The concept of a threshold has become important in ecology and natural resources management (Lindenmayer & Luck 2005; Briske et al. 2006; Groffman et al. 2006). Critical thresholds occur when the response of a species or ecological process to disturbance is not linear, but instead changes abruptly at some threshold level. Exceeding this threshold leads to a loss of ecosystem functions and biodiversity; change in the opposite direction can instead lead to recovery if the threshold change can be reversed. Typical examples include observations that the loss of native vegetation cover to levels below a threshold leads to increased loss of species that depend on that native vegetation (Fahrig 2003; Radford et al. 2005) and that floristic composition changes abruptly at a threshold distance from habitat edges (Toms & Lesperance 2003). A comprehensive understanding of whether such threshold changes exist in rangeland ecosystems may be achieved through a grazing gradient approach (Lange 1969; Andrew ...
We measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in 105 healthy humans (54F/51M) ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. The motion consisted of single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at 0.2 Hz for roll tilt and 1.0 Hz for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis, inter-aural earth-horizontal translation (y-translation), inferior-superior earth-vertical translation (z-translation), and roll tilt. A large subset of this population (99 of 105) also performed a modified Romberg test of standing balance. Despite the relatively large population (54F/51M), we found no difference between thresholds of male and female subjects. After pooling across sex, we found that thresholds increased above the age of 40 for all five motion-directions investigated. The data were best modeled by a two-segment age model that yielded a constant baseline below an age cut-off of about 40 and a threshold increase above the age cut-off. For all subjects who passed
TY - CONF. T1 - Visual Support of Electrical Pain Threshold Measurements. T2 - Construction and Preliminary Results of the QScale. AU - Jansen, Niels AU - Buitenweg, Jan R.. PY - 2020/9/9. Y1 - 2020/9/9. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Sensory strength-duration curves were obtained using percutaneous true square-wave pulses ranging from 0.1 to 20.0 ms produced by an isolated constant current stimulator. In 119 healthy volunteers sensory thresholds were measured bilaterally by stimulating the distal phalange of the little finger. In order to examine the relationship of sensory threshold and handedness the latter was assessed by means of the Edinburgh Inventory. An asymmetry of sensory threshold was found for all the subjects and this was more pronounced with shorter stimuli. Of right-handers tested 73.5% had a lower threshold on the left side while 70.8% of left-handers had a lower threshold on the right side. Although threshold asymmetry is associated with handedness this is not necessarily due to cerebral lateralization.. ...
The threshold data were analyzed with respect to SAR, anatomy imaged, cardiac chamber, and time from lead implant to the MRI examination. Any change in threshold was considered important, even though only increases in these values are detrimental.. One study suggests that limiting the distance from the pacemaker pulse generator to the anatomical region being imaged is beneficial to MRI safety (20). Therefore, the data were analyzed with respect to the anatomy that underwent imaging. For ease of statistical analysis, the MRI examinations were grouped into above and below the diaphragm. Neither anatomical region was associated with pacing threshold changes.. Pacing thresholds were also examined as a function of cardiac chamber. It was theorized that the atrium, because of its smaller mass with possible less heat transfer, would more readily undergo threshold changes than would the ventricle. However, the atrium was no more likely to develop pacing threshold changes than was the ventricle.. Because ...
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An implantable cardiac stimulation device with automatic threshold testing capabilities. The device utilizes an algorithm for measuring a first and a second threshold settings. The first threshold setting is determined by decreasing the stimulation energy from an initially high, supra-threshold value until loss of capture is detected, and is set as the pulse energy at which capture is still detected. The second threshold setting is determined by increasing the stimulation energy from an initially low, sub-threshold value until capture is detected, and is set as the stimulation energy at which capture is regained. The algorithm further determines if the threshold test results are reliable by comparing the difference between the first and second threshold settings to an expected difference, known as the Wedensky Effect value. A deviation from the Wedensky Effect value which is known for a given patient, indicates a discrepancy in the threshold test result. Such a deviation could be used to indicate when a
Effect of Complex Score Threshold on MCODE Prediction Accuracy Figure legend: MCODE complexes equal to or greater than a specific score were compared to a bench
In a frequency-domain excision system for a wide band receiver, a window function is applied to blocks of received signal samples and a transform function is applied to the windowed blocks. Each block of frequency-domain coefficients from the transform function is morphologically filtered to generate a threshold function representing an estimate of the spectrum of the desired wide band signal, and a non-linear gain function is applied to the coefficients. The gain function has a fixed-gain region for input values less than a threshold value from the threshold function, an excision region for input values greater than a multiple of the threshold value, and a soft limiting region between the fixed-gain region and the excision region. The inverse transform is performed on the excised blocks of coefficients, and an overlap-eliminating central portion of the inverse of the window function is applied to the resulting blocks of signal samples.
