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Objective: To investigate the influence of different settings, epidemiological and clinical, and different diagnostic thresholds on caries detection in a group of 7 10-year-old children in Brazil. Materials and Methods: In total, 983 children aged 7 10 years old and enrolled in four public schools were randomly selected. Three examiners performed epidemiological examinations followed by an examination of the same children in a clinical setting. The examinations of cleaned and dried teeth in both settings were carried out using a dental mirror and ball-ended probe, under natural light in the epidemiological setting examinations and under artificial light during the clinical setting examinations. For the analysis of results, comparisons were focused on WHO (World Health Organization) diagnostic thresholds versus WHO+IL (initial lesions) diagnostic thresholds, both under epidemiological conditions, in order to demonstrate the influence of the inclusion of IL in the study; and WHO+IL in the ...
With optimized northern blot protocols and in situ hybridization protocols, our kits provide convenient setup and optimized detection of RNA in your in situ hybridization (ISH) and northern blotting experiments. Double digoxygenin (DIG)-labeled detection probes combined with optimized reagents deliver superior sensitivity and specificity, while the fast, easy one-day protocol means you get your results more quickly. If you need to target novel miRNA sequences, we provide custom-designed probes with a wide range of available labels to facilitate your multiplexing and co-localization studies. The superior sensitivity and specificity of our probes enables you to confidently detect low-abundance miRNAs.
First consider the sensitivity/specificity plot (the plot on the right). The x-axis in these plots is the threshold value used to classify into one group or the other and is the same axis as the predicted y-value. As you increase the threshold, the specificity increases (i.e. the false positive rate DECREASES - you are less likely to mistakenly call something in class when it is not). Likewise, the sensitivity decreases (i.e. the false negative rate INCREASES - you are more likely to call something not in class when it is actually in class). If you put the threshold all the way at the right (very high threshold value), everything will be classified as not in class. The sensitivity is zero (none of the true positives were detected = 100% false negative rate) but the specificity is 100% (you did not have any false positives - none of the not in class samples were marked in class). If you put the threshold all the way to the left (very low threshold value), everything will be classified ...
Head CT is a very sensitive diagnostic test in patients with a clinical suspicion of nontraumatic SAH and a normal level of consciousness on admission. In patients who had CT imaging within 6 hours after onset of acute headache, a negative CT ruled out SAH. However, CT within 6 hours after symptom onset failed 1 patient with only neck pain who had an inconclusive CT; finally, bleeding from a cervical arteriovenous malformation was diagnosed.. Previous studies on test characteristics of head CT for SAH found sensitivities ranging between 90% and 100%.4,8-12 The discrepancy of most studies with our findings can be explained by longer cut-off points for time delay between onset of headache and imaging ranging from 12 to 24 hours after ictus, the use of first- or second-generation CT scanners, and the use of tests other than absorption spectrophotometry as a gold standard. The majority of these studies only calculated sensitivity but not specificity, negative predictive value, or positive predictive ...
This study describes the laboratory evaluation of a novel diagnostic platform for malaria. The Magneto Optical Test (MOT) is based on the bio-physical detection of haemozoin in clinical samples. Having an assay time of around one minute, it offers the potential of high throughput screening. Blood samples of confirmed malaria patients from different regions of Africa, patients with other diseases and healthy non-endemic controls were used in the present study. The samples were analysed with two reference tests, i.e. an histidine rich protein-2 based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and a conventional Pan-Plasmodium PCR, and the MOT as index test. Data were entered in 2 × 2 tables and analysed for sensitivity and specificity. The agreement between microscopy, RDT and PCR and the MOT assay was determined by calculating Kappa values with a 95% confidence interval. The observed sensitivity/specificity of the MOT test in comparison with clinical description, RDT or PCR ranged from 77.2 - 78.8% (sensitivity) and
Multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA)of the coronary arteries after stenting has been evaluated in multiple studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a structured review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of MDCTA for the detection of in-stent restenosis in the coronary arteries. A Pubmed and manual search of the literature on in-stent restenosis (ISR) detected on MDCTA compared with conventional coronary angiography (CA) was performed. Bivariate summary receiver operating curve (SROC) analysis, with calculation of summary estimates was done on a stent and patient basis. In addition, the influence of study characteristics on diagnostic performance and number of non-assessable segments (NAP) was investigated with logistic meta-regression. Fourteen studies were included. On a stent basis, Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.82(0.72-0.89) and 0.91 (0.83-0.96). Pooled negative likelihood ratio and positive likelihood ratio were 0.20 (0.13-0.32) and 9.34 (4.68-18
Fourteen nationally competitive swimmers (11 male, 3 female; age 21.2 ± 3.2 y) recorded daily monitoring over 15 mo. The self-report group (n = 7) reported general health, energy levels, motivation, stress, recovery, soreness, and wellness. The combined group (n = 7) recorded sleep quality, perceived fatigue, total quality recovery (TQR), and heart-rate variability. The week-to-week change in mean weekly values was presented as coefficient of variance (CV%). Reliability was assessed on 3 occasions and expressed as the typical error CV%. Week-to-week change was divided by the reliability of each measure to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio. The diagnostic characteristics for both groups were assessed with receiver-operating-curve analysis, where area under the curve (AUC), Youden index, sensitivity, and specificity of measures were reported. A minimum AUC of .70 and lower confidence interval (CI) ,.50 classified a good diagnostic tool to assess performance change. ...
