During imaginal development of Drosophila, Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that mediates intracellular signalling by the Notch (N) receptor, controls successive alternative cell fate decisions leading to the differentiation of multicellular sensory organs. We describe here the distribution of the Su(H) protein in the wing disc epithelium throughout development of adult sense organs. Su(H) was found to be evenly distributed in the nuclei of all imaginal disc cells during sensory organ precursor cells selection. Thus differential expression and/or subcellular localization of Su(H) is not essential for its function. Soon after division of the pIIa secondary precursor cell, Su(H) specifically accumulates in the nucleus of the future socket cell. At the onset of differentiation of the socket cell, Su(H) is also detected in the cytoplasm. In this differentiating cell, N and deltex participate in the cytoplasmic retention of Su(H). Still, Su(H) does not ...
The Drosophila gene atonal encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein similar to those encoded by the proneural genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C). The AS-C are required in the Drosophila PNS for the selection of neural precursors of external sense organs. We have isolated mutants of atonal, which reveal that this gene encodes the proneural gene for chordotonal organs and photoreceptors. In atonal mutants, all observable adult chordotonal organs, and almost all embryonic chordotonal organs fail to form; all adult photoreceptors are missing. For both types of sense organ, this defect is already apparent at the level of precursor formation. Therefore it is a failure in the epidermal-neural decision process i.e. a proneural defect. The failure to form photoreceptors results in atrophy of the atonal mutant imaginal disc, due to apoptosis and lack of stimulation of division. Lack of photoreceptors should also eliminate signalling that arises from differentiating photoreceptors and is required ...
Synonyms for special sense organs in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for special sense organs. 39 synonyms for organ: body part, part of the body, member, element, biological structure, newspaper, paper, medium, voice, agency, channel, vehicle, journal. What are synonyms for special sense organs?
View Notes - Perception from CJ 3323 at Texas State. Perception Definitions Sensation = physical stimulation of the sense organs by sensory information; sense organs are data reduction
Motherhood Dr. Srinivasa curated a talk for children at Presidency School - Pre-KG Block, Kasturinagar on five sense organs and good-bad touch.. Children learned valuable information and enjoyed a lot during the curated talk held by Dr. Srinivasa, who informally interacted with children. His talk on the 5 sense organs with a powerpoint presentation that had colorful illustrations made it interesting and fun for the tiny tots. They were all ears, listening with rapt attention. In between, he asked them questions and the children were able to answer.. ...
Continuing his discussion on bringing the five external senses under the control of reason, Father Geiermann addresses the sense of hearing. He writes: If we do not wish to be imbued with false principles and desire to preserve our hearts undefiled, we must turn away from (1) all irreligious and immodest conversation; (2) from all…
Visualizations: Diseases of nervous system and sense organs, 0-14 years, per 100 000 population, by sex (age-standardized death rate), Categories: Diseases of blood, endocrine, nervous systems, etc
Indicator: Diseases of nervous system and sense organs, 25-64 years, per 100 000 population, by sex (age-standardized death rate), Categories: Diseases of blood, endocrine, nervous systems, etc
Learn more about Conditions and Diseases -- Nervous System and Sense Organs at Sunrise Childrens Hospital ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPRSTUVWXZ ...
Learn more about Conditions and Diseases -- Nervous System and Sense Organs at TriStar Health ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPRSTUVWXZ ...
Expresses GAL4 in proneural clusters and sensory organ precursor cells. Expresses the C-terminal portion of the asymmetrically localized pon protein tagged with GFP under UAS control, H.B ...
Gen. Johnstons address to the army of the Potomac--Elequent appeal to the volunteers. We are indebted to the kindness of a friend for a copy of Generals Beauregards and Johnstons addresses to the Army of the Potomac. The first we have alreJohnstons addresses to the Army of the Potomac. The first we have already published; and we now have the pleasure of laying before our readers the stirring appeal of Gen. Johnston, relating to the re-enlistment question, the all-absorbing topic of conversation in the camps and elsewhere.--We have reliable authority forGen. Johnston, relating to the re-enlistment question, the all-absorbing topic of conversation in the camps and elsewhere.--We have reliable authority for saying that the troops in the Army of the Potomac are rapidly re-enlisting, and we cannot doubt that this address will serve to arouse the volunteers in other portions of the country: General Johnstons address. Headqrs Dept of Northern Va.General Johnstons address. Headqrs Dept of ...
Specialized place cells arise from undifferentiated cells through a series of developmental steps. trichomes and socket cells expression shows a 69% reduction, suggesting that this gene could be involved in the coordination of socket cell development in wild-type vegetation. an activation-tagged collection (Wen genes in Volasertib kinase activity assay and at least 24 in rice encoding small proteins of around 50 amino acids. Overexpression of (settings polarized cell proliferation. A more recent study exposed that overexpression reduced the meristematic zone size within the leaf cutting tool (Ikeuchi overexpression results in a protrusion of the main inflorescence stem at the base of pedicels. It was proposed that manifestation provides a positional cue that helps to set up organ boundaries by regulating cell proliferation along the longitudinal axis. In is definitely induced during Volasertib kinase activity assay nodule formation and its overexpression results in reduced nodulation (Combier ...
In order to distinguish between relevant and extraneous stimuli, insects have adapted specialized processes to perceive cues that are beneficial for survival and proliferation. Volatile molecules in the environment can stimulate olfactory receptors (ORs) and gustatory receptors (GRs) in chemosensory organs called sensilla. Specialized proteins located within these sensilla guide and assist chemosensory molecules to the receptors, which then trigger a transduction pathway that elicits behavioral responses. Sensory Neuron Membrane Proteins (SNMPs) are transmembrane proteins found on both gustatory and olfactory sensory organs in insects. There are two forms of these proteins, SNMP-1 and SNMP-2. InDrosophila melanogaster, the function of the SNMPs is currently unknown, but it is thought to contribute to proper recognition of pheromones secreted by maleDrosophila. To determine the role of SNMP-2 inDrosophila, we reduced the gene expression of SNMP-2 by targeting the gene with RNA-mediated gene interface
J:98458 Kiernan AE, Pelling AL, Leung KK, Tang AS, Bell DM, Tease C, Lovell-Badge R, Steel KP, Cheah KS, Sox2 is required for sensory organ development in the mammalian inner ear. Nature. 2005 Apr 21;434(7036):1031-5 ...