Measurements are reported of the effects of respiratory stresses upon the absolute threshold of peripheral (rod) vision. Since subjects were kept wholly dark adapted and the photochemical system of the rods therefore stationary, the changes recorded may be assumed to have originated more centrally. To this degree the measurements provide a quantitative index of central nervous imbalance.. Breathing room air or 32 to 36 per cent oxygen at about double the normal rate causes the visual threshold to fall to approximately half the normal value within 5 to 10 minutes.. This change is due primarily to alkalosis induced by the hyperventilation, and can be abolished or reversed by adding carbon dioxide to the inspired mixtures. Normal or rapid breathing of 2 per cent carbon dioxide causes no change in threshold; with 5 per cent carbon dioxide the threshold is approximately doubled.. Breathing 10 per cent oxygen at the normal rate also approximately doubles the threshold. This effect is compensated in ...
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The amount by which the SNR exceeds the detection threshold, DT, is called the signal excess (SE):. SE (decibels) = SNR - DT = (SL - 2TL + TS - NL) - DT. If the SE is greater than 0 dB, then the decision is made that the target is present. If the SE is negative, the decision is that the target is not present.. If the detection threshold is set high (which is equivalent to assuming that the signal power is high relative to the noise) only strong targets will exceed the threshold and be detected. There will not be many false alarms in which noise is mistakenly decided to be the signal of interest; however, there may be many misses in which the signal, though present, is not detected. If the threshold is set low, weaker targets will be detected, but the number of false alarms will also increase.. The following figure shows the importance of setting the detection threshold. The top trace (a) shows three target echoes with different amplitudes. The middle trace (b) shows the noise. The bottom ...
Teamwork between humans and robots will be the motto of the future. But robots may not injure humans at all. When does contact cause an injury, though? Researchers are exploring this for the first time in a study.
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on structured parity check matrices are widely used due to their favorable implementation properties. Often, however
functions to compute true and false positive rates TPR ,- function(d, th){ sum(d$signal==present & d$measurement,=th) / sum(d$signal==present)} FPR ,- function(d, th){ sum(d$signal==absent & d$measurement,=th) / sum(d$signal==absent)} # use all the sorted values are possible threshods thresholds ,- sort(d$measurement) roc ,- data.frame(y=sapply(thresholds, function(th){TPR(d,th)}), x=sapply(thresholds, function(th){FPR(d,th)}) ) ggplot(roc,aes(x,y))+geom_point()+theme_bw()+labs(y=fraction of signal present\nmeasurements ,= threshold\n(true positive rate), x=fraction of signal absent\nmeasurements ,= threshold\n(false positive rate))+geom_abline(intercept=0,slope=1,lty=2 ...
The ECLAMC surveillance data, like data from other surveillance systems,3132 records diagnoses made by clinicians for clinical (not research) purposes, which are only to a limited extent subject to standardisation by belonging to a surveillance network. In our data, about half of cases had a head size larger than −3 SD (according to the Intergrowth curve), including some larger than −2 SD in whom other signs indicated an abnormally small brain. This is despite the ECLAMC recommendation to use a threshold of −3 SD. Some of this discrepancy may relate to differences between the growth charts used (Intergrowth charts were not widely used in this period) and whether they explicitly show the −3 SD threshold measurements. Most readily available charts, including Intergrowth, showed only the third centile during this period,35414243 the third centile being equivalent to the lowest 3% of measurements of the reference population compared with 2.3% for −2 SD and 0.13% for −3 SD in a normal ...
A discussion of JND, JNNDs and the people and physical Laws behind these concepts that built the basis for audiometric assessment by threshold measurement.