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Checks that detect antigens in clinical specimens could provide rapid direct evidence of active disease. than HIV-uninfected individuals (47%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 26 to 68% versus 14%; 95% CI 4 to 38%); IL-23A pooled specificity estimates were similar: 96%; 95% CI 81 to 100% and 97%; 95% CI 86 to 100% respectively. For extrapulmonary TB (21 studies 1 616 participants) sensitivity estimates ranged from 0% to 100% and specificity estimates from 62% to 100%. Five studies targeting LAM ESAT-6 Ag85 complex and the 65-kDa antigen in cerebrospinal fluid when pooled yielded the highest sensitivity (87%; 95% CI 61 to 98%) but low Lesinurad specificity (84%; 95% CI 60 to 95%). Because of the limited number of studies targeting any specific antigen other than LAM we could not draw firm conclusions about the overall clinical Lesinurad usefulness of these tests. Further studies are warranted to determine the value of LAM detection for TB meningitis in high-HIV-prevalence settings. Considering that ...
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A new diagnostic tool helps clinicians to differentiate between Alzheimers disease, frontotemporal dementia and mild cognitive impairment.
A likelihood ratio combines sensitivity and specificity into a single figure that indicates by how much having the test result will reduce the uncertainty of making a given diagnosis. The likelihood ratio is the probability that a given test result would occur in a person with the target disorder, divided by the probability that the same result would occur in a person without the disorder.. A positive likelihood ratio (or LR+) indicates how much more likely a person with the disease is to have a positive test result than a person without the disease.. LR+ = sensitivity / (1 - specificity),. or the ratio of true positives to false positives. Using the terms in Table 6.1, the formula is. a/(a + c) / b/(b + d).. A negative likelihood ratio (or LR-) indicates how much more likely a person without the disease is to have a negative test result, compared to a person with the disease.. LR- = (1-sensitivity) / specificity,. the ratio of false negatives to true negatives. Referring to Table 6.1, the ...
Results: We identified 18 validation studies (n = 7180) conducted in various clinical settings. Eleven studies provided details about the diagnostic properties of the questionnaire at more than one cut-off score (including 10), four studies reported a cut-off score of 10, and three studies reported cut-off scores other than 10. The pooled specificity results ranged from 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-0.82) for a cut-off score of 7 to 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.97) for a cut-off score of 15. There was major variability in sensitivity for cut-off scores between 7 and 15. There were no substantial differences in the pooled sensitivity and specificity for a range of cut-off scores (8-11). ...
When a test has more than two possible outcomes, its accuracy can be reported as pairs of sensitivity and specificity corresponding to each degree of abnormality. This approach, the basis for receiver-operating characteristic analysis, maximizes the use of diagnostic information (2). When the diagnostic threshold is set at a lower degree of abnormality, the sensitivity of the test tends to increase but its specificity tends to decrease. The opposite occurs when a higher diagnostic threshold is selected. In the case of HIV viral load assays, if more viral units must be detected to report the test result as abnormal, the specificity will increase. As noted by Rich and colleagues, the lowest reported plasma viral load during seroconversion is more than 17 times higher than the highest viral load detected in our three patients. Thus, for the diagnosis of acute infection, the threshold should probably be set much higher ...
Double DIG-labeled detection probes and optimized reagents deliver superior sensitivity and specificity with one-day protocol for fast results
Double DIG-labeled detection probes and optimized reagents deliver superior sensitivity and specificity with one-day protocol for fast results
Double DIG-labeled detection probes and optimized reagents deliver superior sensitivity and specificity with one-day protocol for fast results
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OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, in different patient groups, of the use of 64-slice or higher computed tomography (CT) angiography, instead of invasive coronary angiography (CA), for diagnosing people with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and assessing people with known CAD. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases were searched from 2002 to December 2006. REVIEW METHODS: Included studies were tabulated and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values calculated. Meta-analysis models were fitted using hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios and diagnostic odds ratios for each model were reported as a median and 95% credible interval (CrI). Searches were also carried out for studies on the cost-effectiveness of 64-slice CT in the assessment of CAD. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy and prognostic studies enrolled over 2500 and 1700 people,
It is important to note that critical components of cost-benefit analyses are the performance characteristics of the test being evaluated, as this information allows estimation of the impact of false-positive and false-negative results. For example, a rapid antigen test with lower sensitivity and similar specificity, compared to a NAAT, may be less cost-effective despite lower costs for reagents, equipment, and labor.. As has been well described in the literature, rapid antigen tests for influenza demonstrate poor to moderate sensitivity, depending on the particular assay and the circulating strain. A meta-analysis of influenza rapid antigen tests revealed pooled sensitivities of 64.6% for influenza A (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.0% to 70.1%) and 52.2% for influenza B (95% CI, 45.0% to 59.3%), with a combined pooled specificity of 98.2% (95% CI, 97.5% to 98.7%) (17). That analysis was completed prior to the introduction of next-generation digital antigen immunoassays with automated ...
