years. Visual stimuli were circular shapes (radial frequency patterns). Shape discrimination hyperacuity was determined by using a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Each trial ...
Aims To test the reliability of a new vibrometer (Maxivibrometer) which was constructed so that vibration perception threshold (VPT) could be determined without the disadvantage of the off-scale measurements frequently experienced with the Biothesiometer. Methods The two devices were compared and tested on a group of diabetic neuropathic subjects and a group of healthy, matched control subjects. VPT was tested on the plantar surface of the feet. Results The Maxivibrometer gave an actual measurement in all cases even if subjects were severely neuropathic. The replication-to-replication and day-to-day intraclass correlation coefficients for the Maxivibrometer VPT were, except in one case, above 0.94, indicating excellent reliability. The Biothesiometer VPT could also be measured with excellent reliability but only within a limited range of mild to moderate neuropathy, so it appears to be an appropriate screening tool. The replication-to-replication intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93. ...
Looking for online definition of Absolute threshold of hearing in the Medical Dictionary? Absolute threshold of hearing explanation free. What is Absolute threshold of hearing? Meaning of Absolute threshold of hearing medical term. What does Absolute threshold of hearing mean?
Looking for online definition of absolute threshold in the Medical Dictionary? absolute threshold explanation free. What is absolute threshold? Meaning of absolute threshold medical term. What does absolute threshold mean?
AIM: To establish, via computer simulation, the effects of patient response variability and staircase starting level upon the accuracy and repeatability of static full threshold visual field tests. METHOD: Patient response variability, defined by the standard deviation of the frequency of seeing versus stimulus intensity curve, is varied from 0.5 to 20 dB (in steps of 0.5 dB) with staircase starting levels ranging from 30 dB below to 30 dB above the patients threshold (in steps of 10 dB). Fifty two threshold estimates are derived for each condition and the error of each estimate calculated (difference between the true threshold and the threshold estimate derived from the staircase procedure). The mean and standard deviation of the errors are then determined for each condition. The results from a simulated quadrantic defect (response variability set to typical values for a patient with glaucoma) are presented using two different algorithms. The first corresponds with that normally used when ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rhythmic modulation of visual contrast discrimination triggered by action. AU - Benedetto, Alessandro. AU - Spinelli, Donatella. AU - Morrone, M. Concetta. PY - 2016/5/25. Y1 - 2016/5/25. N2 - Recent evidence suggests that ongoing brain oscillations may be instrumental in binding and integrating multisensory signals. In this experiment, we investigated the temporal dynamics of visual-motor integration processes. We show that action modulates sensitivity to visual contrast discrimination in a rhythmic fashion at frequencies of about 5 Hz (in the theta range), for up to 1 s after execution of action. To understand the origin of the oscillations, we measured oscillations in contrast sensitivity at different levels of luminance, which is known to affect the endogenous brain rhythms, boosting the power of alpha-frequencies. We found that the frequency of oscillation in sensitivity increased at low luminance, probably reflecting the shift in mean endogenous brain rhythm towards higher ...
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Visual perception relies on low-level encoding of local orientation. Recent studies show an age-dependent impairment in orientation discrimination of stimuli embedded in external noise, suggesting that encoding of orientation is inefficient in older adults. In the present study we ask whether aging also reduces decoding, i.e., selecting the neural representations of target orientation while discarding those conflicting with it. We compared younger and older participants capability (mean age 24 and 68 years respectively) in discriminating whether the orientation of a Gabor target was left or right from the vertical. We measured (d′), an index of discrimination sensitivity, for orientation offset ranging from 1° to 12°. In the isolated target condition, d′ was reduced by aging and, in the older group, did not increase with orientation offset, thus resulting in a larger group difference at large than small orientation offsets from the vertical. Moreover, oriented elements in the background impaired
One of the most controversial parts of the threshold is that its decided by the judge after a jury has already made their verdict. Meaning that, after the jury has decided on an award at the conclusion of a trial, the defense can bring a threshold motion in front of the judge alone.. The judge isnt bound by the verdict of the jury and will have to determine whether or not the injuries breach the threshold test. In the threshold test, the judge will asses the plaintiffs injuries in three parts.. First, the judge will consider whether the impairment caused by the injuries can be considered permanent. In order to asses this, theyll look at the plaintiffs medical records and history of treatment. Theyll also take into consideration witness testimony.. Second, the judge will consider whether the impairment caused by the injuries can be considered serious. Seriousness is more subjective and difficult to define but, generally, the judge will look at how the impairment has impacted the plaintiffs ...