Authors: van der Steen, F.A.M. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: A flight simulator was used for two experiments to determine the amplitude combinations of visual scene motion (with respect to the observer) and inertial body motion (with respect to an earth-fixed frame) that provide the perception of an earth-stationary visual scene and realistic simulated self-motion. In the first experiment, this range was determined for simulated self-motion about the longitudinal body axis, while in the second, self-motion about the vertical body axis was considered. Both the inertial and the visual motions consisted of 0.75 s accelerations, followed by 1.50 s decelerations, and 0.75 s accelerations. The visual scene acceleration amplitude, W, …was fixed at either 0, 2, 4, 8, or 12°/s2 while the inertial acceleration amplitude, I, was varied by a staircase procedure. Following the visual and inertial motions, the subjects pushed a button when they perceived the scene to be not earth-stationary. At ...
We introduce a new task for exploring the relationship between action and attention. In this interactive multiple object tracking (iMOT) task, implemented as an iPad app, participants were presented with a display of multiple, visually identical disks which moved independently. The task was to prevent any collisions during a fixed duration. Participants could perturb object trajectories via the touchscreen. In Experiment 1, we used a staircase procedure to measure the ability to control moving objects. Object speed was set to 1°/s. On average participants could control 8.4 items without collision. Individual control strategies were quite variable, but did not predict overall performance. In Experiment 2, we compared iMOT with standard MOT performance using identical displays. Object speed was set to 2°/s. Participants could reliably control more objects (M = 6.6) than they could track (M = 4.0), but performance in the two tasks was positively correlated. In Experiment 3, we used a dual-task design.
The time to the first spike after stimulus onset typically varies with the stimulation intensity. Experimental evidence suggests that neural systems use such response latency to encode information about the stimulus. We investigate the decoding accuracy of the latency code in relation to the level of noise in the form of presynaptic spontaneous activity. Paradoxically, the optimal performance is achieved at a nonzero level of noise and suprathreshold stimulus intensities. We argue that this phenomenon results from the influence of the spontaneous activity on the stabilization of the membrane potential in the absence of stimulation. The reported decoding accuracy improvement represents a novel manifestation of the noise-aided signal enhancement.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In article ,2k61tf$p90 at news.u.washington.edu,, wcalvin at u.washington.edu (William Calvin) writes: ,, kisley at spot.Colorado.EDU (Michael Kisley) writes: ,, ,, ,I am seeking references regarding spike-accomodation in pyramidal cells ,, ,(or any other cell types) in the hippocampal formation. I am primarily ,, ,speaking of the tendency for decreased spiking response to non-novel ,, ,stimulation. Nevertheless, Id likely be interested in looking at any paper ,, ,, What you are looking for is generally called adaptation in spiking; ,, accommodation is generally reserved for threshold changes to a slow ,, depolarization. Actually, the tendency to ignore non-novel stimuli can also be a form of accommodation since it can occur as a function of threshold modification. See; AV Hill (1936) Excitation and Accommodation in Nerve. Proc. Royal Soc. London, B, 119:305:355 and some variation on the theme to include spiking behavior: BR Parnas and ER Lewis (1993) A computationally efficient spike ...
16. An investigator places an isolated neuron in a calcium-free medium, gives the neuron a suprathreshold stimulus and then performs an assay to test whether neurotransmitter is released into the medium. Which of the following outcomes would you predict? ...
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Since the introduction of steroid eluting electrodes, the incidence of an early massive rise in the capture threshold that either exceeds or threatens to exceed the programmed output of the pacemaker has declined but has not totally disappeared1 If a persistent or massive threshold rise is encountered in the days to months post-implant, one consideration is microinstability of the lead. In this setting, there may be a change in the morphology of the pacemaker evoked depolarization on the ECG or a change in the physical location of the lead as assessed with a chest x-ray. Another marker is fluctuations in the capture threshold on repeated assessments at the same office or clinic visit. The options for this problem include an operative procedure to reposition or replace the lead or to closely observe the patient hoping that the lead settles into a secure location. Another potential totally reversible cause is the introduction of an new medication or herb. If the possible explanations for threshold ...
The primary benefit of Zone 2 training is that it builds aerobic base and endurance. Increased aerobic capacity enhances your ability to sustain a sub-threshold pace for a longer period of time. In conjunction with higher intensity efforts, Zone 2 is the foundation from which to begin to build threshold fitness. Strong aerobic capacity also allows you to recover more quickly between those higher intensity efforts as you progress into your season. For example, with strong aerobic fitness, you may ultimately be able to perform intervals with a shorter rest in between, or be able to perform a higher volume of intervals at the same pace ...