In earlier times, cloth was used for sanitary protection during the periods. But it serves as more than a sanitary protection; it is also a tool for prognosis of female reproduction and hormonal system disorders. There is a simple diagnostic test for the reproductive health of a lady, based on the type of blood stainsContinue reading Use of Cloth during Periods : An Effective Diagnostic Tool
This study evaluated the ability of clinicians to detect residual calculus following subgingival scaling and root planing and compared the clinical detection to the microscopic presence and surface area occupied by calculus found on teeth extracted after instrumentation. Interexaminer and intraexami …
Use this to estimate test sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios by comparison with a known reference (gold standard) test. Results are presented as estimates of sensitivity and specificity with specified Clopper-Pearson (exact) confidence limits and point estimates of positive and negative likelihood ratios. ...
Perhaps the most important development in psychooncology in the past 10 years has been the development and testing of short, user-friendly screening tools for distress. Attempts to validate these tools have helped crystallize the concept of distress, which had previously received little attention compared with depression.1 Distress is a very common complication of cancer at any stage and often occurs when multiple needs are unmet.2,3 The presence of distress is also linked with reduced health-related quality of life,4 poor satisfaction with medical care,5 and possibly reduced survival.6 Early psychometric research focused on diagnostic accuracy (performance against another scale) and diagnostic validity (performance against a true criterion standard) of longer tools involving 10 items or more that typically took at least 5 minutes to administer.7,8 It is now known that fewer than 15% of cancer professionals are prepared to use these questionnaires in clinical practice, with most relying on their ...
Sensitivity = a/(a+c). Specificity = d/(b+d). +ve predictive value = a/(a+b). -ve predictive value = d/(d+c). Likelihood ratio of a positive test = [a/(a+c)]/[b/(b+d)]. Likelihood ratio of a negative test = [c/(a+c)]/[d/(b+d)]. Likelihood ratios have become useful because they enable one to quantify the effect a particular test result has on the probability of a certain diagnosis or outcome. Using a simplified form of Bayes theorem:. posterior odds = prior odds * likelihood ratio. where:. odds = probability/(1-probability). probability = odds/(odds+1). This function is not truly Bayesian because it does not use any starting/prior probability. Likelihood ratios, however, are provided and these can be used to direct the flow of probabilities in Bayesian analysis. For an excellent account of this approach in medical diagnosis, see Sackett (1991).. Another way to summarise diagnostic test performace is via the diagnostic odds ratio:. Diagnostic odds ratio = true/false = (a * d)/(b * c). Technical ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Rapid diagnostic Test (RDT) kits are the preferred assays for HIV testing in many countries. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission, Know Your Status Campaigns, Blood-Safety, Voluntary Counseling and Testing are major strategies adapted to control transmission of the virus and the pivot of these interventions is either screening or diagnosing individuals through testing. There are reports of inconsistent sensitivity and specificity with whole blood and serum samples collected from the same individual. Little is known about the diagnostic characteristics of First Response HIV-1-2 RDT kit, used as a single test kit in national HIV prevention and control programmes. The debate has always centered on choosing between whole blood and serum in a case where a single test kit that runs on only blood specimen will be used for testing. The variations in specificities and sensitivities with whole blood and serum samples imply that some individuals who might be true positives
Transgenomic, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: TBIO) announced today that it has completed a preliminary study with a leading pharmaceutical company that validates the use of its licensed
Human TNF-α ELISA Kit is the latest product from Abbkine Scientific Research Company. As part of the companys plans to ease the research process and ensure that better results are gotten in record time, the company made the announcement to official launch the Human TNF alpha ELISA Kit on the market.. The ELISA Kit is particularly designed to allow for the easy detection of Human TNF-α. Consequently, investigators, researchers and other such users of the product can easily get their desired results in record time. This also ensures that better results are gotten.. EliKine™ Human TNF-α ELISA Kit employs a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate TNF-α in samples, it has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Human TNF-α. No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Human TNF-α and analogues was observed.. The recent launch of the Human TNF-α ELISA Kit has been described by many as a revolutionary introduction to the industry. With a high sensitivity and ...
Diagnostic Standards and Classification of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children. This official statement of the American Thoracic Society and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was adopted by the ATS Board of Directors, July 1999. This statement was endorsed by the Council of the Infectious Disease Society of America, September 1999
Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. has announced the launch of its new CFX96 Touch Deep Well real-time PCR detection system, an ideal solution for researchers conducting real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments in large-volume reactions.
Comparative diagnostic capacity of corneal biomechanical indices. Receiver-operating characteristic curves are plotted for central-corneal-thickness-corrected c
Downloadable! This paper presents an indicator of fiscal distress for European economies based on a multivariate regression analysis (logit modelling, the L1 indicator) and on a recently updated dataset of fiscal stress episodes. This indicator presents some interesting features: relying on a parsimonious set of variables that have been tested for their conditional statistical significance, it exhibits an overall satisfactory insample performance. In line with Berti et al. (2012), this indicator confirms the importance of monitoring macro-financial variables to assess countries vulnerabilities to fiscal distress. It also provides some evidence that the change in the public debt ratio is an important predictor of fiscal distress events, while the level of public debt would particularly matter when combined with macrocompetitiveness imbalances. Our analysis suggests that the L1 indicator could be used as a complementary tool to the Commission S0 indicator to monitor prospective fiscal risks, building on
For the ultra-sensitive person, life can feel overwhelming. How do you move forward with these physical, emotional, and environmental sensitivities? These are the three keys that helped me shift into greater freedom.