The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to radiation in the course of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma or pituitary adenoma. Olfactory detection thresholds for two
This paper presents experiments measuring psychophysical thresholds for multi-finger single point interaction with small haptic effects. Subjects used the UW Multi-Finger Haptic Display to interact with small haptic icons in a virtual environment. A forcedchoice adaptive thresholding method is used to find a minimum detectable force magnitude. First, studies are performed to evaluate the consistency of our test apparatus across the four fingertips and to compare our application of the adaptive thresholding method to the prior work. Next, force detection thresholds for individual fingers are collected and compared to the force detection threshold using four fingers simultaneously. ,p, The results show comparable force detection levels between index, middle, pinkie and multi-finger interaction (33.5, 32.1, 33.5, 28.9 mN respectively) but less sensitivity with the ring finger (mean threshold of 43.6 mN). Repeated measures analysis of variance and t-tests with Bonferroni correction supports these ...
PURPOSE. To determine the light sensitivity of poorly reflective cones observed in retinas of normal subjects, and to establish a relationship between cone reflectivity and perceptual threshold. METHODS. Five subjects (four male, one female) with normal vision were imaged longitudinally (7-26 imaging sessions, representing 82-896 days) using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) to monitor cone reflectance. Ten cones with unusually low reflectivity, as well as 10 normally reflective cones serving as controls, were targeted for perceptual testing. Cone-sized stimuli were delivered to the targeted cones and luminance increment thresholds were quantified. Thresholds were measured three to five times per session for each cone in the 10 pairs, all located 2.2 to 3.38 from the center of gaze. RESULTS. Compared with other cones in the same retinal area, three of 10 monitored dark cones were persistently poorly reflective, while seven occasionally manifested normal reflectance. Tested ...
The Laser Damage and Conditioning Group at LLNL is evaluating diagnostics which will help make damage testing more efficient and reduce the risk of damage during laser conditioning. The work to date has focused on photoacoustic and scattered light measurements on 1064-nm wavelength HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings. Both the acoustic and scatter diagnostics have resolved 10 {mu}m diameter damage points in these coatings. Using a scanning stage, the scatter diagnostic can map both intrinsic and laser-induced scatter. Damage threshold measurements obtained using scatter diagnostics compare within experimental error with those measured using 100x Nomarski microscopy. Scatter signals measured during laser conditioning can be used to detect damage related to nodular defects.
In physiology, the renal threshold is the concentration of a substance dissolved in the blood above which the kidneys begin to remove it into the urine. When the renal threshold of a substance is exceeded, reabsorption of the substance by the proximal convoluted tubule is incomplete; consequently, part of the substance remains in the urine. Renal thresholds vary by substance - the low potency poison urea, for instance, is removed at much lower concentrations than glucose. Indeed, the most common reason for the glucose renal threshold ever being exceeded is diabetes. Renal thresholds vary by species and by physiological condition; thus an animal may have different renal thresholds while hibernating, Renal thresholds can also be altered by many drugs, and may change in characteristic ways during certain illnesses. Taken together, the collection of a kidneys renal thresholds essentially define much of its function in renal physiology. Many tests of kidney function amount to measures of renal ...
The Oculus Easyfield is an exciting new compact perimeter to do static perimetry up to 30°. It has been designed for the combined use as a visual field screener and perimeter, offering features usually available only in large units. The Easyfields integrated bowl with a 11.81 (30 cm) radius and distance corrected lens is adapted to the Goldman standard and fulfills the ISO-norm 12866 for perimeters. The Easyfield has a fixed point grid with 135 test locations including 30-2. The unit offers various testing methods including: · Fast Threshold (3 minutes) · Normal Threshold (6 minutes), and · Supra-threshold with numerous testing strategies.. Available:. ...
An experimental study of [omega] photoproduction on the proton was conducted by using the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. The [gamma] p [right arrow] [omega] p differential cross sections are measured from threshold to the incident-photon energy E[subscript gamma] = 1.40 GeV (W = 1.87 GeV for the center-of-mass energy) with 15-MeV binning in E[subscript gamma] and full production-angle coverage. The quality of the present data near threshold gives access to a variety of interesting physics aspects. As an example, an estimation of the [omega]N scattering length [alpha subscript omega]p is provided ...
This is the third and final annual review. The review found that changes to the Medicare Levy Surcharge (MLS) thresholds had no discernible impact on public hospital activity trends or elective surgery waiting lists (ESWL) within the period reviewed (to June 2010 for hospital separations and to September 2010 for ESWL). There has been no significant impact on public hospital operating costs that could be attributed to the MLS changes ...
