The concept of a threshold has become important in ecology and natural resources management (Lindenmayer & Luck 2005; Briske et al. 2006; Groffman et al. 2006). Critical thresholds occur when the response of a species or ecological process to disturbance is not linear, but instead changes abruptly at some threshold level. Exceeding this threshold leads to a loss of ecosystem functions and biodiversity; change in the opposite direction can instead lead to recovery if the threshold change can be reversed. Typical examples include observations that the loss of native vegetation cover to levels below a threshold leads to increased loss of species that depend on that native vegetation (Fahrig 2003; Radford et al. 2005) and that floristic composition changes abruptly at a threshold distance from habitat edges (Toms & Lesperance 2003). A comprehensive understanding of whether such threshold changes exist in rangeland ecosystems may be achieved through a grazing gradient approach (Lange 1969; Andrew ...
We measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in 105 healthy humans (54F/51M) ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. The motion consisted of single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at 0.2 Hz for roll tilt and 1.0 Hz for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis, inter-aural earth-horizontal translation (y-translation), inferior-superior earth-vertical translation (z-translation), and roll tilt. A large subset of this population (99 of 105) also performed a modified Romberg test of standing balance. Despite the relatively large population (54F/51M), we found no difference between thresholds of male and female subjects. After pooling across sex, we found that thresholds increased above the age of 40 for all five motion-directions investigated. The data were best modeled by a two-segment age model that yielded a constant baseline below an age cut-off of about 40 and a threshold increase above the age cut-off. For all subjects who passed
Sensory strength-duration curves were obtained using percutaneous true square-wave pulses ranging from 0.1 to 20.0 ms produced by an isolated constant current stimulator. In 119 healthy volunteers sensory thresholds were measured bilaterally by stimulating the distal phalange of the little finger. In order to examine the relationship of sensory threshold and handedness the latter was assessed by means of the Edinburgh Inventory. An asymmetry of sensory threshold was found for all the subjects and this was more pronounced with shorter stimuli. Of right-handers tested 73.5% had a lower threshold on the left side while 70.8% of left-handers had a lower threshold on the right side. Although threshold asymmetry is associated with handedness this is not necessarily due to cerebral lateralization.. ...
The threshold data were analyzed with respect to SAR, anatomy imaged, cardiac chamber, and time from lead implant to the MRI examination. Any change in threshold was considered important, even though only increases in these values are detrimental.. One study suggests that limiting the distance from the pacemaker pulse generator to the anatomical region being imaged is beneficial to MRI safety (20). Therefore, the data were analyzed with respect to the anatomy that underwent imaging. For ease of statistical analysis, the MRI examinations were grouped into above and below the diaphragm. Neither anatomical region was associated with pacing threshold changes.. Pacing thresholds were also examined as a function of cardiac chamber. It was theorized that the atrium, because of its smaller mass with possible less heat transfer, would more readily undergo threshold changes than would the ventricle. However, the atrium was no more likely to develop pacing threshold changes than was the ventricle.. Because ...
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An implantable cardiac stimulation device with automatic threshold testing capabilities. The device utilizes an algorithm for measuring a first and a second threshold settings. The first threshold setting is determined by decreasing the stimulation energy from an initially high, supra-threshold value until loss of capture is detected, and is set as the pulse energy at which capture is still detected. The second threshold setting is determined by increasing the stimulation energy from an initially low, sub-threshold value until capture is detected, and is set as the stimulation energy at which capture is regained. The algorithm further determines if the threshold test results are reliable by comparing the difference between the first and second threshold settings to an expected difference, known as the Wedensky Effect value. A deviation from the Wedensky Effect value which is known for a given patient, indicates a discrepancy in the threshold test result. Such a deviation could be used to indicate when a
Effect of Complex Score Threshold on MCODE Prediction Accuracy Figure legend: MCODE complexes equal to or greater than a specific score were compared to a bench
In a frequency-domain excision system for a wide band receiver, a window function is applied to blocks of received signal samples and a transform function is applied to the windowed blocks. Each block of frequency-domain coefficients from the transform function is morphologically filtered to generate a threshold function representing an estimate of the spectrum of the desired wide band signal, and a non-linear gain function is applied to the coefficients. The gain function has a fixed-gain region for input values less than a threshold value from the threshold function, an excision region for input values greater than a multiple of the threshold value, and a soft limiting region between the fixed-gain region and the excision region. The inverse transform is performed on the excised blocks of coefficients, and an overlap-eliminating central portion of the inverse of the window function is applied to the resulting blocks of signal samples.
Measurements are reported of the effects of respiratory stresses upon the absolute threshold of peripheral (rod) vision. Since subjects were kept wholly dark adapted and the photochemical system of the rods therefore stationary, the changes recorded may be assumed to have originated more centrally. To this degree the measurements provide a quantitative index of central nervous imbalance.. Breathing room air or 32 to 36 per cent oxygen at about double the normal rate causes the visual threshold to fall to approximately half the normal value within 5 to 10 minutes.. This change is due primarily to alkalosis induced by the hyperventilation, and can be abolished or reversed by adding carbon dioxide to the inspired mixtures. Normal or rapid breathing of 2 per cent carbon dioxide causes no change in threshold; with 5 per cent carbon dioxide the threshold is approximately doubled.. Breathing 10 per cent oxygen at the normal rate also approximately doubles the threshold. This effect is compensated in ...