The presentation will describe the principles of the ultra-sensitive single-molecule array (Simoa) developed by Quanterix and the application of the Simoa technology to the development of a t
Wild-type blocking PCR followed by direct sequencing offers a highly sensitive method of detection for low frequency somatic mutations...
Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Salmonella spp. by Using a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay in Duck Carcass Sample - loop-mediated isothermal amplification;Salmonella spp.;screening;duck;
A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay and Sample Preparation Procedure for Sensitive Detection of Xanthomonas fragariae in Strawberry. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Read Detection of hepatitis C virus by an improved loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Looking for online definition of arborization diagnosis method in the Medical Dictionary? arborization diagnosis method explanation free. What is arborization diagnosis method? Meaning of arborization diagnosis method medical term. What does arborization diagnosis method mean?
We recently heard from Fred who asked, What is the detection limit for your Arsenic in Water Test by National Testing Laboratories product? Is there any discount for ordering multiple tests? I want to test my incoming city water and water after RO treatment.. Good afternoon, Fred, and thank you for the inquiry... The minimum detection limit for the Arsenic Test by National Testing Laboratories is 5ppb (also written as .005ppm and .005 mg/L). The USEPA has set the acceptable limit for arsenic in public water systems at 10ppb.. Regarding discounts for additional test kits, we offer a discount of 5% for quantities of 3 to 10 of the kits. You can find a link to bulk pricing on the product page ( http://www.watertestkitstore.com/arsenic-in-water-test-by-national-testing-laboratories/) under the add to cart button.. What is arsenic and where does it come from?. Arsenic occurs naturally in the environment and may show up in both public and private water supplies. Levels of arsenic occurring ...
This study was designed to optimize and apply the use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as an alternative to conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) (FC 126 strain) in vaccinated and non-vaccinated poultry in Nigeria
TY - GEN. T1 - Detection and Categorisation of Multilevel High-Sensitivity Cardiovascular Biomarkers from Lateral Flow Immunoassay Images via Recurrent Neural Networks. AU - Jing, Min. AU - Mc Laughlin, Donal. AU - Steele, David. AU - Mc Namee, Sara. AU - Mac Namee, Brian. AU - Cullen, Patrick. AU - Finlay, Dewar. AU - McLaughlin, James. PY - 2020/2/29. Y1 - 2020/2/29. N2 - Lateral Flow Immunoassays (LFA) have the potential to provide low cost, rapid and highly efficacious Point-of-Care (PoC) diagnostic testing in resource limited settings. Traditional LFA testing is semi-quantitative based on the calibration curve, which faces challenges in the detection of multilevel high-sensitivity biomarkers due its low sensitivity. This paper proposes a novel framework in which the LFA images are acquired from a designed CMOS reader system under controlled lighting. Unlike most existing approaches based on image intensity, the proposed system does not require detection of region of interest (ROI), instead ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A multi-target lateral flow immunoassay enabling the specific and sensitive detection of total antibodies to SARS COV-2. AU - Cavalera, Simone. AU - Colitti, Barbara. AU - Rosati, Sergio. AU - Ferrara, Gianmarco. AU - Bertolotti, Luigi. AU - Nogarol, Chiara. AU - Guiotto, Cristina. AU - Cagnazzo, Celeste. AU - Denina, Marco. AU - Fagioli, Franca. AU - Di Nardo, Fabio. AU - Chiarello, Matteo. AU - Baggiani, Claudio. AU - Anfossi, Laura. PY - 2021/2/1. Y1 - 2021/2/1. N2 - © 2020 Elsevier B.V. A rapid test for detecting total immunoglobulins directed towards the nucleocapsid protein (N) of severe acute syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) was developed, based on a multi-target lateral flow immunoassay comprising two test lines. Both test lines bound to several classes of immunoglobulins (G, M, and A). Specific anti-SARS immunoglobulins were revealed by a colorimetric probe formed by N and gold nanoparticles. Targeting the total antibodies response to infection enabled achieving 100% ...
The Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market is expected to reach USD 4.3 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 11.8%, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. This can be attributed to significant rise in awareness regarding need for rapid and on-time testing for chronic and infectious diseases. Global increase in adoption of INAAT for detection of HIV, hepatitis A & B, and sexually transmitted diseases is considered to be a high impact rendering driver for growth.. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification is one of the most preferred nucleic acid amplification methods because of its ability to provide point of care testing, thus leading to increased adoption. The recently-introduced Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR) and Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) technologies are expected to experience exponential growth during the forecast period owing to their patent protection.. In addition, owing to recent epidemics of infectious diseases, ...
The Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market is expected to reach USD 4.3 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 11.8%, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. This can be attributed to significant rise in awareness regarding need for rapid and on-time testing for chronic and infectious diseases. Global increase in adoption of INAAT for detection of HIV, hepatitis A & B, and sexually transmitted diseases is considered to be a high impact rendering driver for growth.. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification is one of the most preferred nucleic acid amplification methods because of its ability to provide point of care testing, thus leading to increased adoption. The recently-introduced Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR) and Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) technologies are expected to experience exponential growth during the forecast period owing to their patent protection.. In addition, owing to recent epidemics of infectious diseases, ...
The Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market is expected to reach USD 4.3 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 11.8%, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. This can be attributed to significant rise in awareness regarding need for rapid and on-time testing for chronic and infectious diseases. Global increase in adoption of INAAT for detection of HIV, hepatitis A & B, and sexually transmitted diseases is considered to be a high impact rendering driver for growth.. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification is one of the most preferred nucleic acid amplification methods because of its ability to provide point of care testing, thus leading to increased adoption. The recently-introduced Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR) and Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) technologies are expected to experience exponential growth during the forecast period owing to their patent protection.. In addition, owing to recent epidemics of infectious diseases, ...
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Rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostics are needed to improve healthcare at the point of care (POC). However, the most widely used POC diagnostic, the lateral flow immunoassay (LFA), is ∼1000-times less sensitive and has a smaller analytical range than laboratory tests, requiring a confirmatory test to establish truly negative results. Here, a rational and systematic strategy is used to design the LFA contrast label (i.e., gold nanoparticles) to improve the analytical sensitivity, analytical detection range, and antigen quantification of LFAs. Specifically, we discovered that the size (30, 60, or 100 nm) of the gold nanoparticles is a main contributor to the LFA analytical performance through both the degree of receptor interaction and the ultimate visual or thermal contrast signals. Using the optimal LFA design, we demonstrated the ability to improve the analytical sensitivity by 256-fold and expand the analytical detection range from 3 log10 to 6 log10 for diagnosing patients with ...
472827490 - EP 3117213 A1 20170118 - SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR LATERAL FLOW IMMUNOASSAY TESTING - [origin: US2015260708A1] A lateral flow immunoassay system is provided that includes a housing having a base portion forming a first chamber therein and a body portion formed with three openings in fluid communication with the first chamber, a vial containing a buffer agent, and a sample collector for introducing a sample fluid into the first chamber via the second opening. The vial is mounted to the housing such that a dispensing side extends into the first opening for dispensing the buffer agent therefrom into the first chamber. The housing allows the buffer agent and sample fluid to be mixed within a reaction well formed within the first chamber to form a test sample mixture. The body portion is configured to receive a receiving end of an elongated holder in the third opening and allow a test strip secured in the holder to be brought into communication with the text sample mixture.[origin: US2015260708A1] A
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Sensitivity - The probability that if the animal has the disease that the test will be positive.. Specificity - The probability that if the animal does not have the disease that the test will be negative.. Tests for cell mediated immune responses. SICTT. The intra-dermal test utilises tuberculin which is a purified protein derivative (PPD), a complex preparation obtained from filtrates of sterilized, concentrated cultures of Mycobacterium bovis. The injection of this into the skin of animals exposed to bovine TB (bTB) results in an inflammatory reaction in which TB-specific memory T cells are attracted into the skin and multiply in response to the PPD antigen. The use of avian and bovine tuberculin allows the differentiation between bTB and other Mycobacterial species, principally avian TB, thereby significantly improving the specificity.. The advantage of this test lies in its excellent specificity (generally considered around 99.5%) which makes it very suitable for herd level testing. However, ...
How is the cutoff point actually determined? This can be based on a pure mathematical analysis to either minimize the mathematical distance between the receiver operator characteristic curve and the ideal point (sensitivity = specificity = 1) or to maximize the difference (Youden index) between the receiver operator characteristic curve and the diagonal or chance line (sensitivity + specificity − 1). Whereas the first approach minimizes misclassification, the second one maximizes appropriate classification.4 An alternative approach will also take into account the cost-benefit ratio of the consequence of having either false-positive or false-negative results. One can easily appreciate that in certain pathologic conditions, treatment of a patient with a false-positive result may be worse than missing a false-negative result or conversely that not treating a patient with a false-negative result may be worse than treating one with a false-positive result. In the case of PPV assessment, a low ...
Chlamydiae are implicated in a variety of clinically and economically important diseases in livestock and companion animals. These bacteria are associated with abortion, conjunctivitis, encephalomyelitis, enteritis, pneumonia, and polyarthritis in ruminants. Infection with these bacteria is the most common cause of abortion in sheep and goats and also causes zoonotic infection in humans which, in pregnant women, can result in spontaneous abortion.
Upper limits of normal ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) have been a matter of debate in recent years. Current diagnostic thresholds for ABP rely mainly on statistical parameters derived from reference populations. Recent findings from the International Database of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) provide outcome-driven thresholds for ABP Rounded systolic/diastolic thresholds for optimal ABP were found to be 115/75 mm Hg for 24 hours, 120/80 mm Hg for daytime, and 100/65 mm Hg for nighttime. The corresponding rounded thresholds for normal ABP were 125/75 mm Hg, 130/85 mm Hg, and 110/70 mm Hg, respectively, and those for ambulatory hypertension were 130/80 mm Hg, 140/85 mm Hg, and 120/70 mm Hg. However, in clinical practice, any diagnostic threshold for blood pressure needs to be assessed in the context of the patients overall risk profile. The IDACO database is therefore being updated with additional population cohorts to enable the construction of ...