Because you have senses you experience life. You taste, feel, see, touch and hear things. The sum total of everything you take in through the senses ultimately makes up your perception of life.. The simplest way to realize the importance of sense organs is to imagine not having one.. For today lets stick with the example of the sense of sight. Imagine if you lost it all of a sudden. Imagine how your life would change. You wouldnt be able to drive a car, see beautiful flowers and trees. It wouldnt make sense to watch a movie or go to the theater. You couldnt see the eyes of your beloved (if you have one) or your children. Youd have to learn to keep your house mega organized so you could find things, you would have to learn braille and on and on.. Our senses give us so much, yet we give back so little in return. When is the last time you did something loving for your eyes, ears or nose? Sense organs are kind of like a servant turned slave. When they are young we take them for granted, and ...
Surface portion of the skin in contact with the air from which dead cells are regularly shed and replaced by new cells of the stratum basale ...
Surface portion of the skin in contact with the air from which dead cells are regularly shed and replaced by new cells of the stratum basale. ...
This page was last edited 19:13, 2 November 2007 by Alexandra Almonacid. Based on work by wikidoc anonymous user 217.121.157.116 ...
The pattern of the sensory bristles in the fruit fly Drosophila is remarkably reproducible. Each bristle arises from a sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell that is selected, through a lateral inhibition process, from a cluster of proneural cells. Although this process is well characterized, the mechanism ensuring its robustness remains obscure. Using probabilistic modeling, we defined the sources of error in SOP selection and examined how they depend on the underlying molecular circuit. We found that rapid inhibition of the neural differentiation of nonselected cells, coupled with high cell-to-cell variability in the timing of selection, is crucial for accurate SOP selection. Cell-autonomous interactions (cis interactions) between the Notch receptor and its ligands Delta or Serrate facilitate accurate SOP selection by shortening the effective delay between the time when the inhibitory signal is initiated in one cell and the time when it acts on neighboring cells, suggesting that selection relies ...
As a cancer patient, youre just forced to face your own mortality sooner than you might have to otherwise. Although cancer has been a tragedy for my family and I, the lessons it has taught us are a gift. Cancer teaches you to live like this might be the last day you have. It teaches you not to take anything for granted. It teaches you to appreciate the little things. It teaches you that youre capable of far more than you ever realized you were. Theres a song which has become my life story: "I hope you get the chance to live like youre dying". Im sure not done fighting this battle. But no matter how many years, or months, or days I have left, I hope thats what I never fail to do from this point on: To live like Im dying ...
As a cancer patient, youre just forced to face your own mortality sooner than you might have to otherwise. Although cancer has been a tragedy for my family and I, the lessons it has taught us are a gift. Cancer teaches you to live like this might be the last day you have. It teaches you not to take anything for granted. It teaches you to appreciate the little things. It teaches you that youre capable of far more than you ever realized you were. Theres a song which has become my life story: "I hope you get the chance to live like youre dying". Im sure not done fighting this battle. But no matter how many years, or months, or days I have left, I hope thats what I never fail to do from this point on: To live like Im dying ...
Join FREE now and enjoy sharing with others about your collectibles interest, what you are buying or selling, your online store and more ...
3B Sensory Organs Microscopic Slides Available From Lab World Online Store. With Free UK Delivery On All Orders Over 50. Shows Cells In The Sensory Organs.
mouse Mrgprd protein: Mrgprd(+) innervation is restricted to the epidermis and absent from specialized sensory structures. Furthermore, Mrgprd(+) fibers terminate in a specific layer of the epidermis, the stratum granulosum. RefSeq NM_203490
The Senses There are five senses; smell, sight, touch, taste and hearing. Balance is now thought of as a sense. Touch detects pressure, pain and hot and cold substances. Our senses are based on receptor cells and nerve endings, which combine to form the sense organ. Receptors respond to heat, light, pressure and chemicals. They are forms of energy, which are converted to electrical impulses and produce a message, which is sent along the neurons.
The sense organs connect the nervous system to the external environment. They are the sources of stimuli that cause a response in the nervous system, and they a
Define head: the upper or anterior division of the animal body that contains the brain, the chief sense organs, and the mouth - head in a sentence
v. 2: Urinary, respiratory, and nervous systems, sensations and sense organs, endocrine and reproductive systems. - XIX, 314 p ...
My advice to people today is as follows: if you take the game of life seriously, if you take your nervous system seriously, if you take your sense organs seriously, if you take the energy process seriously, you must turn on, tune in, and drop out.. ...
Learn Endocrine, repiratory system, skin, sensory organs facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Interactive map and directions to Olympic Orthodontics. Dr. Frederick Johnstons orthodontic office is conveniently located in Dublin, California.
I have to be honest, I had A Thousand Nights by E.K. Johnston for months, but wasnt sure about reading it because I havent been in the mood for YA. I also read some reviews and people kind of liked it, but I didnt read any reviews of people who loved. So I kept postponing and postponing reading it, until one-day couple of days ago when I didnt know what to read due to my mood. I thought, okay, lets give this one a go, if I dont like it by the 30% I will DNF it and that will be it. A Thousand Nights is the first ever book I start thinking I will end up DNF-ing and Oh boy, was I wrong! E.K. Johnstons writing sucked me in from the very first pages and didnt let me go until the very end and I loved every minute of it ...
Ac and Sc are master transcriptional activators of ES organ development in Drosophila. Nuclear actin is an essential component of the basal transcription machinery and the chromatin remodeling complex. Our study is the first to show a specific association between actin and Ac and Sc in nuclei. Supported by our in vitro and in vivo data in neural precursor gene expression and ES organ formation, we propose that nuclear actin is required for Ac (and Sc)-Da-mediated transcriptional activation in SOP differentiation.. Our results show that Ac and Sc associates with nuclear but not cytoplasmic actin, suggesting that actin protein alone might not be sufficient to maintain a stable interaction with Ac (and Sc). In the nucleus, actin associates with RNA polymerases and nucleosome-remodeling complexes. Recent studies also show that subfamilies of actin-related proteins, the major binding partner of actin, specifically localize in nuclei and act as crucial components in chromatin function (for reviews, ...
In a paper with the refreshingly straightforward title "Buddenbrockia is a Cnidarian Worm", researchers reported in Science on a myxozoan that is not simply a passive lump of parasitic cells. In the words of the authors of the Science paper, Buddenbrockia worms are "highly active, with continuous and vigorous sinuous writhing within the body cavity of bryozoan hosts." Once they bail out on their moss-animal hosts (they are malacosporans), they continue to undergo "repeated coiling and straightening." Under the microscope, they look uncannily like a nematode worm -- a ubiquitous bilaterally symmetrical soil denizen that is unquestionably not a cnidarian.. But there were problems with Buddenbrockias status as a cnidarian. To start with, they seem distinctly bilateral and their worm-like behavior even more so. Some "elongate" cnidarians do exist, but none move as Buddenbrockia does. Though they lack anything resembling a nervous system, gut, or external sense organs, theres also the matter of ...