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The amount by which the SNR exceeds the detection threshold, DT, is called the signal excess (SE):. SE (decibels) = SNR - DT = (SL - 2TL + TS - NL) - DT. If the SE is greater than 0 dB, then the decision is made that the target is present. If the SE is negative, the decision is that the target is not present.. If the detection threshold is set high (which is equivalent to assuming that the signal power is high relative to the noise) only strong targets will exceed the threshold and be detected. There will not be many "false alarms" in which noise is mistakenly decided to be the signal of interest; however, there may be many "misses" in which the signal, though present, is not detected. If the threshold is set low, weaker targets will be detected, but the number of "false alarms" will also increase.. The following figure shows the importance of setting the detection threshold. The top trace (a) shows three target echoes with different amplitudes. The middle trace (b) shows the noise. The bottom ...
Teamwork between humans and robots will be the motto of the future. But robots may not injure humans at all. When does contact cause an injury, though? Researchers are exploring this for the first time in a study.
functions to compute true and false positive rates TPR ,- function(d, th){ sum(d$signal=="present" & d$measurement,=th) / sum(d$signal=="present")} FPR ,- function(d, th){ sum(d$signal=="absent" & d$measurement,=th) / sum(d$signal=="absent")} # use all the sorted values are possible threshods thresholds ,- sort(d$measurement) roc ,- data.frame(y=sapply(thresholds, function(th){TPR(d,th)}), x=sapply(thresholds, function(th){FPR(d,th)}) ) ggplot(roc,aes(x,y))+geom_point()+theme_bw()+labs(y="fraction of signal present\nmeasurements ,= threshold\n(true positive rate)", x="fraction of signal absent\nmeasurements ,= threshold\n(false positive rate)")+geom_abline(intercept=0,slope=1,lty=2 ...
The ECLAMC surveillance data, like data from other surveillance systems,3132 records diagnoses made by clinicians for clinical (not research) purposes, which are only to a limited extent subject to standardisation by belonging to a surveillance network. In our data, about half of cases had a head size larger than −3 SD (according to the Intergrowth curve), including some larger than −2 SD in whom other signs indicated an abnormally small brain. This is despite the ECLAMC recommendation to use a threshold of −3 SD. Some of this discrepancy may relate to differences between the growth charts used (Intergrowth charts were not widely used in this period) and whether they explicitly show the −3 SD threshold measurements. Most readily available charts, including Intergrowth, showed only the third centile during this period,35414243 the third centile being equivalent to the lowest 3% of measurements of the reference population compared with 2.3% for −2 SD and 0.13% for −3 SD in a normal ...
The time to the first spike after stimulus onset typically varies with the stimulation intensity. Experimental evidence suggests that neural systems use such response latency to encode information about the stimulus. We investigate the decoding accuracy of the latency code in relation to the level of noise in the form of presynaptic spontaneous activity. Paradoxically, the optimal performance is achieved at a nonzero level of noise and suprathreshold stimulus intensities. We argue that this phenomenon results from the influence of the spontaneous activity on the stabilization of the membrane potential in the absence of stimulation. The reported decoding accuracy improvement represents a novel manifestation of the noise-aided signal enhancement.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In article ,2k61tf$p90 at news.u.washington.edu,, wcalvin at u.washington.edu (William Calvin) writes: ,, kisley at spot.Colorado.EDU (Michael Kisley) writes: ,, ,, ,I am seeking references regarding spike-accomodation in pyramidal cells ,, ,(or any other cell types) in the hippocampal formation. I am primarily ,, ,speaking of the tendency for decreased spiking response to non-novel ,, ,stimulation. Nevertheless, Id likely be interested in looking at any paper ,, ,, What you are looking for is generally called adaptation in spiking; ,, accommodation is generally reserved for threshold changes to a slow ,, depolarization. Actually, the tendency to ignore non-novel stimuli can also be a form of accommodation since it can occur as a function of threshold modification. See; AV Hill (1936) Excitation and Accommodation in Nerve. Proc. Royal Soc. London, B, 119:305:355 and some variation on the theme to include spiking behavior: BR Parnas and ER Lewis (1993) A computationally efficient spike ...
16. An investigator places an isolated neuron in a calcium-free medium, gives the neuron a suprathreshold stimulus and then performs an assay to test whether neurotransmitter is released into the medium. Which of the following outcomes would you predict? ...
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Since the introduction of steroid eluting electrodes, the incidence of an early massive rise in the capture threshold that either exceeds or threatens to exceed the programmed output of the pacemaker has declined but has not totally disappeared1 If a persistent or massive threshold rise is encountered in the days to months post-implant, one consideration is microinstability of the lead. In this setting, there may be a change in the morphology of the pacemaker evoked depolarization on the ECG or a change in the physical location of the lead as assessed with a chest x-ray. Another marker is fluctuations in the capture threshold on repeated assessments at the same office or clinic visit. The options for this problem include an operative procedure to reposition or replace the lead or to closely observe the patient hoping that the lead settles into a secure location. Another potential totally reversible cause is the introduction of an new medication or herb. If the possible explanations for threshold ...