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a current, frequently-used marker for severe bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid quantitative and on-site detection of PCT. To develop the new PCT quantitative detecting kit, a double-antibody sandwich immunofluorescent assay was employed based on time-resolved immunofluorescent assay (TRFIA) combined with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). The performance of the new developed kit was evaluated in the aspects of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity. Two-hundred thirty-four serum samples were enrolled to carry out the comparison test. The new PCT quantitative detecting kit exhibited a higher sensitivity (0.08 ng/mL). The inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) and the intra-assay CV were 5.4%-7.7% and 5.7%-13.4%, respectively. The recovery rates ranged from 93% to 105%. Furthermore, a high correlation (n = 234, r = 0.977, p | 0.0001) and consistency (Kappa = 0.875) were obtained when compared with the PCT kit
Pereira, B.P., Aung, K.Z., Pho, R.W.H., Cool, S.M., Nathan, S.S., Zhou, Y., Gupta, A., Leong, D.T., Salto-Tellez, M., Van, Wijnen A.J., Ling, L., Galindo, M., Stein, G.S. (2009). Runx2, p53, and pRB status as diagnostic parameters for deregulation of osteoblast growth and differentiation in a new pre-chemotherapeutic osteosarcoma cell line (OS1). Journal of Cellular Physiology 221 (3) : 778-788. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp. ...
In the present study, the Hyplex BloodScreen PCR-ELISA system was evaluated for the first time for direct identification of pathogenic bacteria in a large panel of positive BACTEC 9240 blood culture bottles. This test system allows identification of the bacteria within ca. 4.5 to 6 h, including DNA isolation, PCR amplification, and detection by reverse hybridization. Therefore, in contrast to conventional culture and biochemical identification techniques, which usually take 1 to 2 days, the Hyplex BloodScreen PCR-ELISA system generates results much quicker.. Concerning pure cultures of bacteria, the Hyplex BloodScreen PCR-ELISA system had a very high sensitivity, ranging from 96.6 to 100% for the various test modules (Table 1 and 2). The specificities of the different modules were also high and exceeded 97.5% in all assays but one. The test module for the detection of E. coli cross-reacted with B. fragilis, M. morganii, and one isolate of E. cloacae and therefore had a specificity of only 92.5%. ...
On Thu, 11 Mar 2004 13:16:15 -0500 XIAO LIU ,xiaoliu at jhmi.edu, wrote: , Dear R-helpers: , , I want to calculate area under a Receiver Operator Characteristic curve. , Where can I find related functions? , , Thank you in advance , , Xiao , install.packages(Hmisc) library(Hmisc) w ,- somers2(predicted probability, 0/1 diagnosis) Convert Somers Dxy rank correlation to ROC area (C) using Dxy=2*(C-.5). To get standard error of Dxy (and hence C) type ?rcorr.cens (another Hmisc function). This is the nonparametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney approach. --- Frank E Harrell Jr Professor and Chair School of Medicine Department of Biostatistics Vanderbilt University ...
A mark-free computer-assisted diagnosis method and system are provided for assisting diagnosis of abnormalities in digital medical images using diagnosis based image enhancement. The method includes the steps of: receiving indicia identifying one or more regions of interest in a digital medical image; and displaying one or more enhanced views of the regions of interest, the enhanced views being based on diagnostic parameters for the regions of interest and diagnostic parameters corresponding to a particular abnormality.
Background Blood culture is viewed as the golden standard for the diagnosis of sepsis but suffers from low sensitivity and long turnaround time. LightCycler SeptiFast (LC-SF) is a real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction test able to detect 25 common pathogens responsible for bloodstream infections within hours. We aim to assess the accuracy of LC-SF by systematically reviewing the published studies. Method Related literature on Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was searched up to October 2012 for studies utilizing LC-SF to diagnose suspected sepsis and that provided sufficient data to construct two-by-two tables. Results A total of 34 studies enrolling 6012 patients of suspected sepsis were included. The overall sensitivity and specificity for LC-SF to detect bacteremia or fungemia was 0·75 (95% CI: 0·65-0·83) and 0·92 (95%CI:0·90-0·95), respectively. LC-SF had a high positive likelihood ratio (10·10) and a moderate negative likelihood ratio (0·27). Specifically, LC-SF had a
Battling infection is a major healthcare objective. Untreated infections can rapidly evolve toward the condition of sepsis in which the body begins to fail and resuscitation becomes critical and tenuous. Identification of infection followed by rapid antimicrobial treatment are primary goals of medical care, but precise identification of offending organisms by current methods is slow and broad spectrum empirical therapy is employed to cover most potential pathogens. Current methods for identification of bacterial pathogens in a clinical setting typically require days of time, or a four- to eight-hour growth phase followed by DNA extraction, purification and PCR-based amplification. We demonstrate rapid (70-120 minutes) genetic diagnostics methods utilizing loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to test for 15 common infection pathogen targets, called the Infection Diagnosis Panel (In-Dx). The method utilizes filtration to rapidly concentrate bacteria in sample matrices with lower bacterial loads
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In this study, we constructed a novel tool for the identification of six Plasmodium parasites, including two P. ovale subspecies, using MinION™ portable sequencer and the LAMP method. We demonstrated that the method can achieve a comprehensive diagnosis of malaria even in resource-limited endemic regions. In particular, the LAMP method employs a set of four specially designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences on the target DNA, and relies on an auto-cycling procedure under isothermal conditions. In addition, our method enabled rapid library preparation (within 30 min), with multiplex sequencing and streaming analysis of real-time sequencing data via the Rapid Barcoding Sequencing Kit. Therefore, our LAMP method combined with the MinION™ sequencer would be convenient to use in various clinical settings.. Recently, Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan/Pf Detection Kit (Eiken Chemical) has become commercially available for the diagnosis of malaria by the LAMP method. This LAMP kit has good ...