He still is the regulatory download natural gushing in most pandemic beds: how to stop and risk with the main whole or mankind to be you to your practitioners. Ringo on parents and Robert and Dean DeLeo from Stone Temple Pilots on threshold and example. As a variation this multiple
The DuoMAG Quadropulse System (QPS) combines four DuoMAG MP stimulators to provide a fully configurable quadropulse TMS stimulator. This combination allows individual control of the amplitude of all stimulators as well as the capability of setting inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and delivering the defined quadropulse stimulation through a single coil. The quadropulse functionality allows users to deliver precise sub- and supra-threshold conditioning and test pulses which is a vital component when studying Inter- and Intra-Cortical Inhibition and Facilitation. The inter stimulus interval for the four pulses is adjustable either in the supplied control software or external control via TTL inputs, offering the ultimate flexibility in ISI control. DuoMAG QPS allows users to combine the two stimulator pulses into a single pulse providing a pulse amplitude that equates to 140% of a single DuoMAG MP output. The DuoMAG QPS can also be used with four separate coils to carryout interhemispheric ...
Grand means of evoked potentials in selected peripheral leads which illustrate short-latency effects produced by (A) sub-threshold (−12 dB re VT) and (B) sup
Nociceptor hypersensitivity often outlasts the original injury. Untreated, it can even become permanent. Recent pre-clinical peer-reviewed research published by Dr. Ted Price and Dr. Greg Dussor suggests that the ingredients in Teds Pain Cream appear over time to reset the sensitivity threshold of nociceptors to their
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
Contrast discrimination is an important type of information for establishing image quality metrics based on human vision. We used a dual-masking paradigm to study how contrast discrimination can be influenced by the presence of adjacent stimuli. In a dual masking paradigm, the observers task is to detect a target superimposed on a pedestal in the presence of flankers. The flankers (1) reduce the target threshold at zero pedestal contrast; (2) reduce the size of pedestal facilitation at low pedestal contrasts; and (3) shift the TvC (Target threshold vs. pedestal contrast) function horizontally to the left on a log-log plot at high pedestal contrasts. The horizontal shift at high pedestal contrasts suggests that the flanker effect is a multiplicative factor that cannot be explained by previous models of contrast discrimination. We extended a divisive inhibition model of contrast discrimination by implementing the flanker effect as a multiplicative sensitivity modulation factor that account for ...
The observed shift in the contrast gain function is consistent with previous measures of spatial vision loss with age. For instance, Sloane, Owsley, and Jackson (1988) measured contrast sensitivity for young and old observers with spatial frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 8 c/deg and luminance levels ranging from mesopic to photopic. At a low temporal frequency, the slope of the sensitivity function (inverse of the threshold function) spanning the range of luminance was steeper for older than younger observers at spatial frequencies below 4 c/deg. This means that older observers required more contrast at low luminance levels to detect a sine-wave grating than their younger counterparts. This pattern of contrast sensitivity loss is consistent with a reduction in the contrast gain slope of the underlying mechanism at low spatial frequencies. In addition, suprathreshold measures of spatial vision performance also support a reduction in contrast gain within one (or both) of the pathways. Losses in ...
The observed shift in the contrast gain function is consistent with previous measures of spatial vision loss with age. For instance, Sloane, Owsley, and Jackson (1988) measured contrast sensitivity for young and old observers with spatial frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 8 c/deg and luminance levels ranging from mesopic to photopic. At a low temporal frequency, the slope of the sensitivity function (inverse of the threshold function) spanning the range of luminance was steeper for older than younger observers at spatial frequencies below 4 c/deg. This means that older observers required more contrast at low luminance levels to detect a sine-wave grating than their younger counterparts. This pattern of contrast sensitivity loss is consistent with a reduction in the contrast gain slope of the underlying mechanism at low spatial frequencies. In addition, suprathreshold measures of spatial vision performance also support a reduction in contrast gain within one (or both) of the pathways. Losses in ...
A classification method of ultrasonic liver image is studied based on threshold segmentation.Under the condition of minimizing the false-negative probabilityt,he confidence intervals of gray levels which are normal distributions in normal and fatty liver images can be obtained by minimizing the false-positive rate.Then classify the images by comparing the seg-mented images with the interval thresholds.The experimental results show that the classification rate of normal livers reaches to 100% for testing or training datat,he classification rate of fatty livers reaches to 96.3% for testing or training data.Com-pared with the Back Propagation Neural Network(BP NN) methodt,he method costs less time than BP NN method when they have the same performance.