Individual psychometric functions of the 2-point discrimination task.The figure shows individual psychometric functions for each of the 26 participants. The per
A method of differentiating between OSA and CSA comprising: determining if chest motion above a chest motion threshold is present; determining if tracheal breath sound above a breath sounds threshold are present, classifying a state as OSA if the chest motion is above the threshold and the sounds are below the threshold; and classifying a state as CSA if both the chest motion and sounds are below their respective thresholds.
I love babies. I love it when a new parent asks if I want to hold their baby (why, yes, I do). I like celebrating with people and baking cakes and sending cards. 9 out of 10 days, this is the state-of-mind where youll find me.. Unfortunately, you never know if youre hitting me on that 1 day out of 10, therefore I encourage all people wishing to tell me their happy news to use my SQ method for passing on information that is Potentially Heartbreaking for the Listener (otherwise known as a PHL). The thing is knowing when something may be a PHL or when something is considered ordinary news. And thats the thing about SQs and SPJs-every person has a different threshold AND that threshold changes based on the relationship to the person.. I dont want people to walk around on eggshells around me. Im not a china doll. I wont break if you tell me your good news. In fact, once I process the information, I will be very very happy for you. But the mantra of the non-infertile (and all people in this ...
We assessed the accuracy of contrast-defined shape detection of stimuli of constant aspect ratio, namely, circular bandpass stimuli whose radii were sinusoidally varied about a mean radius. Performance for these contrast-defined shapes, which we show is determined by the global rather than the local attributes of the stimulus, is 2-8 times worse than that for their luminance-defined counterparts, suggesting separate processing limitations. By spatially and orientationally filtering the two-dimensional fractal-noise carriers of which these stimuli were composed, we determined whether there are specific rules concerning the spatial and orientational input to shape detectors from mechanisms sensitive to the carrier structure. The results suggest that second-order circularity detectors receive mixed input from spatial-frequency-tuned and orientationally tuned cells.. © 2001 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Thresholds are most commonly used to transition from hardwood floors to carpet or tile with a thickness that is less than that of the wood. Thresholds can also be used to cover expansion gaps where quarter round can not be used; such as with sliding glass
I will attempt to address each of these four factors concisely in reverse order:. METHOD USED TO DETERMINE HR ZONES There are many methods to determine HR zones. Some of these methods derive the zones based on a maximum heart rate (e.g. 220 - your age). Then, a formula is used to determine the HR zones based on a percentage of the maximum HR. Other zone determination methods are based off of a lactic threshold heart rate (LTHR). Maximum HR is NOT equal to ones threshold LTHR. Simply put, ones LTHR for a given activity is the average HR during the last 20 minutes of an activity that the individual can sustain for 1 hour. Zones are then calculated based on a percentage of the LTHR. Ones LTHR will be different for different activities. Calculating zones based on threshold is much more accurate and useful than calculating zones based on maximum HR.. TIME As an individual gains fitness, their biological energy producing systems (heart, circulatory system, capillaries, etc.) will become more ...
We discuss recent developments in the study of the interaction of intense lasers with diatomic molecules. An overview of theory and experiment is given and particular attention is given to the energy spectra of ions resulting from photodissociative ionization. The ionization process is studied in the multiphoton regime using Floquet theory and compared with field-ionization results appropriate for the tunnelling regime. A review is given of the evidence for the existence of critical distances between the nuclei at which ionization rates are strongly enhanced. The field-ionization model is found to reproduce the main features observed by experiments. The field-ionization Coulomb explosion (FICE) model accurately reproduces the kinetic energy releases and threshold intensities of the various fragmentation channels of the iodine dimer: I2. With the three-dimensional FICE model, threshold intensities as a function of angle between the molecule axis and the laser E-field are calculated. The angular ...
The authors also measured, but did not control, the training programs of the study subjects, which were assessed only in terms of hours (average 5-6/week), distance (average 185-200km/week) and overall average power output during rides. No attempt was made to control for differences in training quality.. -Mont Ventoux, site of the field test, is often featured in the Tour De France. It also has some of the windiest weather in western Europe, which might have affected results. The day of the test, the authors noted that winds at the summit were 85 kph, and two riders from each group were unable to complete the ride due to exhaustion.. -The authors results focused on the effect on sub-maximal (below threshold) performance.. That last ones key. Much was made of the fact that the EPO group was, on average, a few seconds slower than the control group in the uphill time trial on Ventoux. But that was a sub-threshold effort, not a test of maximal performance . (And its a little puzzling that four ...