He still is the regulatory download natural gushing in most pandemic beds: how to stop and risk with the main whole or mankind to be you to your practitioners. Ringo on parents and Robert and Dean DeLeo from Stone Temple Pilots on threshold and example. As a variation this multiple
Grand means of evoked potentials in selected peripheral leads which illustrate short-latency effects produced by (A) sub-threshold (−12 dB re VT) and (B) sup
Nociceptor hypersensitivity often outlasts the original injury. Untreated, it can even become permanent. Recent pre-clinical peer-reviewed research published by Dr. Ted Price and Dr. Greg Dussor suggests that the ingredients in Teds Pain Cream appear over time to reset the sensitivity threshold of nociceptors to their
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
1080/17461391.2014.966764 10.1080/17461391.2014.966764 25307937 16. Caen K , Vermeire K , Bourgois J , Boone J . Exercise thresholds on trial: are they really equivalent? Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2018 ; 50 ( 6 ): 1277 - 1284 . doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001547 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001547 29315165 17. Keir DA. ...
Its summer again, so time for me to kick around my get out of dodge relocation plan. I am scoping out land in subdivisions to build a new house on for this round of tire-kicking. Since I am going with the cheepskate house on a slab, and looking at pictures of what the builders build...it seems all the doors are the preframed variety that seem to have a 2 or 3 inch or so threshold on the bottom of the doorway. Not good. Is this typically just a cheap door issue, or some sort of building
This map was created for printng at the Map Size indicated in the table below. It will print to a standard letter size (8.5 x 11) or almost any size you like, but the scale will be inaccurate ...
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Engaging students in the collection and analysis of scientific data takes innovative technology. It also takes stellar service from a partner you choose. At Vernier, our priority is to provide science educators with unparalleled customer service, technical support, and resources so you are always supported when integrating our technology. ...
The essential physiological skill in most cycling events is threshold power. If you are capable of generating many Watts at your threshold power, you are very likely to be a successful rider.
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Contrast discrimination is an important type of information for establishing image quality metrics based on human vision. We used a dual-masking paradigm to study how contrast discrimination can be influenced by the presence of adjacent stimuli. In a dual masking paradigm, the observers task is to detect a target superimposed on a pedestal in the presence of flankers. The flankers (1) reduce the target threshold at zero pedestal contrast; (2) reduce the size of pedestal facilitation at low pedestal contrasts; and (3) shift the TvC (Target threshold vs. pedestal contrast) function horizontally to the left on a log-log plot at high pedestal contrasts. The horizontal shift at high pedestal contrasts suggests that the flanker effect is a multiplicative factor that cannot be explained by previous models of contrast discrimination. We extended a divisive inhibition model of contrast discrimination by implementing the flanker effect as a multiplicative sensitivity modulation factor that account for ...
The observed shift in the contrast gain function is consistent with previous measures of spatial vision loss with age. For instance, Sloane, Owsley, and Jackson (1988) measured contrast sensitivity for young and old observers with spatial frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 8 c/deg and luminance levels ranging from mesopic to photopic. At a low temporal frequency, the slope of the sensitivity function (inverse of the threshold function) spanning the range of luminance was steeper for older than younger observers at spatial frequencies below 4 c/deg. This means that older observers required more contrast at low luminance levels to detect a sine-wave grating than their younger counterparts. This pattern of contrast sensitivity loss is consistent with a reduction in the contrast gain slope of the underlying mechanism at low spatial frequencies. In addition, suprathreshold measures of spatial vision performance also support a reduction in contrast gain within one (or both) of the pathways. Losses in ...
A classification method of ultrasonic liver image is studied based on threshold segmentation.Under the condition of minimizing the false-negative probabilityt,he confidence intervals of gray levels which are normal distributions in normal and fatty liver images can be obtained by minimizing the false-positive rate.Then classify the images by comparing the seg-mented images with the interval thresholds.The experimental results show that the classification rate of normal livers reaches to 100% for testing or training datat,he classification rate of fatty livers reaches to 96.3% for testing or training data.Com-pared with the Back Propagation Neural Network(BP NN) methodt,he method costs less time than BP NN method when they have the same performance.
Auditory fatigue is now known as Temporary Threshold Shift (subsequently abbreviated to TTS). It has been defined as the temporary elevation in the absolute threshold of hearing for a given test sound resulting from preceding auditory stimulation by a given stimulus sound (see Hirsh, 1952, page 177). Associated with the phenomenon there are six physical variables which sub-divide themselves into stimulus, test and recovery factors. In IMS study each of the latter factors was systematically Investigated using four groups of six undergraduate subjects. Thresholds were measured using the Bek6sy (1947) technique of threshold measurement. Control experiments were carried out to verify that TTS results from the application of the stimulus tone, to study the mechanisms involved in the Bekesy technique of threshold measurement and the effects of this technique on the measurement of TTS, to investigate any additive effects of TTS and to study the possibility of any measurement errors resulting from the ...