... Jeanelle F. Jimenez RN, BSN, CCRN CLASSIFICATION OF SENSE ORGANS  General sense organs (Table 9-1)    Often exist as individual cells or receptor units Widely distributed throughout the body Special sense organs (Table 9-2)   Large and complex organs Localized grouping of specialized receptors Elsevier items and derived items © 2008, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Slide 2 CLASSIFICATION OF SENSE ORGANS  Classification by presence or absence of covering capsule    Encapsulated Unencapsulated ("free" or "naked") Classification by type of stimuli required to activate receptors       Photoreceptors (light) Chemoreceptors (chemicals) Pain receptors (injury) Thermoreceptors (temperature change) Mechanoreceptors (movement or deforming of capsule) Proprioceptors (position of body parts or changes in muscle length or tension) Elsevier items and derived items © 2008, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier ...
The Achaete (Ac) protein, a transcriptional regulator of the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type, confers upon ectodermal cells the ability to become neural precursors. Its temporally and spatially regulated expression, together with that of the related Scute (Sc) protein, helps define the pattern of Drosophila melanogaster sensory organs. We have examined the transcriptional control of the ac gene and shown, using in vivo assays, that several E-boxes, putative interacting sites for bHLH proteins, present in the ac promoter are most important for ac regulation. They most likely mediate ac self-stimulation and sc trans-activation. We also demonstrate that ac transcription is negatively regulated in vivo by the gene extramacrochaetae (emc) in a manner dependent on Ac and Sc products. emc encodes an HLH protein that lacks the basic region and presumably antagonizes Ac and Sc function by sequestering these proteins in complexes unable to interact with DNA. Our results strongly support the model of ...
Fishes rely on both chemical and tactile senses to orient themselves to avoid predators, and to detect and taste food. This is likely achieved by highly coordinated reception of signals by mechano- and chemosensory receptors in fish. A small co-receptor from zebrafish, receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP)-like triterpene glycoside receptor (RL-TGR), was previously found to be involved in recognition of triterpene glycosides, a family of naturally occurring compounds that act as chemical defenses in various prey species. However, its localization, function, and how it impacts sensory organ development in vivo is not known. Here we show that RL-TGR is expressed in zebrafish in both i) apical microvilli of the chemosensory cells of taste buds including the epithelium of lips and olfactory epithelium, and ii) mechanosensory cells of neuromasts belonging to the lateral line system. Loss-of-function analyses of RL-TGR resulted in significantly decreased number of neuromasts in the posterior ...
Supervisor: Clare Baker. Fundamental questions in biology include how different organs and cell types are specified during development, for which the lateral line system of fishes and aquatic amphibians provides an excellent model. Ancestrally within jawed vertebrates, the lateral line system comprises lines of mechanosensory neuromasts, containing hair cells - like vestibular inner ear hair cells - that respond to local water movement ("touch at a distance"), flanked on the head by electrosensory ampullary organs, containing electroreceptors that respond to weak bioelectric fields (primarily used for hunting). A series of lateral line placodes (bilateral patches of thickened ectoderm) on the head elongate to form sensory ridges. A line of neuromasts forms along the centre of each ridge, while ampullary organs differentiate on the flanks. Hence, the lateral line is a superb model for understanding the mechanisms underlying the diversification of different types of sensory organs. Lateral ...
Accurate proteolytic processing of neuropeptide and peptide hormone precursors by members of the kexin/furin family of proteases is key to determining both the identities and activities of signaling peptides. Here we identify amontillado (amon), the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the mammalian neuropeptide processing protease PC2, and show that in contrast to vertebrate PC2, amontillado expression undergoes extensive regulation in the nervous system during development. In situ hybridization reveals that expression of amontillado is restricted to the final stages of embryogenesis when it is found in anterior sensory structures and in only 168 cells in the brain and ventral nerve cord. After larvae hatch from their egg shells, the sensory structures and most cells in the CNS turn off or substantially reduce amontillado expression, suggesting that amontillado plays a specific role late in embryogenesis. Larvae lacking the chromosomal region containing amontillado show no gross anatomical ...
Animal cells endure dramatic actin-dependent changes in shape as they progress through mitosis - they round up at mitotic entry, elongate at anaphase and split into two at cytokinesis. In this thesis I explore the role of Moesin, an actin-membrane crosslinker and the sole ERM protein expressed in Drosophila, in orchestrating rearrangements of the actin cortex and morphological changes in epithelial cells undergoing mitosis. To perform my studies I used the fly notum and sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells therein as a model system. In this thesis I show that Moesin is required for the stabilisation of the actomyosin cortex at metaphase. This mechanism is dependent upon phosphorylation of Moesin by the Slik kinase, which activates the ERM protein. Reduced levels of Moesin or Slik lead to myosin-II-driven cortical instabilities. Cortical stabilisation in mitotic SOP cells ensures the efficient accumulation of fate determinants at the plasma membrane. At mitotic exit, a pool of active, ...
Gecko sensory organ. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a sensory organ in the epidermis (skin) of a gecko (family Gekkonidae). A variety of epidermal sensory organs exist in reptiles. This one may act as a tactile sensory organ (sensitive to the touch). Magnification: x2000 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C004/6477
Working with mice and rats, Meister and colleague Venkatesh N. Murthy recorded neural responses to several hundred distinct odors, including anise, beer, cloves, coffee, ginger, lemon, orange, peppermint, pine, rose, and even fox pheromones. The neuroscientists found that across individuals and even across the two species, bundles of neurons from a given type of odor receptor -- known as glomeruli -- were found in almost exactly the same spot on the olfactory bulb, a sensory structure measuring some four to five millimeters across and located at the very front of the brain ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Fields, Douglas, The Sharks Electric Sense (Scientific American, August 2007, Vol 297, Number 2), page 76.. That is similar to one pole on the coast of Jacksonville, Florida and the other in New York City, or one pole in Southern Ireland and the other on the coast of Northern Spain, or one pole off the Philippine Islands and the other in Saigon. What can possibly explain this incredible ability?. Evolution has an explanation. Evolution explains that sharks accidentally developed the electric sense organs over a long period of time. A series of very fortunate accidental changes that were shaped by the survival of the fittest slowly changed the nerve endings in the sharks face and, by a series of other fortunate mutations, the nerve fibers installed themselves in the correct portion of the sharks brain. Ultimately all of the sense organs connected themselves to the right place in the sharks brain and fortunately the receptors in the brain were programmed to perceive the position of each one ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
attribution - You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use ...