Effects of bilateral kindling or bilateral sub-threshold stimulation of the amygdala or septum on muricide, ranacide, intraspecific aggression and passive avoidance in the rat Academic Article ...
Auditory fatigue is now known as Temporary Threshold Shift (subsequently abbreviated to TTS). It has been defined as the temporary elevation in the absolute threshold of hearing for a given test sound resulting from preceding auditory stimulation by a given stimulus sound (see Hirsh, 1952, page 177). Associated with the phenomenon there are six physical variables which sub-divide themselves into stimulus, test and recovery factors. In IMS study each of the latter factors was systematically Investigated using four groups of six undergraduate subjects. Thresholds were measured using the Bek6sy (1947) technique of threshold measurement. Control experiments were carried out to verify that TTS results from the application of the stimulus tone, to study the mechanisms involved in the Bekesy technique of threshold measurement and the effects of this technique on the measurement of TTS, to investigate any additive effects of TTS and to study the possibility of any measurement errors resulting from the ...
0079] In another example implementation, electrical sensing module 86 and capture detection module 90 determine whether capture has occurred based on the LVP-RVS conduction times, as described above, as well as the evoked response in the LV. In particular, electrical sensing module 86 and evoked response detection module 94 of capture detection module 90 determine whether there has been an evoked response by measuring the amplitude of the response in the LV as well as time between the LVP and the evoked response in the LV. In order for capture to have occurred, the time between the LVP and the evoked response in the LV should be within a prescribed window, and the amplitude of the response should be greater than some threshold value. Processor 80 may retrieve the previously stored threshold value from memory 82 and capture detection module 90 may compare the measured amplitude of the response to the threshold value. In addition, for each vector tested at each particular voltage, processor 80 may ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spike-Threshold Adaptation Predicted by Membrane Potential Dynamics In Vivo. AU - Fontaine, Bertrand. AU - Peña, José Luis. AU - Brette, Romain. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Neurons encode information in sequences of spikes, which are triggered when their membrane potential crosses a threshold. In vivo, the spiking threshold displays large variability suggesting that threshold dynamics have a profound influence on how the combined input of a neuron is encoded in the spiking. Threshold variability could be explained by adaptation to the membrane potential. However, it could also be the case that most threshold variability reflects noise and processes other than threshold adaptation. Here, we investigated threshold variation in auditory neurons responses recorded in vivo in barn owls. We found that spike threshold is quantitatively predicted by a model in which the threshold adapts, tracking the membrane ...
Functions reliably describing perception of motion in depth have been established experimentally by using psychophysical methods of size and distance estimations and threshold measurements. The stimuli were generated with a new hybrid technique yielding a. ...
a) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold increases when the head of the agency determines the supplies or services are to be used to facilitate defense against or recovery from cyber, nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological attack; to facilitate provision of international disaster assistance; or to support response to an emergency or major disaster. (See 2.101.). (b) Simplified acquisition threshold. The threshold increases when the head of the agency determines the supplies or services are to be used to facilitate defense against or recovery from cyber, nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological attack; to facilitate provision of international disaster assistance; or to support response to an emergency or major disaster. (See 2.101.). (c) Treating certain items as commercial. Contracting officers may treat any acquisition of supplies or services as an acquisition of commercial items if the head of the agency determines the acquisition is to be used to facilitate the defense against ...
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misc{71171638-c472-49a9-84cf-124384b2c492, author = {Hellman, Johan and Sikström, Sverker}, keyword = {Memory,Signal Detection Theory,ROC curve,Attention}, language = {eng}, title = {The Generalized Signal Detection Theory}, year = {2012 ...
At high contrast, performance of both patients and controls deteriorated as the stimulus size increased (F(2,27) = 38; p , 0.001) (Fig. 3, right panel). This pattern of results can be construed as an indicator of the presence of antagonistic center-surround interactions (Tadin et al., 2003). At high contrast, no main effects of group were found (F(1,28) = 1.76; p = 0.19). The only observed deficit was in a condition in which patients discriminated a small (1°) high-contrast motion (t(28) = 2.29; p = 0.03). The magnitude of the observed deficit was comparable with the threshold increases observed for low-contrast moving stimuli (Fig. 3). Importantly, as the stimulus size increased, the difference between patient and control data were eliminated. The interaction, however, was not significant (F(2,27) = 1.72; p = 0.19). This pattern of results might indicate that patients are selectively impaired in perceiving small moving objects. However, we find no evidence for such selective impairment in the ...