0079] In another example implementation, electrical sensing module 86 and capture detection module 90 determine whether capture has occurred based on the LVP-RVS conduction times, as described above, as well as the evoked response in the LV. In particular, electrical sensing module 86 and evoked response detection module 94 of capture detection module 90 determine whether there has been an evoked response by measuring the amplitude of the response in the LV as well as time between the LVP and the evoked response in the LV. In order for capture to have occurred, the time between the LVP and the evoked response in the LV should be within a prescribed window, and the amplitude of the response should be greater than some threshold value. Processor 80 may retrieve the previously stored threshold value from memory 82 and capture detection module 90 may compare the measured amplitude of the response to the threshold value. In addition, for each vector tested at each particular voltage, processor 80 may ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spike-Threshold Adaptation Predicted by Membrane Potential Dynamics In Vivo. AU - Fontaine, Bertrand. AU - Pena, Jose L.. AU - Brette, Romain. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Neurons encode information in sequences of spikes, which are triggered when their membrane potential crosses a threshold. In vivo, the spiking threshold displays large variability suggesting that threshold dynamics have a profound influence on how the combined input of a neuron is encoded in the spiking. Threshold variability could be explained by adaptation to the membrane potential. However, it could also be the case that most threshold variability reflects noise and processes other than threshold adaptation. Here, we investigated threshold variation in auditory neurons responses recorded in vivo in barn owls. We found that spike threshold is quantitatively predicted by a model in which the threshold adapts, tracking the membrane potential at a short timescale. As a result, in these neurons, slow voltage ...
Functions reliably describing perception of motion in depth have been established experimentally by using psychophysical methods of size and distance estimations and threshold measurements. The stimuli were generated with a new hybrid technique yielding a. ...
Crowding and surround suppression share many similarities, which suggests the possibility of a common mechanism. Despite decades of research, there has been little effort to compare the two phenomena in a consistent fashion. A recent study by D. M. Levi, S. Hariharan, and S. A. Klein (2002) argues that the two are unrelated because crowding effects can be much stronger than suppression effects. Here we report experiments in which the same Gabor target was used both for orientation identification (crowding) and contrast detection (suppression) tasks. In agreement with early crowding studies (e.g., H. Bouma, 1973) we found, that an outward mask is much more effective than an inward mask for the orientation identification task. Notably, no such anisotropy was observed for the contrast detection task, commonly used to measure surround suppression. The anisotropic masking, which defines crowding, is observed only at fine scales (roughly within an octave of the acuity limit), whereas surround ...
misc{71171638-c472-49a9-84cf-124384b2c492, author = {Hellman, Johan and Sikström, Sverker}, keyword = {Memory,Signal Detection Theory,ROC curve,Attention}, language = {eng}, title = {The Generalized Signal Detection Theory}, year = {2012 ...
At high contrast, performance of both patients and controls deteriorated as the stimulus size increased (F(2,27) = 38; p , 0.001) (Fig. 3, right panel). This pattern of results can be construed as an indicator of the presence of antagonistic center-surround interactions (Tadin et al., 2003). At high contrast, no main effects of group were found (F(1,28) = 1.76; p = 0.19). The only observed deficit was in a condition in which patients discriminated a small (1°) high-contrast motion (t(28) = 2.29; p = 0.03). The magnitude of the observed deficit was comparable with the threshold increases observed for low-contrast moving stimuli (Fig. 3). Importantly, as the stimulus size increased, the difference between patient and control data were eliminated. The interaction, however, was not significant (F(2,27) = 1.72; p = 0.19). This pattern of results might indicate that patients are selectively impaired in perceiving small moving objects. However, we find no evidence for such selective impairment in the ...
Auditory function declines with age, with reductions in threshold sensitivity and speech discrimination, particularly in noise, commonly observed (Working Group on Speech Understanding, Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics, 1988; Goŕdon-Salant, 2005). Understanding of the cellular changes that lead to these outcomes remains fragmentary, and clinical assessments provide an incomplete picture of the sites of involvement and the perceptual impacts of auditory aging.. The loss of threshold sensitivity that accompanies auditory aging is primarily peripheral in origin, and often sensory (i.e., related to hair cell damage or loss) in nature. Much experimental effort has focused on correlating such age-related threshold shifts with hair cell loss, and therapeutic interventions have concentrated on improving "audibility" through amplification. However, threshold sensitivity loss is not the only, and arguably not the primary, handicapping dysfunction of auditory aging. Aging listeners ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The relationship and precision of four methods for measuring the low-contrast detail detectability in fluoroscopic imaging were studied. These included the physical measurement of the accumulation rate of the square of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRrate2), two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) experiments, sixteen-alternative forced-choice (16-AFC) experiments and subjective determination of the threshold contrast. The precision and sensitivity of the threshold contrast measurement were seen to be modest in the constancy testing of fluoroscopic equipment: only large changes in system performance could be reliably detected by that method. The measurement of the SNRrate2 is suggested instead. The relationship between the results of the various methods were studied, and it was found that human performance can be related to SNRrate2 by introducing the concept of the effective image information integration time (teff). When measured for an unlimited observation time, it depicts the saturation of ...