The excitation of lateral line sense organs (neuromasts) might be expected to depend on differences of movement between the liquid inside the main lateral line canals (the ones that contain the neuromasts) and the walls of these canals. We have investigated this net movement in relation to events in the water around fish. Liquid displacements inside a given part of a main lateral line canal of the sprat (Sprattus sprattus (L.)) are, at any one frequency, linearly related to those in the medium (sea water) adjacent to this part. For the parts of the canal system studied, and below about 80 Hz, the ratio of displacement inside the canal to that in the medium falls with frequency, i. e. the displacement inside the canal follows the velocity in the medium. Sea water displacements in a given length of a main lateral line canal system are proportional to the component of the external velocity that is parallel to the canal. For this component the ratio of displacements inside and outside the lateral ...
The mother of the man who fathered former Alaska Gov. Sarah Palins grandson is serving out most of her three-year drug sentence under home confinement.
Dominici, S., Paolicchi, A., Lorenzini, E., Maellaro, E., Comporti, M., Pieri, L., Minotti, G. and Pompella, A. (2003) Gamma-Glutamyltransferase-Dependent Prooxidant Reactions A Factor in Multiple Processes. Biofactors, 17, 187-198.
Improve information flow. Any inputs that improve our ability to orient and communicate will inhibit the stress response. One of the most powerful ways of doing this is to offer stillness, space and allow the system to orient to resources and the environment in present time. The extra information from the whole body and the whole field will allow contextualisation of cycling and speedy stories and slow down the stress response. The quick response to the question Am I Safe? is meditated by centres deep in the brain. Simply, we can talk of the limbic system and the brain stem controlling dissociation and activation. These deep brain centres receive information from three sources; from the cortex down; from the external senses in; and from the body coming up. The figure above attempts to show this flow of information (5).. If we are overwhelmed, wherever the information comes from, the amygdala will trigger communication, mobilisation or freezing (Porges 2003). Orienting to the flow of ...
Watch Life·line Systems Presentation Video | Environmental XPRT. Presentation video focusing on how Safe Environment Engineerings Life·line® System can be ...
IntroductionGrowth cones are specialised sensory structures located at the tip of neurites, which are involved in the mechanism that enables…
If you feel confused about what you should be reading and believing on food labels, you arent alone! Integrated Learning Therapy practitioners focus on young people so lets see if we can offer some guidelines to steer you in the right direction regarding your children.. First of all, it is necessary to realise that labels are there for two main reasons. They tell us the name of the food or drink that we are looking at, what ingredients it is made of, its weight and where it comes from. They also are designed to tempt us into buying the product. It is their job to look attractive - hence they are colourful, have appealing pictures (aimed at the children) and try to highlight the nutritional and health credentials of the content (aimed at parents). Unfortunately, we cant always believe the hype on the packaging. We simply have to be prepared to spend a few moments reading the label.. Listing ingredients. Ingredients are listed in their weight-descending order at the time the product is being ...
AXON - A long extension in the nerve. DENDRITES - Small parts of a cell. MYELIN - Sheath. The nervous system can coordinate a response to a stimulus, using nerve cells.. Nerve cells, or neurons are specialized cells that transmit electrical impulses around the body.. How are responses coordinated. 1. Specific receptors in a sense organ detect a stimulus.. 2. An electrical impulse is sent to the brain.. 3. The brain processes the information.. 4. An electrical impulse is sent to an effector (e.g. muscle or gland.). 5. The effector produces a response.. ...
This lesson provides helpful information on Eye Anatomy and Vision in the context of Sense Organs to help students study for a college level Anatomy and Physiology course.
human eye: Human eye, specialized sense organ in humans that is capable of receiving visual images, which are relayed to the brain.
BREATHING; In breathing process which is composed of ; i] inhalation, ii] exhalation and iii] pause, in four sense organs developed on face, in the internal organs composed of Yin, Yang and Endocrine organs, in the body motions composed of stretch, bend and twist, in the mind composed of emotion, reason and spirit, we can…
It was a stretch of three minutes in the third quarter of South Johnstons basketball game against Corinth Holders that Trojans boys basketball coach David Dewey later referred to as being the
A universally applicable cell collecting device is provided. The device has a handle and a brush head formed of flexible bristles. The bristles can be positioned such that the cross-sectional dimensions of the brush head are substantially equal in all directions. The bristles can include central bristles surrounded completely by outer bristles that are shorter and thinner than the central bristles. The bristles also can be arranged in a pattern of concentric circles and also can be arranged so that the proximal ends are spaced from one another in a predetermined array with the distal ends contacting one another in a predetermined array. The brush head also can have an outermost row of bristles having an outwardly facing surface with a radius of curvature that matches the radius of curvature of the shape of the brush head. The brush head also can be constructed and arranged such that the bristles have a resting position and a flexed position, wherein all scraping edges of the bristles are unexposed
The seventh edition of this classic work makes mastering large amounts of information on the nervous system and sensory organs much easier. It provides readers with an excellent review of the human body and its structure, and it is an ideal study companion as well as a thorough basic reference text.
There multiple senses: information from many senses tend to be mixed in the brain to figure out what is really going on out there
There are between nine and 21 human senses, depending on whos counting. Besides the main five senses, most experts also include...
LPA signaling plays important roles during cell migration and proliferation in normal and pathological conditions. However, its role during sensory organ development remains unknown. Here we show a LPA receptor Lpar2b is expressed in the posterior lateral line primordium (pLLP) and mechanosensory organs called neuromasts (NMs) in zebrafish embryos. Lpar2b loss-of-function significantly reduces the number of NMs and hair cells in the posterior lateral line (pLL). Further analysis reveals that Lpar2b regulates the patterning and organ size of the pLLP. Interestingly, we show that knocking down a Hippo effector Yap1 phenocopies the result of Lpar2b depletion, and Lpar2b regulates the phosphorylation and activity of Yap1 in the pLLP. Importantly, a phosphorylation-resistant Yap1 rescues pLLP organ size and NM number in Lpar2b-depleted embryos. Our results indicate Lpar2b controls the sensory organ size and NM number by regulating Yap1 activity in the lateral line system.