Auditory function declines with age, with reductions in threshold sensitivity and speech discrimination, particularly in noise, commonly observed (Working Group on Speech Understanding, Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics, 1988; Goŕdon-Salant, 2005). Understanding of the cellular changes that lead to these outcomes remains fragmentary, and clinical assessments provide an incomplete picture of the sites of involvement and the perceptual impacts of auditory aging.. The loss of threshold sensitivity that accompanies auditory aging is primarily peripheral in origin, and often sensory (i.e., related to hair cell damage or loss) in nature. Much experimental effort has focused on correlating such age-related threshold shifts with hair cell loss, and therapeutic interventions have concentrated on improving audibility through amplification. However, threshold sensitivity loss is not the only, and arguably not the primary, handicapping dysfunction of auditory aging. Aging listeners ...
Safe and proven testing patterns developed at the Mayo Clinic® assist in the assessment of sensory abnormalities due to neurologic disease, help in the determination of type of dysfunctional fibers, and quantitatively verify the effectiveness of small and large unmyelinated nerve fibers.. The CASE IV QST lab utilizes two stimulators to determine sensory threshold. Patient responses to safe, effective stimuli are used to generate a sensory threshold level which are then compared to reference data available with the WR TestWorks software.. The CASE IV QST lab includes stimulators, patient instruction cards for clear, concise, and standardized instruction, a patient supply kit, an equipment cart, and a computer running the WR TestWorks software with printer. Get more functionality from your lab by adding a Q-Sweat or Cardiac system. On-site installation and training is included for all labs in the United States and Canada. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The relationship and precision of four methods for measuring the low-contrast detail detectability in fluoroscopic imaging were studied. These included the physical measurement of the accumulation rate of the square of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRrate2), two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) experiments, sixteen-alternative forced-choice (16-AFC) experiments and subjective determination of the threshold contrast. The precision and sensitivity of the threshold contrast measurement were seen to be modest in the constancy testing of fluoroscopic equipment: only large changes in system performance could be reliably detected by that method. The measurement of the SNRrate2 is suggested instead. The relationship between the results of the various methods were studied, and it was found that human performance can be related to SNRrate2 by introducing the concept of the effective image information integration time (teff). When measured for an unlimited observation time, it depicts the saturation of ...
A heart monitor is disclosed. The monitor computes ST segment deviations and stores the results in heart rate based histograms. Periodically, the monitor analyzes the histogram data to determine a normal range of ST deviation for a particular heart rate range. The monitor computes heart rate dependent ischemia detection thresholds based on the upper and lower boundaries of the normal range. A current threshold for a heart rate range is set as a weighted average of the prior threshold and a provisional threshold based on recent data, thereby limiting the amount the actual detection threshold changes from period to period.
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Aims We investigated the applicability of the Ventricular Capture Control (VCC) and Atrial Capture Control (ACC) algorithms for automatic management of cardiac stimulation featured by Biotronik pacemakers in a broad, unselected population of pacemaker recipients. Methods and results Ventricular Capture Control and Atrial Capture Control were programmed to work at a maximum adapted output voltage as 4.8 V in consecutive recipients of Biotronik pacemakers. Ambulatory threshold measurements were made 1 and 12 months after pacemaker implant/replacement in all possible pacing/sensing configurations, and were compared with manual measurements. Among 542 patients aged 80 (73-85) years, 382 had a pacemaker implant and 160 a pacemaker replacement. Ventricular Capture Control could work at long term in 97% of patients irrespectively of pacing indication, lead type, and lead service life, performance being superior with discordant pacing/sensing configurations. Atrial Capture Control could work in 93% of ...
Since Ive just broken the anime taboo, I figured Id illustrate my second law of psychology. Every person has a perceptual ceiling. If they are stimulated beyond this, their rational mind will disengage to reduce anxiety. Pupil dilation and contraction generally adjusts to ambient light. However, it also corresponds to the rate at which your…
Many frameworks, such as the socioecological model and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), highlight the importance of considering intrapersonal variables alongside context. The SD model of thresholds for clinical decision-making proposes specific mechanisms to describe the relationship between the individual and his or her setting. For a wide range of parameter values, the assumption that screening directly increases accuracy while having an ambiguous effect on thresholds yields predictions that are broadly consistent with implementation trials of developmental-behavioral screening, including that not all positive screens will be referred and that changes in referral rates attributable to the implementation of screening may range widely depending on context and even decline in some circumstances. The key insight is that depending on the perspective of the decision-maker, increased accuracy may reduce FP errors and FN errors to different degrees. If only the former, ...