002: Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing, Volume II: Detection Theory: Detection Theory Vol 2 (Prentice-hall Signal Processing Series) de Steven M. Kay en Iberlibro.com - ISBN 10: 013504135X - ISBN 13: 9780135041352 - Pearson Education (Us) - 1998 - Tapa dura
Re-evaluation of the absolute threshold and response mode of the most sensitive known vibration detector, the cockroachs subgenual organ: a cochlea-like disp
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Energy-dependent photoelectron angular distributions of two-color two-photon above threshold ionization of atomic helium ...
Recent evidence suggests that interval timing (the judgment of durations lasting from approximately 500 ms. to a few minutes) is closely coupled to the action control system. We used surface electromyography (EMG) and motion capture technology to explore the emergence of this coupling in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-olds. We engaged infants in an active and socially relevant arm-raising task with 7 cycles and response period. In one condition cycles were slow (every 4 seconds) in another they were fast (every 2 seconds). In the slow condition, we found evidence of time locked sub-threshold EMG activity even in the absence of any observed overt motor responses at all 3 ages. This study shows that EMGs can be a more sensitive measure of interval timing in early development than overt behavior.. ...
Article Doping profile optimisation in bulk FinFET channel and source/drain extension regions for low off-state leakage. Sub-threshold leakage, punch-through leakage and band-to-band tunnelling (BTBT) leakage are the main components of off-state leak...
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One of the nicest features of CHDK is its ability to add motion detection to a Canon "Point & Shoot" camera. This functionality is provided through special scripting commands which enable flexible implementation of many clever motion detection programs. Two particularly popular uses of motion...
A critical step in the analysis of images is identifying the area of interest e.g. nuclei. When the nuclei are brighter than the remainder of the image an intensity can be chosen to identify the nuclei. Intensity thresholding is complicated by variations in the intensity of individual nuclei and their intensity relative to their surroundings. To compensate thresholds can be based on local rather than global intensities. By testing local thresholding methods we found that the local mean performed poorly while the Phansalkar method and a new method based on identifying the local background were superior. A new colocalization coefficient, the Hcoef, highlights a number of controversial issues. (i) Are molecular interactions measurable (ii) whether to include voxels without fluorophores in calculations, and (iii) the meaning of negative correlations. Negative correlations can arise biologically (a) because the two fluorophores are in different places or (b) when high intensities of one fluorophore ...
Is there a way to use this to apply different colors to different sections of bars, without changing the threshold? Im looking to take a standard bar or column chart and make it so that between zero and 50, the bars are red, and between 50 and 100 the bars are green, but the threshold remains at zero so that the bars remain in the positive direction from zero up. So a value of 30 would mean the bar extends from zero to 30 like normal, and is all red, but a value of 70 would mean the bar extends red from zero to 50 and then turns green from 50 to 70, with zero still the threshold point.. I tried this in this fiddle: http://jsfiddle.net/jaydge/bTt8z/ What happens when I apply a positive threshold value is, instead of the colors just changing above and below the threshold, the bars move out in a negative direction from the threshold point instead of zero. ...
The purpose of the proposed research is to link a longstanding framework for understanding how recognition memory decisions are made to the forensically relevan...
Back to normal by summer. Its a bold ambition after almost a year of pandemic-related disruption but, according to the Kremlin, it is a real possibility as the number of people immune to Covid-19 across the world rises further. Kremlin spokesman...
Analysis of Optical Fractal System. Multi-Turing instability spectra for the Kerr-single-mirror system. The illuminating (plane-wave) light intensity defines a control parameter - quantifying how strongly the system is driven. The curves show the predicted threshold intensity, above which different pattern bands will have a finite growth rate. The presence of medium diffusion leads to an envelope on the threshold curves (raising thresholds for growth of smaller patterns).. Full numerical simulations allow us to extend analysis to consider fully-developed pattern formation. We firstly consider when some filtering in the system only allows pattern growth with the largest length scale (within the instability band that has lowest K). Any small noise that is introduced into the medium, or on the illuminating light, is found to lead to stable hexagonal pattern formation [see part (a) below]. A hexagonal pattern of bright light spots appears in the cross-sectional plane (that perpendicular to the ...
George Osborne has raised the threshold on inheritance tax in todays budget, directly affecting hundreds of properties in north London.