A heart monitor is disclosed. The monitor computes ST segment deviations and stores the results in heart rate based histograms. Periodically, the monitor analyzes the histogram data to determine a normal range of ST deviation for a particular heart rate range. The monitor computes heart rate dependent ischemia detection thresholds based on the upper and lower boundaries of the normal range. A current threshold for a heart rate range is set as a weighted average of the prior threshold and a provisional threshold based on recent data, thereby limiting the amount the actual detection threshold changes from period to period.
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Aims We investigated the applicability of the Ventricular Capture Control (VCC) and Atrial Capture Control (ACC) algorithms for automatic management of cardiac stimulation featured by Biotronik pacemakers in a broad, unselected population of pacemaker recipients. Methods and results Ventricular Capture Control and Atrial Capture Control were programmed to work at a maximum adapted output voltage as 4.8 V in consecutive recipients of Biotronik pacemakers. Ambulatory threshold measurements were made 1 and 12 months after pacemaker implant/replacement in all possible pacing/sensing configurations, and were compared with manual measurements. Among 542 patients aged 80 (73-85) years, 382 had a pacemaker implant and 160 a pacemaker replacement. Ventricular Capture Control could work at long term in 97% of patients irrespectively of pacing indication, lead type, and lead service life, performance being superior with discordant pacing/sensing configurations. Atrial Capture Control could work in 93% of ...
Since Ive just broken the anime taboo, I figured Id illustrate my second law of psychology. Every person has a perceptual ceiling. If they are stimulated beyond this, their rational mind will disengage to reduce anxiety. Pupil dilation and contraction generally adjusts to ambient light. However, it also corresponds to the rate at which your…
Many frameworks, such as the socioecological model and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), highlight the importance of considering intrapersonal variables alongside context. The SD model of thresholds for clinical decision-making proposes specific mechanisms to describe the relationship between the individual and his or her setting. For a wide range of parameter values, the assumption that screening directly increases accuracy while having an ambiguous effect on thresholds yields predictions that are broadly consistent with implementation trials of developmental-behavioral screening, including that not all positive screens will be referred and that changes in referral rates attributable to the implementation of screening may range widely depending on context and even decline in some circumstances. The key insight is that depending on the perspective of the decision-maker, increased accuracy may reduce FP errors and FN errors to different degrees. If only the former, ...
At this level, the finger will not move at all. However, the action of mind upon the finger will continue. You will continue the action of mind by willing the finger to push into the table - but at a force incapable of actually moving it. This is concentration.. "Mental thought" to "physical action" is a spectrum. Thoughts cross a point on the spectrum and become physical actions. Most people usually leap from thought to physical action in a binary step. However, as the exercise just now showed, you can in fact approach the point where a thought becomes a physical action, and stay just beneath it - creating a continuing action of mind which is "sub-threshold" for creating an actual physical action. You can continue to create this action of mind for long periods. This is concentration.. This action of mind will still cause nerves to fire in the finger, despite its not moving. These nerve impulses can be perceived as a tingling sensation in the chest and neck where the nerves supplying the finger ...
We hypothesized that currents are grouped into distinct modules that shape specific neuronal characteristics or signatures, such as resting potential, sub-threshold oscillations, and spiking waveforms, for several classes of neurons. For such a grouping to occur, the currents within one module should have minimal functional interference with currents belonging to other modules. This condition is satisfied if the gating functions of currents in the same module are grouped together on the voltage axis; in contrast, such functions are segregated along the voltage axis for currents belonging to different modules. We tested this hypothesis using four published example case models and found it to be valid for these classes of neurons ...
This operator finds the threshold for given prediction confidences of soft classified predictions in order to turn it into a crisp classification. The optimization step is based on ROC analysis. ROC is discussed at the end of this description.. The Find Threshold operator finds the threshold of a labeled ExampleSet to map a soft prediction to crisp values. The threshold is delivered through the threshold port. Mostly the Apply Threshold operator is used for applying a threshold after it has been delivered by the Find Threshold operator. If the confidence for the second class is greater than the given threshold the prediction is set to this class otherwise it is set to the other class. This can be easily understood by studying the attached Example Process. Among various classification methods, there are two main groups of methods: soft and hard classification. In particular, a soft classification rule generally estimates the class conditional probabilities explicitly and then makes the class ...
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EasyPower provides the option of showing a warning when the short-circuit duty percent is above a user defined safety margin threshold but below the violation level. Short-circuit on any bus results in voltage drop shorh other near buses in the system. You can set a voltage sensitivity threshold in the options such that any bus with voltage below this value will be highlighted red in the single line view and shown in the voltage sensitivity report.. The short-circuit calculation provides the phase angle of the branch currents and the bus voltages at various equipment. The phase angles displayed are relative to the applied equivalent voltage source being at zero angle. Transformers having different winding configurations, such as a delta connection on one side and a star wye connection on the other side, have a designated shift in the phase angles of currents and voltages.. For remote buses and branches across transformers, a phase angle shift is applied accordingly by the short circuit ...
Both foveae of light-adapted subjects were stimulated at the same time with monocularly presented lights of increasing or decreasing luminance. Combinations judged just detectable violated predictions of the energy summation and the probability summation hypotheses of binocular interaction. Rather, the results can be explained by independent central neural mechanisms that signal the sum or the difference of stimuli to two eyes. ...