The COLENBRANDER DIOPTER RULER. The ruler shows inches and centimeters. Most important, however, is the center scale, which. shows DIOPTERS. Recording the reading distance in diopters (the reciprocal of the distance in meters) greatly simplifies calculations and comparisons. It replaces the use of a visual acuity fraction. (V = m / M = distance in meters / letter size) with a multiplication (1/V = M.x.D = letter size x. distance in diopters).. Measuring the reading distance in diopters provides a simple check on the power of the. reading add.. The diamonds on the ruler represent steps that are equivalent to the print sample steps. For. each diamond that the print is brought closer, the patient should be able to read one print size smaller, provided that the reading add is adjusted accordingly.. The short end of the ruler provides an M-unit scale to measure the size of unknown print. samples.. ...
At this level, the finger will not move at all. However, the action of mind upon the finger will continue. You will continue the action of mind by willing the finger to push into the table - but at a force incapable of actually moving it. This is concentration.. Mental thought to physical action is a spectrum. Thoughts cross a point on the spectrum and become physical actions. Most people usually leap from thought to physical action in a binary step. However, as the exercise just now showed, you can in fact approach the point where a thought becomes a physical action, and stay just beneath it - creating a continuing action of mind which is sub-threshold for creating an actual physical action. You can continue to create this action of mind for long periods. This is concentration.. This action of mind will still cause nerves to fire in the finger, despite its not moving. These nerve impulses can be perceived as a tingling sensation in the chest and neck where the nerves supplying the finger ...
We hypothesized that currents are grouped into distinct modules that shape specific neuronal characteristics or signatures, such as resting potential, sub-threshold oscillations, and spiking waveforms, for several classes of neurons. For such a grouping to occur, the currents within one module should have minimal functional interference with currents belonging to other modules. This condition is satisfied if the gating functions of currents in the same module are grouped together on the voltage axis; in contrast, such functions are segregated along the voltage axis for currents belonging to different modules. We tested this hypothesis using four published example case models and found it to be valid for these classes of neurons ...
Abstract: Detection thresholds for auditory stimuli, specified in terms of their amplitude or level, depend on the stimulus temporal envelope and decrease with increasing stimulus duration. The neural mechanisms underlying these fundamental across-species observations are not fully understood. Here, we present a ``continuous look model, according to which the stimulus gives rise to stochastic neural detection events whose probability of occurrence is proportional to the 3rd power of the low-pass filtered, time-varying stimulus amplitude. Threshold is reached when a criterion number of events have occurred (probability summation). No long-term integration is required. We apply the model to an extensive set of thresholds measured in humans for tones of different envelopes and durations and find it to fit well. Subtle differences at long durations may be due to limited attention resources. We confirm the probabilistic nature of the detection events by analyses of simple reaction times and verify ...
This operator finds the threshold for given prediction confidences of soft classified predictions in order to turn it into a crisp classification. The optimization step is based on ROC analysis. ROC is discussed at the end of this description.. The Find Threshold operator finds the threshold of a labeled ExampleSet to map a soft prediction to crisp values. The threshold is delivered through the threshold port. Mostly the Apply Threshold operator is used for applying a threshold after it has been delivered by the Find Threshold operator. If the confidence for the second class is greater than the given threshold the prediction is set to this class otherwise it is set to the other class. This can be easily understood by studying the attached Example Process. Among various classification methods, there are two main groups of methods: soft and hard classification. In particular, a soft classification rule generally estimates the class conditional probabilities explicitly and then makes the class ...
The CyberPower Smart App Sinewave PR1000LCD uninterruptible power supply (UPS) with LCD Control Panel and Active PFC compatible pure sine wave output safeguards mission-critical servers, telecom equip
I was posting under the handle ummmm earlier in the thread. I have never actually run a marathon, but have used equivalent performance charts to see where I would be at. The reason I use marathon pace as a baseline is from the Lydiard books I have read. His 3/4 effort runs were sub-threshold or marathon pace and were run (if I remember right) for 10 miles twice a week. I use this as a guideline, BUT my high end aerobic runs are whatever feels right for the day. A strong, floating feeling that I know I can hold for a while is my high end aerobic pace for the day. Sometimes its a bit slower than marathon pace, sometimes a little faster. ...