Experts available for sense organ consulting, expert witness, or analyst services for business, legal, and technical professionals.
姜晓静.,宁超.,郭浩.,贾岩岩.,黄玲巧.,...&王琛柱.(2015).A Gustatory Receptor Tuned to D-Fructose in Antennal Sensilla Chaetica of Helicoverpa armigera.Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,60,39-46 ...
We observed the arculum in an amputated leg via a small window in the anterior wall of the femur (Fig. S1A; from Frantsevich and Shumakova, 1987a, fig. 5A). Astonishingly, the arculum responded to a small flexion of the tibia with a quick turn distally. When the dorsal ledge of the tibia inside the femur moved distally, the arculum turned distally as well. Turns of the tibia were exerted with a pen recorder, coaxial with the FTJ and operated by a pulse generator. Turns of the arculum were recorded with a video kymograph on a running film as a trace of the arculum across a scan line of a video image (Fig. S1B; from Frantsevich and Shumakova, 1985, fig. 2). The scan rate was 25 s−1. The trace reproduced sinusoidal oscillations of the arculum (Fig. S1C-F) or a response to rectangular pulses.. The amplitude of the illustrated tibial oscillations was 0.4 deg. Turns of the arculum appeared several times wider than turns of the tibia. For the femoro-tibial angle in the sector of 60-80 deg, ...
The sternal gland of primitive termites of the genus Zootermopsis (Z. nevadensis or Z. angusticollus) (Hagen) seems more organized than that of higher termites, in being comprised of three cell layers. It is also studded with about 200 campaniform sensilla. Below the meshwork cuticle of the gland lies a layer of columnar epithelial cells whose apical surfaces form a brush border, and whose basal surfaces are sculptured into a basketwork into which the second layer fits. Below the brush border are small microtubule-associated pits and coated vesicles. No channels can be seen either within or, except for the sensilla, between the cells. The second cell layer probably secretes the trail-following pheromone. Numerous electron-lucent droplets and large channels containing lipid micelles are found in the cytoplasm here, but the channels cannot be traced out of the secretory layer. The third layer consists of large pyriform cells. The campaniform sensilla are composed of three cells: the sensory cell ...
Proneural genes encode transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class which are responsible for the development of neuroectodermal progenitor cells. Proneural genes have multiple functions in neural development. They integrate positional information and contribute to the specification of progenitor-cell identity. From the same ectodermal cell types, neural or epidermal cells can develop based on interactions between proneural and neurogenic genes. Neurogenic genes are so called because loss of function mutants show an increase number of developed neural precursors. On the other hand, proneural genes mutants fail to develop neural precursor cells. The proneural genes are expressed in groups of cells (proneural clusters) from which one progenitor cell - typically the one in the middle - will be singled out, leading to the formation of many different types of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Proneural genes encode a group of bHLH proteins that play crucial ...
1. The structure of the campaniform sensillae occurring on the wing-bases of the adult worker bee is described.. 2. The essential features in their later developmental phases in the pupa have been followed.. 3. The observations described lend no support to those of MacIndoo, that the actual termination of the nerve-fibre is exposed to the outside air.. 4. The wing-base organs, as described by other workers in different insects, are discussed, with special reference to the identity of the cellular elements composing these structures.. 5. The paper concludes with a short discussion of the position of the sensory neuron and a brief review of the supposed function of the campaniform sensillae.. ...
Key cells divide asymmetrically during the development of multicellular organisms to give rise to offspring with different fates. In the Drosophila external sensory organ, asymmetrical division depends on polarization of the precursor cells during interphase and the consequent unequal distribution during mitosis of the protein Numb, which determines cell fate. Gonzalez discusses recent research implicating the mitotic kinase Aurora-A in the asymmetric localization of Numb in sensory organ pI precursor cells, a new function that appears to be independent of Aurora-As known roles in regulating centrosomal maturation and the organization of mitotic spindle microtubules.. ...
Congratulations! You have found the Antennal lobe Forum on Forum Jar. This forum is a place where people who are interested in Antennal lobe come together and discuss about Antennal lobe. Please use the message board below to post anything related to Antennal lobe . If you are interested in other similar forums, please check out the Related Forums section on the right. If you like this forum, please dont forget to tell your friends about Forum Jar ...
The adult human skull consists of eight bones which form the cranium, or braincase, and 13 facial bones that support the eyes, nose, and jaws. There are also three small, paired ear ossicles-the malleus, incus, and stapes-within a cavity in the temporal bone. The total of 27 bones represents a large reduction in skull elements during the course of vertebrate evolution. The three components of the skull are the neurocranium, dermatocranium, and visceral cranium. See also Ear (vertebrate).. The brain and certain sense organs are protected by the neurocranium. All vertebrate neurocrania develop similarly, starting as ethmoid and basal cartilages beneath the brain, and as capsules partially enclosing the tissues that eventually form the olfactory, otic, and optic sense organs. Further development produces cartilaginous walls around the brain. Passages (foramina) through the cartilages are left open for cranial nerves and blood vessels. Endochondral ossification from four major centers follows in all ...
This book examines the history of Western attempts to explain how messages might be sent from the sense organs to the brain and from the brain to the muscles. It focuses on a construct called animal ... More. This book examines the history of Western attempts to explain how messages might be sent from the sense organs to the brain and from the brain to the muscles. It focuses on a construct called animal spirit, which would permeate philosophy and guide physiology and medicine for over two millennia. The books story opens along the Eastern Mediterranean, where it examines how Pre-Socratic philosophers related the soul to air-wind or pneuma. It then traces what Hippocrates, Plato, and Aristotle wrote about this pneuma, and how Stoic and Epicurean philosophers approached it. It also visits Alexandria, where Hellenistic anatomists provided new thoughts about the nerves and the ventricles. Thereafter the book shows how Galens pneuma psychikon or spiritus animae would provide an explanation for ...
This book examines the history of Western attempts to explain how messages might be sent from the sense organs to the brain and from the brain to the muscles. It focuses on a construct called animal ... More. This book examines the history of Western attempts to explain how messages might be sent from the sense organs to the brain and from the brain to the muscles. It focuses on a construct called animal spirit, which would permeate philosophy and guide physiology and medicine for over two millennia. The books story opens along the Eastern Mediterranean, where it examines how Pre-Socratic philosophers related the soul to air-wind or pneuma. It then traces what Hippocrates, Plato, and Aristotle wrote about this pneuma, and how Stoic and Epicurean philosophers approached it. It also visits Alexandria, where Hellenistic anatomists provided new thoughts about the nerves and the ventricles. Thereafter the book shows how Galens pneuma psychikon or spiritus animae would provide an explanation for ...