The eye is made up of critical structures that work together to provide clear, high contrast vision. These include: Cornea Lens Retina At only 8/1000 of an inch thickness, the macular portion of the retina is exquisitely thin. And yet it provides the ability to see visual details for a lifetime.
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... The following is a list of 14 measurements: -70, -95, -14, -4, 22, -42, -56, 82, 99, 32, -57, 34, -39, -6 Suppose that these 14 measurements are respectively labeled X1, X2, .........., X14 (Thus.
October 30, 2007: The campaign to monitor blazars as described in Alert Notice 353 is ongoing, and the triggering thresholds for VERITAS observations have recently been updated by the PI, Dr. Markus Boettcher.. The blazar 1ES 0120+340 (1ES0120+34, AAVSO Designation 0117+33) has recently been seen just above the new triggering threshold of Rc = 17.0, and observations of this source are requested over the next several weeks. 1ES 0120+340 is located at coordinates. RA: 01:23:08.6 , Dec: +34:20:48 (J2000) ...
In the the case where a date is accidentally mis-typed leading to a gross mis-calculation of the date range (i.e. 2018 is mis-typed as 3018), a warning will be issued. The default threshold is set at 18262 days (50 years), but the user can define their own threshold by setting the ...
Présentation donnée en tant quintervenant invité par Patrick Verniers à son cours de Médias, culture et éducation à destination détudiants en Information e…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Weighted needle pinprick sensory thresholds: a simple test of sensory function in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. AU - Chan, A W AU - MacFarlane, I A AU - Bowsher, David. AU - Campbell, Jacqueline Ann. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - A simple device is described, consisting of 12 weighted 23 gauge disposable needles (0.2 to 5.2 g), for testing sensation in busy diabetic clinics. The pinprick sensory threshold (PPT) is the lightest weighted needle which consistently elicits a sharp sensation. The subjects were 48 healthy controls (hospital staff), 44 diabetic patients without neuropathic symptoms, and 35 diabetic patients with chronic painful neuropathy. In the controls, the mean PPT from the right hand and foot obtained on two test occasions a week apart did not differ significantly. In diabetic patients without symptomatic neuropathy, the mean PPT in the right hand and right foot were significantly higher than in the controls. The diabetic patients with painful neuropathy had ...
Purpose: : Recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of macular degeneration has led to potential new treatments for the disease. There is an increasing demand for new visual function tests that are more sensitive than current standards to monitor disease progression and to evaluate treatment effect. Our previous studies demonstrated that patients with macular degeneration have significant loss in global shape discrimination hyperacuity. In this study, we determined the rate of progressive loss of this hyperacuity in patients with Stargardt macular dystrophy (STGD). Methods: : Sixty-eight patients with STGD were selected on the basis of 20/200 or better visual acuity in at least one eye at their first visit. The average age at the first visit was 33±15SD years, and the average follow-up was 4.3±2.8SD years. Visual stimuli were circular shapes (radial frequency patterns). Shape discrimination hyperacuity was determined by using a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Each trial ...
Looking for online definition of Absolute threshold of hearing in the Medical Dictionary? Absolute threshold of hearing explanation free. What is Absolute threshold of hearing? Meaning of Absolute threshold of hearing medical term. What does Absolute threshold of hearing mean?
AIM: To establish, via computer simulation, the effects of patient response variability and staircase starting level upon the accuracy and repeatability of static full threshold visual field tests. METHOD: Patient response variability, defined by the standard deviation of the frequency of seeing versus stimulus intensity curve, is varied from 0.5 to 20 dB (in steps of 0.5 dB) with staircase starting levels ranging from 30 dB below to 30 dB above the patients threshold (in steps of 10 dB). Fifty two threshold estimates are derived for each condition and the error of each estimate calculated (difference between the true threshold and the threshold estimate derived from the staircase procedure). The mean and standard deviation of the errors are then determined for each condition. The results from a simulated quadrantic defect (response variability set to typical values for a patient with glaucoma) are presented using two different algorithms. The first corresponds with that normally used when ...
... ,In finance, portfolio performance assessment is an important area of research. The two popular indices of performance are the Jensens alpha and the Sharpe index. However there are a number of shortcomings of the above measures that have been highlighted in the literature. We propose a new measure of performance
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Visual perception relies on low-level encoding of local orientation. Recent studies show an age-dependent impairment in orientation discrimination of stimuli embedded in external noise, suggesting that encoding of orientation is inefficient in older adults. In the present study we ask whether aging also reduces decoding, i.e. selecting the neural representations of target orientation while discarding those conflicting with it. We compared younger and older participants capability (mean age 24 and 68 years respectively) in discriminating whether the orientation of a Gabor target was left or right from the vertical. We measured (d), an index of discrimination sensitivity, for orientation offset ranging from 1 to 12 deg. In the isolated target condition, d was reduced by aging and, in the older group, did not increase with orientation offset, thus resulting in a larger group difference at large than small orientation offsets from the vertical. Moreover, oriented elements in the background impaired more
One of the most controversial parts of the threshold is that its decided by the judge after a jury has already made their verdict. Meaning that, after the jury has decided on an award at the conclusion of a trial, the defense can bring a threshold motion in front of the judge alone.. The judge isnt bound by the verdict of the jury and will have to determine whether or not the injuries breach the threshold test. In the threshold test, the judge will asses the plaintiffs injuries in three parts.. First, the judge will consider whether the impairment caused by the injuries can be considered permanent. In order to asses this, theyll look at the plaintiffs medical records and history of treatment. Theyll also take into consideration witness testimony.. Second, the judge will consider whether the impairment caused by the injuries can be considered serious. Seriousness is more subjective and difficult to define but, generally, the judge will look at how the impairment has impacted the plaintiffs ...