The serological tests play a vital role in the diagnosis of both human and animal toxoplasmosis [6]. Thus, researchers continue to strive in perfecting and improving the serodiagnostics of T. gondii infections. In this regard, acquiring effective diagnostic antigens would be highly beneficial. The current immunoassays are mainly based on the T. gondii lysate antigens (TLAs), which are characterized as high sensitive and specific diagnostic tools [26].. However, the insufficient accuracy of some diagnostic tests are correlated with significant variation in the procedure of producing such kind of antigens, resulting in a major drawback which is lack of the standardization. The real challenge for researchers is to identify novel antigens that possess high immunoreactivity [27]. Thus, exploration of effective diagnostic reagents is the best strategy for the development of accurate diagnostic assays, which would considerably improve the management of the disease [16]. Accordingly, significant efforts ...
If these results combined with your physical exam and history lead you to believe your patient has a local process, there are a few diagnostics that can be done to help you gain a definitive diagnosis before the need for advanced imaging and rhinoscopy.. As stated before, aspiration of the mandibular lymph nodes, although low yield, is a non-invasive method of obtaining a potential diagnosis. This might be reserved for older, large breed dogs with a history of nasal discharge and therefore a greater suspicion of neoplasia.. If aspergillosis is suspected due to breed, life style, chronic nasal discharge and possible nasal pain or ulceration over the bridge of the nose or depigmentation/ ulceration of the nasal planum, agar-gel immunodiffusion or IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays can be performed. These blood tests provide excellent specificity but moderate sensitivity for sinonasal aspergillosis. Therefore, false negative results are possible. If your patient tests positive for this disease, ...
Template matching method is presented to identify the peaks from the scanned signals of lateral flow immunoassay strips. The template is composed of two pulses separated by the distance of the control and the target ligand line in the assay, and is convolved with the scanned signal to deliver the maximum at the center of the two peaks. The peak regions were identified with the predefined distances from the center. Glycosylated haemoglobin immunoassay strips and fluorescent strip readers from Boditechmed Inc. were tested to estimate the lot and reader variations of the concentration measurands. The results showed the robustness of the propose method ...
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The Used Laboratory Equipment Donation Program (LEDP) Grant Program was established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to grant available excess of used energy-related laboratory equipment to universities and colleges and other nonprofit educational institutions of higher learning in the United States for use in energy oriented educational programs.
The Used Laboratory Equipment Donation Program (LEDP) Grant Program was established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to grant available excess of used energy-related laboratory equipment to universities and colleges and other nonprofit educational institutions of higher learning in the United States for use in energy oriented educational programs.
The main findings of our study are that: 1) low-radiation CTDE performed immediately after a stress-rest MDCT protocol is capable of scar detection with reasonable accuracy but low sensitivity; and 2) the addition of CTDE to a stress-rest CTA + CTP integrated protocol does not improve the global accuracy of MDCT for the detection of functionally significant CAD in patients with intermediate-to-high pre-test probability.. We and others have previously shown that integration of CTP with CTA improved diagnostic accuracy of MDCT in patients with intermediate-to-high pre-test probability, mainly because of an increased specificity in heavily calcified coronary arteries (7-12). In this study, we added CTDE analysis to our integrated CTA + CTP protocol, aiming to test its potential as an additive tool for the diagnosis of CAD. A similar approach has been proposed for CMR using LGE to improve the accuracy of stress perfusion, but currently, this algorithm is seldom used (21).. In our study, ischemic ...
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For instance, let us consider a 55 year old non-smoking woman who presents with a 10 mm spiculated nodule located in the right upper lobe. Her past medical history includes a mastectomy for breast cancer six years previously. From table 3 the pre-test probability of malignancy is 44%. A TNAB is performed and a diagnosis of malignancy is obtained, which corresponds from the meta-analysis to a likelihood ratio of 72. From the nomogram of Fagan the post-test probability of malignancy reaches more than 98%. Had the pathologist responded suspicious for malignancy the post-test probability would have been around 92%. On the other hand, if the pathologist had diagnosed a benign lesion without being more specific, the post-test probability of malignancy is 5%. Finally, had the pathologist reported a finding of hamartoma the post-test probability of malignancy would have been less than 1%.. We restricted this analysis to studies that met methodological criteria for assessing diagnostic ...