This book examines the history of Western attempts to explain how messages might be sent from the sense organs to the brain and from the brain to the muscles. It focuses on a construct called animal ... More. This book examines the history of Western attempts to explain how messages might be sent from the sense organs to the brain and from the brain to the muscles. It focuses on a construct called animal spirit, which would permeate philosophy and guide physiology and medicine for over two millennia. The books story opens along the Eastern Mediterranean, where it examines how Pre-Socratic philosophers related the soul to air-wind or pneuma. It then traces what Hippocrates, Plato, and Aristotle wrote about this pneuma, and how Stoic and Epicurean philosophers approached it. It also visits Alexandria, where Hellenistic anatomists provided new thoughts about the nerves and the ventricles. Thereafter the book shows how Galens pneuma psychikon or spiritus animae would provide an explanation for ...
Definition: Sensory organ, consisting of neuromast organs in canals and grooves on the head and sides of the body of fishes and some amphibians, that detects water vibrations. Source: Hickman, C.P., et al. 2011. Integrated Principles of Zoology. Fifteenth Edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ...
Hes had seven dives that lasted over 30 minutes, with the longest at 60 minutes, and hes reached a maximum depth of 6 feet with his current equipment. In a practice dive in January, he remained under water at 6 feet for 60 minutes. So far, hes logged 280 minutes in practice dives.. At each practice dive, Johnstons nurse and two professional ivers assist. The nurse stays above water to monitor the ventilator as it floats on the surface in a sealed, 9-gallon plastic container. She also monitors the ventilator connection that runs through Johnstons drysuit, while the two divers accompany him under water.. Before each dive, Johnston is transferred into a manual wheelchair that goes into the water. Since he cant move his arms or legs, he depends on the vent, drysuit and diving buddies for survival.. A latex neck shield keeps the water from entering the suit and interfering with the vent-trach connection, and Johnston wears a full-face mask. The risk is real, however, because if water were to ...
i^J GIFT OF Sir Henry Heyman THE SOUL OF AN ORGAN THE SOUL OF AN ORGAN BY LOUISE VESCELIUS-SHELDON nKe ChristopKer PublisKing Hotise Boston, Massachusetts - -* i -* ^ " ** « t» «» ^ ., . Copyright igi6 By Thb Christopher Publishing Hoosk INTRODUCTION The following pages, which, in my humble judgment, are of intense interest and value to all seekers for first-hand informa- tion regarding the nature of a larger life than that which meets our external senses, contain an accurate account of experiences in real life, veiled in the guise of seeming fiction. We have almost ceased to be as- tonished at any new revelation in the domain of applied science which may come into general vogue. Only a comparatively few years ago Wireless Telegraphy was un- known, and the great discoveries of William Marconi and a few other extremely ad- vanced electricians were looked upon by many professedly **practical, level-headed" persons as merely figments of the scientific imagination. As long ago as during the ...
Just published in the Journal of Cell Biology is a paper from Dr. Suzanna Prosser and Ciaran Morrison on how cells regulate the formation of primary cilia, antenna-like sensory structures that extend from the cell surface to respond to various extracellular signals.. http://jcb.rupress.org/content/early/2015/03/03/jcb.201411070.full. http://www.nuigalway.ie/about-us/news-and-events/news-archive/2015/march2015/antenna-like-structures-found-on-immune-cells-for-first-time.html. ...
Avril Benton. Update:. Comment by our reader Dshah:. As an Optometrist in training, this article is inaccurate. Floaters are caused by the thinning and separation of the vitreous, which is the gel like substance that is attached to the retina keeping it and all sensory structures intact as well as in Japan the eye maintain its shape and structure. Over time, often as a natural aging process the vitreous thins and detaches, usually in the peripjery if the retina first. This process can also occur if your prescription is rather high (you are very nearsighted). Floaters are often benign but if accompanied by flashes of light they warrant a more serious and vision threatening condition known as a removal detachment. Any time you have a new onset of floaters you must see your eye doctor. Floaters are permanent however the human brain learns over time to adapt and ignore these minor disturnaces in the visual field. This article is inaccurate and is misinforming its readers. Any medical advice should ...
The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts. The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system (CNS), where information is evaluated and decisions made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) monitor conditions inside and outside of the
There is a 20-acre garden located in New Delhi titled, the Garden of the Five Senses. Its purpose is to: "Stimulate all the five senses in an evocative bouquet that awakens the mind to the beauty of life and invoke a grateful prayer for the gift of touch, sight, sound, smell and taste." Visitors are encouraged to "touch the rocks and displays, smell the fragrance of the flowers to stimulate the olfactory senses, visually take in the appealing landscaping, hear the ceramic bells and the soothing sound of the water falls to please the ear and enjoy the variety of cuisines at the food courts to please the tongue." So how do these seemingly simple - yet super-sophisticated - senses of ours actually work in our bodies so that we can enjoy and experience all of that?. Touching the rocks: Your sense of touch comes by way of your skin, which has about five million nerve receptors. When those sensors are stimulated, they send electrical pulses to your neurons. These special cells then relay ...
As of eyes with light, or ears with sound, of olfactory sense with colors, of tongue or question sense with flavours, of tactile sense with objects that give rise to the sensation of touch. -Tr.. . This knowledge must not be of temporary or transient character, i.e., not the product of observation under unfavourable circumstances; for example, a person saw something at night and took it for a man , but when it was daylight he found out his mistake and knew that it was not a man, but a pillar. Now, his first impression of the thing was of a temporary or transient nature, which gave place to permanent knowledge later on, when the true nature of the thing was revealed in the light.. . It should be free from all elements of doubt, and be certain in character. For example, you see a river from a distance and say: "Is it water there or white clothes spread out to dry?" Or take another example, you see a man from a distance and say: Is it Deva Datta standing there or Yajna Datta?" Now, as long as you ...