The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to radiation in the course of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma or pituitary adenoma. Olfactory detection thresholds for two
This paper presents experiments measuring psychophysical thresholds for multi-finger single point interaction with small haptic effects. Subjects used the UW Multi-Finger Haptic Display to interact with small haptic icons in a virtual environment. A forcedchoice adaptive thresholding method is used to find a minimum detectable force magnitude. First, studies are performed to evaluate the consistency of our test apparatus across the four fingertips and to compare our application of the adaptive thresholding method to the prior work. Next, force detection thresholds for individual fingers are collected and compared to the force detection threshold using four fingers simultaneously. ,p, The results show comparable force detection levels between index, middle, pinkie and multi-finger interaction (33.5, 32.1, 33.5, 28.9 mN respectively) but less sensitivity with the ring finger (mean threshold of 43.6 mN). Repeated measures analysis of variance and t-tests with Bonferroni correction supports these ...
The Laser Damage and Conditioning Group at LLNL is evaluating diagnostics which will help make damage testing more efficient and reduce the risk of damage during laser conditioning. The work to date has focused on photoacoustic and scattered light measurements on 1064-nm wavelength HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings. Both the acoustic and scatter diagnostics have resolved 10 {mu}m diameter damage points in these coatings. Using a scanning stage, the scatter diagnostic can map both intrinsic and laser-induced scatter. Damage threshold measurements obtained using scatter diagnostics compare within experimental error with those measured using 100x Nomarski microscopy. Scatter signals measured during laser conditioning can be used to detect damage related to nodular defects.
In physiology, the renal threshold is the concentration of a substance dissolved in the blood above which the kidneys begin to remove it into the urine. When the renal threshold of a substance is exceeded, reabsorption of the substance by the proximal convoluted tubule is incomplete; consequently, part of the substance remains in the urine. Renal thresholds vary by substance - the low potency poison urea, for instance, is removed at much lower concentrations than glucose. Indeed, the most common reason for the glucose renal threshold ever being exceeded is diabetes. Renal thresholds vary by species and by physiological condition; thus an animal may have different renal thresholds while hibernating, Renal thresholds can also be altered by many drugs, and may change in characteristic ways during certain illnesses. Taken together, the collection of a kidneys renal thresholds essentially define much of its function in renal physiology. Many tests of kidney function amount to measures of renal ...
An experimental study of [omega] photoproduction on the proton was conducted by using the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. The [gamma] p [right arrow] [omega] p differential cross sections are measured from threshold to the incident-photon energy E[subscript gamma] = 1.40 GeV (W = 1.87 GeV for the center-of-mass energy) with 15-MeV binning in E[subscript gamma] and full production-angle coverage. The quality of the present data near threshold gives access to a variety of interesting physics aspects. As an example, an estimation of the [omega]N scattering length [alpha subscript omega]p is provided ...
This is the third and final annual review. The review found that changes to the Medicare Levy Surcharge (MLS) thresholds had no discernible impact on public hospital activity trends or elective surgery waiting lists (ESWL) within the period reviewed (to June 2010 for hospital separations and to September 2010 for ESWL). There has been no significant impact on public hospital operating costs that could be attributed to the MLS changes ...
A method of differentiating between OSA and CSA comprising: determining if chest motion above a chest motion threshold is present; determining if tracheal breath sound above a breath sounds threshold are present, classifying a state as OSA if the chest motion is above the threshold and the sounds are below the threshold; and classifying a state as CSA if both the chest motion and sounds are below their respective thresholds.
I love babies. I love it when a new parent asks if I want to hold their baby (why, yes, I do). I like celebrating with people and baking cakes and sending cards. 9 out of 10 days, this is the state-of-mind where youll find me.. Unfortunately, you never know if youre hitting me on that 1 day out of 10, therefore I encourage all people wishing to tell me their happy news to use my SQ method for passing on information that is Potentially Heartbreaking for the Listener (otherwise known as a PHL). The thing is knowing when something may be a PHL or when something is considered ordinary news. And thats the thing about SQs and SPJs-every person has a different threshold AND that threshold changes based on the relationship to the person.. I dont want people to walk around on eggshells around me. Im not a china doll. I wont break if you tell me your good news. In fact, once I process the information, I will be very very happy for you. But the mantra of the non-infertile (and all people in this ...