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We found that Japanese adults with HbA1c levels of 6.5-6.9% were at significantly higher risk of developing retinopathy at 3 years than were those with HbA1c levels of 5.0-5.4%, whereas the risks did not increase among those with HbA1c levels ,6.5%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study supporting the validity of the new diagnostic threshold of HbA1c recommended by the International Expert Committee (5,11). In contrast, we did not observe an explicit threshold effect of HbA1c in the analyses of the prevalent retinopathy.. Although there have been several longitudinal studies examining the association between HbA1c levels and the risk of retinopathy, most of those studies were limited to samples treated for diabetes (29,34-38). There have been only a few small longitudinal studies of general nondiabetic populations (6,15-17). Possibly because of small sample sizes, results from these previous studies did not support the current HbA1c threshold for diagnosing diabetes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultra-sensitive and rapid detection of nucleic acids and microorganisms in body fluids using single-molecule tethering. AU - Cheng, Wen Chih. AU - Horn, Troy. AU - Zayats, Maya. AU - Rizk, Georges. AU - Major, Samuel. AU - Zhu, Hongying. AU - Russell, Joseph. AU - Xu, Zhiguang. AU - Rothman, Richard E.. AU - Celedon, Alfredo. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank Gregory Bowman and Karen Carroll at Johns Hopkins University for discussions that helped to improve the manuscript significantly and Nikki Parrish at Johns Hopkins Hospital for providing sputum samples. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Awards R44AI124871, R44AI122527 and R43AG056208. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.. PY - ...
Seegenes innovative real-time PCR method, READ™ (REal Amplicon Detection), is a powerful technology that overcomes the limitations of conventional real-time PCR. READ™ is totally different from current probe- (TaqMan, Molecular Beacon, etc.) and primer-based (Scorpion, LUX, Sunrise, etc.) real-time PCR methods, and opens new opportunities for highly effective pathogen detection. The Magicplex™ System is a two step process system based on READ™ technology that amplifies multiple target genes and then selectively detects the amplicons on a real-time PCR platform. The system provides maximum sensitivity and specificity by detecting the amplicons produced by the first amplification step. This unique process overcomes the limitations of conventional PCR and real-time PCR testing methods, such as low specificity and sensitivity, limited multiplexity, high re-test rates, long processing cycles and narrow range of applicable specimens for testing ...
All of the patients underwent an MRI of the abdomen and were retrospectively analyzed by 2 blinded, independent readers. Histopathology after resection was the reference standard. Both readers evaluated tumor characteristics, including invasion through bowel wall, invasion beyond bowel wall of ≥5 mm and/or invasion of surrounding organs, serosal involvement, extramural vascular invasion, and malignant lymph nodes. The team found that MRI had a high sensitivity and specificity in detecting T3/T4 tumors, and a low sensitivity and high specificity in detecting T3cd/T4 tumors. The researchers noted that for detecting serosal involvement and extramural vascular invasion, MRI had a high sensitivity and moderate specificity, as well as a moderate sensitivity and specificity in the detection of nodal involvement. Interobserver agreements were predominantly good, and the more experienced reader achieved better results in the majority of these categories.. Dr Nerads team comments, MRI has a good ...
Abstract. Twenty-four male patients grafted for various pathologies with the marrow of a female donor and presenting a complete donor-type hematopoiesis when a
Results: 10 studies investigated 16 methods for interpreting ECGs (n = 55,376 participant ECGs). The sensitivity and specificity of automated software (8 studies; 9 methods) were 0.89 (95% C.I. 0.82-0.93) and 0.99 (95% C.I. 0.99-0.99), respectively; PLR 96.6 (95% C.I. 64.2-145.6); NLR 0.11 (95% C.I. 0.07-0.18). Indirect comparisons with software found healthcare professionals (5 studies; 7 methods) had similar sensitivity for diagnosing AF but lower specificity [sensitivity 0.92 (95% C.I. 0.81-0.97), specificity 0.93 (95% C.I. 0.76-0.98), PLR 13.9 (95% C.I. 3.5-55.3), NLR 0.09 (95% C.I. 0.03-0.22)]. Sub-group analyses of primary care professionals found greater specificity for GPs than nurses [GPs: sensitivity 0.91 (95% C.I. 0.68-1.00); specificity 0.96 (95% C.I. 0.89-1.00). Nurses: sensitivity 0.88 (95% C.I. 0.63-1.00); specificity 0.85 (95% C.I. 0.83-0.87 ...
EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit is the latest addition to the Abbkine family, after the scientific research giant announced the release of the product. The release of the kit is part of Abbkines attempt to ease the process of scientific research and investigation, making it more effective and allowing researchers to get more from their effort.. The Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit as it also known a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-17 in samples. The Mouse Interleukin 17 ELISA Kit uses the colorimetric for detection, with sample types including cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, plasma, and serum.. One of the outstanding features of the EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit in addition to high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Mouse IL-17 is its assay duration. The kit has multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay, with a working time of 3 to 5 hours depending on the experience of the person carrying out the operation.. Some of the kit components include Mouse ...
EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit is the latest addition to the Abbkine family, after the scientific research giant announced the release of the product. The release of the kit is part of Abbkines attempt to ease the process of scientific research and investigation, making it more effective and allowing researchers to get more from their effort.. The Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit as it also known a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-17 in samples. The Mouse Interleukin 17 ELISA Kit uses the colorimetric for detection, with sample types including cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, plasma, and serum.. One of the outstanding features of the EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit in addition to high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Mouse IL-17 is its assay duration. The kit has multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay, with a working time of 3 to 5 hours depending on the experience of the person carrying out the operation.. Some of the kit components include Mouse ...