EasyPower provides the option of showing a warning when the short-circuit duty percent is above a user defined safety margin threshold but below the violation level. Short-circuit on any bus results in voltage drop shorh other near buses in the system. You can set a voltage sensitivity threshold in the options such that any bus with voltage below this value will be highlighted red in the single line view and shown in the voltage sensitivity report.. The short-circuit calculation provides the phase angle of the branch currents and the bus voltages at various equipment. The phase angles displayed are relative to the applied equivalent voltage source being at zero angle. Transformers having different winding configurations, such as a delta connection on one side and a star wye connection on the other side, have a designated shift in the phase angles of currents and voltages.. For remote buses and branches across transformers, a phase angle shift is applied accordingly by the short circuit ...
How different must the comparison be from the standard for a person to distinguish the two stimuli? By distinguish, we mean the participant can reliably pick out the odd stimulus when presented two examples of the standard and one of the comparison (or vice versa). There are at least two strategies. (i) With single-cue estimators, estimates could be made independently of each other (without combination). Once the difference between either estimate, ΔS 1 or ΔS 2, reached its own discrimination threshold, ±T 1 or ±T 2, the participant would be able to identify the odd stimulus. The predicted set of thresholds would, therefore, be horizontal and vertical lines (Fig. 1B, left; red lines) whose distance from the origin was determined by the discrimination threshold of the single-cue estimators (13). Comparison stimuli within the rectangle would be indistinguishable from the standard. Performance would be no better in one quadrant than in any other. (ii) With a mandatory combined estimator, only ...
Both foveae of light-adapted subjects were stimulated at the same time with monocularly presented lights of increasing or decreasing luminance. Combinations judged just detectable violated predictions of the energy summation and the probability summation hypotheses of binocular interaction. Rather, the results can be explained by independent central neural mechanisms that signal the sum or the difference of stimuli to two eyes. ...
The eye is made up of critical structures that work together to provide clear, high contrast vision. These include: Cornea Lens Retina At only 8/1000 of an inch thickness, the macular portion of the retina is exquisitely thin. And yet it provides the ability to see visual details for a lifetime.
Video created by University of Washington for the course Computational Neuroscience. In this module, we turn the question of neural encoding around and ask: can we estimate what the brain is seeing, intending, or experiencing just from its ...
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Parts of the Caliper The Vernier Caliper The vernier caliper has two main parts which has the scales that the measurements are read from. The main beam:this is the non moving part of the unit and contains the main scales,...
Staircases by Fontanot, Rintal & Mobirolo. We have the UKs largest staircase showroom. All delivery times are approximate. Free delivery is mainland UK only and is only for full staircase orders, extra charges will be made for delivery of parts & accessories ordered without a staircase.. © 2014 - 2019 Hallgate Timber ...
In this paper an adaptive threshold for flipping intensity based dynamic weighted multi bit flipping algorithm is proposed to overcome the existing complexities in finding the threshold. The change in the check node and bit node status are also considered here. Improvement in performance is observed using the method of adaptive threshold in place of fixed threshold.. ...
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Tinnitus is often described as a ringing or buzzing in the ears even though external noise isnt present. Lipo-Flavonoid is an all-natural supplement intended to provide relief for those who suffer from tinnitus.
Summation of indexed data The following is a list of 14 measurements: -70, -95, -14, -4, 22, -42, -56, 82, 99, 32, -57, 34, -39, -6 Suppose that these 14 measurements are respectively labeled X1, X2, .........., X14 (Thus.
October 30, 2007: The campaign to monitor blazars as described in Alert Notice 353 is ongoing, and the triggering thresholds for VERITAS observations have recently been updated by the PI, Dr. Markus Boettcher.. The blazar 1ES 0120+340 (1ES0120+34, AAVSO Designation 0117+33) has recently been seen just above the new triggering threshold of Rc = 17.0, and observations of this source are requested over the next several weeks. 1ES 0120+340 is located at coordinates. RA: 01:23:08.6 , Dec: +34:20:48 (J2000) ...
In the the case where a date is accidentally mis-typed leading to a gross mis-calculation of the date range (i.e. 2018 is mis-typed as 3018), a warning will be issued. The default threshold is set at 18262 days (50 years), but the user can define their own threshold by setting the ...
Présentation donnée en tant quintervenant invité par Patrick Verniers à son cours de Médias, culture et éducation à destination détudiants en Information e…