We assessed the accuracy of contrast-defined shape detection of stimuli of constant aspect ratio, namely, circular bandpass stimuli whose radii were sinusoidally varied about a mean radius. Performance for these contrast-defined shapes, which we show is determined by the global rather than the local attributes of the stimulus, is 2-8 times worse than that for their luminance-defined counterparts, suggesting separate processing limitations. By spatially and orientationally filtering the two-dimensional fractal-noise carriers of which these stimuli were composed, we determined whether there are specific rules concerning the spatial and orientational input to shape detectors from mechanisms sensitive to the carrier structure. The results suggest that second-order circularity detectors receive mixed input from spatial-frequency-tuned and orientationally tuned cells.. © 2001 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Thresholds are most commonly used to transition from hardwood floors to carpet or tile with a thickness that is less than that of the wood. Thresholds can also be used to cover expansion gaps where quarter round can not be used; such as with sliding glass
I will attempt to address each of these four factors concisely in reverse order:. METHOD USED TO DETERMINE HR ZONES There are many methods to determine HR zones. Some of these methods derive the zones based on a "maximum" heart rate (e.g. 220 - your age). Then, a formula is used to determine the HR zones based on a percentage of the maximum HR. Other zone determination methods are based off of a "lactic threshold heart rate" (LTHR). Maximum HR is NOT equal to ones threshold LTHR. Simply put, ones LTHR for a given activity is the average HR during the last 20 minutes of an activity that the individual can sustain for 1 hour. Zones are then calculated based on a percentage of the LTHR. Ones LTHR will be different for different activities. Calculating zones based on threshold is much more accurate and useful than calculating zones based on "maximum" HR.. TIME As an individual gains fitness, their biological energy producing systems (heart, circulatory system, capillaries, etc.) will become more ...
We discuss recent developments in the study of the interaction of intense lasers with diatomic molecules. An overview of theory and experiment is given and particular attention is given to the energy spectra of ions resulting from photodissociative ionization. The ionization process is studied in the multiphoton regime using Floquet theory and compared with field-ionization results appropriate for the tunnelling regime. A review is given of the evidence for the existence of critical distances between the nuclei at which ionization rates are strongly enhanced. The field-ionization model is found to reproduce the main features observed by experiments. The field-ionization Coulomb explosion (FICE) model accurately reproduces the kinetic energy releases and threshold intensities of the various fragmentation channels of the iodine dimer: I2. With the three-dimensional FICE model, threshold intensities as a function of angle between the molecule axis and the laser E-field are calculated. The angular ...
The authors also measured, but did not control, the training programs of the study subjects, which were assessed only in terms of hours (average 5-6/week), distance (average 185-200km/week) and overall average power output during rides. No attempt was made to control for differences in training quality.. -Mont Ventoux, site of the field test, is often featured in the Tour De France. It also has some of the windiest weather in western Europe, which might have affected results. The day of the test, the authors noted that winds at the summit were 85 kph, and two riders from each group were unable to complete the ride due to exhaustion.. -The authors results focused on the effect on sub-maximal (below threshold) performance.. That last ones key. Much was made of the fact that the EPO group was, on average, a few seconds slower than the control group in the uphill time trial on Ventoux. But that was a sub-threshold effort, not a test of maximal performance . (And its a little puzzling that four ...
002: Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing, Volume II: Detection Theory: Detection Theory Vol 2 (Prentice-hall Signal Processing Series) de Steven M. Kay en Iberlibro.com - ISBN 10: 013504135X - ISBN 13: 9780135041352 - Pearson Education (Us) - 1998 - Tapa dura
Re-evaluation of the absolute threshold and response mode of the most sensitive known vibration detector, the cockroachs subgenual organ: a cochlea-like disp
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Energy-dependent photoelectron angular distributions of two-color two-photon above threshold ionization of atomic helium ...
Recent evidence suggests that interval timing (the judgment of durations lasting from approximately 500 ms. to a few minutes) is closely coupled to the action control system. We used surface electromyography (EMG) and motion capture technology to explore the emergence of this coupling in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-olds. We engaged infants in an active and socially relevant arm-raising task with 7 cycles and response period. In one condition cycles were slow (every 4 seconds) in another they were fast (every 2 seconds). In the slow condition, we found evidence of time locked sub-threshold EMG activity even in the absence of any observed overt motor responses at all 3 ages. This study shows that EMGs can be a more sensitive measure of interval timing in early development than overt behavior.. ...
Article Doping profile optimisation in bulk FinFET channel and source/drain extension regions for low off-state leakage. Sub-threshold leakage, punch-through leakage and band-to-band tunnelling (BTBT) leakage are the main components of off-state leak...
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A critical step in the analysis of images is identifying the area of interest e.g. nuclei. When the nuclei are brighter than the remainder of the image an intensity can be chosen to identify the nuclei. Intensity thresholding is complicated by variations in the intensity of individual nuclei and their intensity relative to their surroundings. To compensate thresholds can be based on local rather than global intensities. By testing local thresholding methods we found that the local mean performed poorly while the Phansalkar method and a new method based on identifying the local background were superior. A new colocalization coefficient, the Hcoef, highlights a number of controversial issues. (i) Are molecular interactions measurable (ii) whether to include voxels without fluorophores in calculations, and (iii) the meaning of negative correlations. Negative correlations can arise biologically (a) because the two fluorophores are in different places or (b) when high intensities of one fluorophore ...