Buffy s smile widened, she couldn t help it. She d spent her life being grossed out by vampires and their overactive olfactory senses, but somehow Spike made it seem sexy. From that sound you made, I m thinking I smell like brownies baking double chocolate with walnuts. Spike tilted his head and gave her that sweet, indulgent smile he had the one that meant he thought she was cute, if a little barmy or cheeky or maybe it was shirty. Buffy wasn t exactly sure what most of those things meant, but he d called her all of them at one time or another. Not exactly, he replied. But definitely good enough t eat, he agreed, curling his tongue over his teeth hungrily.. Spike leaned into her and slid his tongue between her folds, catching the drops of moisture that clung there as that same moan emanated from his throat again. The blissful moan that fell from Buffys lips mirrored Spikes. She lifted her legs so that her feet, rather than the back of her thighs, were on his shoulders so he d have more room. ...
The body is designed in a way wherein the different sense organs work with the brain for the interpretation of the different senses so that we can exhibit the appropriate responses, both behavioral and motor. However, there are instances when the responses are not proper because of misinterpretation of the senses. This condition is called sensory processing disorder.. Sensory processing disorder (SPD) was formerly known as sensory integration dysfunction was first described by A. Jean Ayres, a neuroscientist who said that this disorder is similar to a traffic jam that occurs in the neurons, wherein some parts of the brain are prevented from receiving the correct information so that sensory information are interpreted correctly. For someone who has SPD, what happens is that sensory information is perceived differently from that which is normal to other people. This will then result in behavior or responses that are unusual, which makes it hard to accomplish some tasks.. The exact causes of ...
Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 C). Length 0.29 head width, 0.26 antenna length, width 1.5 antenna width; article L/W ratios 0.83, 0.78, 0.57, 0.60, 1.0; relative article length ratios 1.0, 0.70, 0.40, 0.30, 0.30. Articles 1-5 squat. Article 1 longest and widest, with 1 broom seta and 2 distally fringe-like sensillae. Article 2 with 2 setae: 1 simple, 1 distally fringe-like sensilla. Article 3 with 1 broom seta. Article 4 with 4 aesthetascs. Article 5 with 6 setae: 2 simple, 4 aesthetascs; aesthetascs with intermediate belt of constrictions. Antenna ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 C). Article 1 squat. Article 2 elongate, longer than article 1. Article 3 squat, longer than article 1. Article 4 longer than articles 1-3 together, distally with 2 setae: 1 simple, 1 broom. Article 5 longer than article 4, distally with 8 setae: 1 simple, 7 broom.. Mandibles ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 A,B,D,E). In medial view strongly narrowing from proximal to distal, subtriangular, with lateral setae; left mandible incisor process simplified, ...
Dr. Bhawana Mittal* and Dr. Anita Sharma. ABSTRACT. Ayurveda is a highly evolved and modified system of life and science based on its own unique concepts like Tridosha theory, Panchamahabhoot theory, concepts of Agni, Mana, Aatma and various types of schedule and regimen viz Dinacharya, Ratricharya, Ritucharya, Achara Rasayana, Sadvritta etc. Today the people of modern civilization have absolutely changed the concepts of diet and life styles leading to various disagreeable acute and chronic ailments. Due to frequent indulgence in mithya Aahara, Vihara and Pragyaparadha the incidence of various disorders which are increasing very rapid. Nose is a sense organ which performs two functions i.e. olfactory and respiratory. Due to its direct contact with external environment it is exposed to lot of microorganisms & pollutants present in the atmosphere. Rhinitis is a common disease in this present era. If this stage is not properly treated, it will cause the spread of infection to sinuses and result ...
Even more surprising is that fascia is now being thought of as the biggest and most important sense organ of the lot. This is so because it is honey -combed all through the body which means that if the fascia coating your leg muscles are stretched an internal stretch via the fascia through to other distant parts of the body. Everything on the inside of us is more or less connected together by fascia ...
No dessert/pastry/sugar/tea/ coffee-basically no stimulant-post sunset. You know, when you see a woman dig into pastries or mithai or declare that she has a sweet tooth, then, well, then you can assume she is not getting enough action in bed! Oops, did I just say that? Yes, I did and I stand by it. The tongue is both a pleasure-giving and protecting organ. It tells you whats good for you and whats not, doesnt it? If you are eating something stale, it could be something beautifully presented in a five-star hotel, the tongue wont be fooled by the eyes or the decor. It will declare, God! Is this dal last nights leftovers? And come on, I can guarantee that while you were digging into that sinful chocolate which overpowered your sense organs and the reasoning ability of your brain, your tongue declared-I shouldnt be eating this, or at least I should stop at two teaspoonfuls. See, the tongue protects, it tells you that overworking its pleasure centres is a crime. We have many pleasure centres, ...
A rotary bristle tool having a backing with a plurality of bristles extending therefrom. The bristles have a cross section and preferential orientation to control deflection during rotation of the tool. One embodiment is well suited for refining the inside surface of two-way and three-way corners. The backing and bristles are preferably integrally molded. The rotary bristle tool is molded from a moldable polymer such a thermoset polymer, thermoplastic polymer, or thermoplastic elastomer. The rotary bristle tool can include an attachment member molded integrally with the backing. Also disclosed is a method of making a rotary bristle tool and a method of refining a workpiece surface with a rotary bristle tool.
Emerging Field marks the sixth release of Faruq Z. Bey with the Northwoods Improvisers on the Entropy Stereo label. This release finds the group exploring rhythm and space in a broader sense than previous offerings. Faruq Z. Bey, Mike Carey, and Skeeter Shelton create thoughtful space and intricate conversations in their horn lines evoking a relaxed and passionate response with a solid blues focus. Mike Johnston and Nick Ashton root the group with their sound rhythmic foundation. The track Mokondi brings out the strength of this rhythm section. Mike Gilmore floats in and out of the music with vibes and marimba reminding one of some of the fantastic work of the late Walt Dickerson. Among the highlights are Careys arrangement of Ornette Colemans Beauty is a Rare Thing, and Mike Johnstons Tenere. Continue reading →. ...
It is possible if Trig was born BEFORE April 18, 2008 and if Trigg was born AFTER December 27, 2008. Remember not one photo of Trigg and Bristol until February of 2009. In a family who LOVES cameras, I find it really odd that there were no photos. Think about it... Trig was supposedly born April 18...a special needs child with a heart issue......and Palin has him at work with her on April 20th? I dont think so. I remember seeing the photos of Trig on Mercedes Johnstons My Space page...he looked very, very tiny there....compared to the photo of Palins parents holding Trig after his birth looking very big. I truly beleive Trig is a month or two older than professed. Anyone can look at all these photos and know Palin was padding herself and doing a bad job of it. I dont think she thought these photos would be scrutinized as much as they have been. The story WILL come out. ...
ing General Johnstons administration of that military department, the Indians behaved very well. A few outrages only were perpetrated by bands of vagabond Indians, who were promptly punished; and California and Oregon emigrants will remember that their wagon-trains received escorts of dragoons over the dangerous parts of the route. In the spring of 1859 an issue arose between General Johnston and G ...
Distinguished by the possession of the following characters: pores of the lateral line system on body and head situated at the tip of small papillae; a row of papillae along each side of the base of the dorsal fin; caudal fin with 7+6 branched rays; and the nostrils adjacent, posterior one broader than anterior one, anterior one broad and situated at the tip of a short tube (Ref. 92111). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Re-classification of Drosophila melanogaster trichoid and intermediate sensilla using fluorescence-guided single sensillum recording. AU - Lin, Chun Chieh. AU - Potter, Christopher J.. PY - 2015/10/2. Y1 - 2015/10/2. N2 - Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons are found within specialized sensory hairs on antenna and maxillary palps. The linking of odorant-induced responses to olfactory neuron activities is often accomplished via Single Sensillum Recordings (SSR), in which an electrode inserted into a single sensory hair records the neuronal activities of all the neurons housed in that sensillum. The identification of the recorded sensillum requires matching the neuronal responses with known odor-response profiles. To record from specific sensilla, or to systematically screen all sensillar types, requires repetitive and semi-random SSR experiments. Here, we validate an approach in which the GAL4/UAS binary expression system is used for targeting specific sensilla for recordings. ...
THE wing surface of lepidopteran adults is covered by wing scales, which function in heat preservation, mimesis, touch, etc. (Nijhout 1991). Lepidopteran scales and Drosophila bristles are considered homologous structures on the basis of the similarities in their cell lineages and the expression of a few molecular markers (Overton 1966, 1967; Galant et al. 1998). Development of the Drosophila bristle is regulated by the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors of the Achaete-Scute Complex (AS-C). Within the clusters of cells expressing achaete (ac) and scute (sc), some are selected to become sensory organ precursors, which then form and innervate the mature bristles (Skeath and Carroll 1991; Jan and Jan 1994). In ac/sc double-mutant flies, the majority of the bristles are lost; on the contrary, ectopic expression of ac and/or sc can induce extra bristles (Garcia-Bellido 1979; Campuzano et al. 1986; Balcells et al. 1988; Rodriguez et al. 1990). In the butterfly Precis coenia, the AS-C ...
Notch signaling is a ubiquitously used signaling pathway that is highly conserved and used throughout metazoan development. Understanding the regulation of Notch signaling is becoming increasingly important in determining the mechanism and treatment for the myriad of human Notch-related diseases. In Drosophila. melanogaster, the development of external sensory organs provides a context in which Notch can be manipulated and phenotypes can be easily interpreted. Here, we expand upon the growing field of Notch regulation through endocytic trafficking by examining the role of Numb and Sara endosomes. Numb is a potent Notch inhibitor whose function is conserved in higher organisms, but whose mechanism of action has remained elusive. In this study, we dispel a previous hypothesis that Numb promotes Notch internalization and instead demonstrate that Numb is a suppressor of Notch endocytic recycling. In support of this, we show that Numb is necessary and sufficient for Notch trafficking to late endosomes
After the onset of pupation, sensory organ precursors, the progenitors of the interommatidial bristles, are selected in the developing Drosophila eye. We have found that wingless, when expressed ectopically in the eye via the sevenless promoter, blocks this process. Transgenic eyes have reduced expression of acheate, suggesting that wingless acts at the level of the proneural genes to block bristle development. This is in contrast to the wing, where wingless positively regulates acheate to promote bristle formation. The sevenless promoter is not active in the acheate-positive cells, indicating that the wingless is acting in a paracrine manner. Clonal analysis revealed a requirement for the genes porcupine, dishevelled and armadillo in mediating the wingless effect. Overexpression of zeste white-3 partially blocks the ability of wingless to inhibit bristle formation, consistent with the notion that wingless acts in opposition to zeste white-3. Thus the wingless signaling pathway in the eye ...
When insects search for food, a sexual mate or the ideal place for laying eggs - somewhere where the hatching larvae have a good chance to survive - they have to rely on their sense of smell. They use their olfactory organs, the antennae, to detect odor molecules in their environment. These odors are processed in the so-called antennal lobe, the actual olfactory center of the insect brain, which consists of spherical structures: the olfactory glomeruli. Here, inside the olfactory glomeruli, different groups of olfactory neurons form conjunctions or synapses which enable different environmental odors to be processed.. Until now, scientists had assumed that olfactory glomeruli share a pretty homogeneous architecture and that particular functions of the different glomeruli can be attributed primarily to special olfactory receptors on the membranes of the olfactory sensory neurons. A research team of the Department of Evolutionary Neuroethology has now shown for the first time that the neuronal ...
Odor signals mediate a variety of behaviors in animals across a diversity of taxa. Despite dramatic morphological differences between animals from different taxa, several important features of olfactory system organization and processing are similar across animals. Because of this similarity, a number of different organisms including mammals, insects, and decapod crustaceans serve as valuable model systems for understanding general principles of olfactory processing. As in other organisms, including both vertebrates and insects, the chemosensory system of decapod crustaceans is organized into multiple anatomically distinct neuronal pathways. The two main pathways (the aesthetasc/ olfactory lobe pathway and non-aesthetasc/ lateral antennular neuropil pathway) originate in different populations of antennular sensilla and project to different neuropils in the brain. The functional significance of this parallel organization is not well understood in crustaceans or in many other species. Although in some
Abstract Crustaceans groom their olfactory organ, the antennules, by wiping them through a pair of mouthpart appendages. Antennular grooming behavior (AGB) can be stimulated in four different species of lobsters by at least one chemical (l-Glutamate (Glu)) found in food. However the one crab species tested thus far was unresponsive. In an effort to determine whether chemically-mediated AGB in the Reptantia is present only in the Macrura (lobster taxa) and lacking in the Meiura (crab taxa), we tested for AGB to chemical stimuli in seven reptantian species in the taxa Palinura (Palinurus elephas, Scyllarides aequinoctialis, S. nodifer), Astacidea (Enoplometopus debelius, Procambarus clarkii), Brachyura (Hemigrapsus sanguineus), and Anomura (Clibanarius tricolor), and one non-reptantian decapod in the taxon Caridea (Palaemonetes pugio). Because asymmetric setae on the lateral flagella of the antennules are the sole source of chemosensory input driving AGB, we also examined antennules for asymmetric setae