The semicircular ducts provide sensory input for experiences of rotary movements. They are oriented along the pitch, roll, and yaw axes. Each canal is filled with a fluid called endolymph and contains motion sensors within the fluids. At the base of each canal, the bony region of the canal is enlarged which opens into the utricle and has a dilated sac at one end called the osseous ampullae. Within the ampulla is a mound of hair cells and supporting cells called crista ampullaris. These hair cells have many cytoplasmic projections on the apical surface called stereocilia which are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. As the head rotates the duct moves but the endolymph lags behind owing to inertia. This deflects the cupula and bends the stereocilia within. The bending of these stereocilia alters an electric signal that is transmitted to the brain. Within approximately 10 seconds of achieving constant motion, the endolymph catches up with the movement of the duct and the cupula is ...
The semicircular ducts provide sensory input for experiences of rotary movements. They are oriented along the pitch, roll, and yaw axes. Each canal is filled with a fluid called endolymph and contains motion sensors within the fluids. At the base of each canal, the bony region of the canal is enlarged which opens into the utricle and has a dilated sac at one end called the osseous ampullae. Within the ampulla is a mound of hair cells and supporting cells called crista ampullaris. These hair cells have many cytoplasmic projections on the apical surface called stereocilia which are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. As the head rotates the duct moves but the endolymph lags behind owing to inertia. This deflects the cupula and bends the stereocilia within. The bending of these stereocilia alters an electric signal that is transmitted to the brain. Within approximately 10 seconds of achieving constant motion, the endolymph catches up with the movement of the duct and the cupula is ...
1) Ducts endo lymphaticus 2) Posterior semi circular canal 3) Horizontal semi-circular 4) Ampulla of posterior vertical canal 5) Nerve 6) Lagena 7) Sacculus 8) Ampulla of anterior vertical canal 9) Utricles The two chambers are connected with each other by a wide passage, the sacculoutricular duct. The sacculus gives off a conical projection from its lower side, called lagena. A narrow canalarisesfrom the dorsal side of the sacculus called ductus endolymphaticus. It pierces through the roof of the cranium and open out by a minute pore. Before it opens out the duct dilates into saccus endolymphaticus. Three semicircular ducts are present. They are called the external, anterior and posterior semicircular canals. . The external canal is horizontal and the other two are vertical in position. All the semicircular anals open into the utriculus at both of their ends. One end of each canal is dilated into oval ampulla. The ampullae of the anterior and the external canals lie close together towards the ...
A hair cell that responds best to low frequency sounds will be located at the base end of the basilar membrane. Hair cells in the utricle and saccule are able to respond to linear acceleration of the head because calcium carbonate (otoliths or otoconia) increase the density of the gelatinous material (otolithic membrane). Hair cells in the utricle and the saccule provide information about the orientation of the head with respect to gravity. "Bending" of the stereocilia towards the kinocilium opens mechanically gated ion channels in the hair cells increasing the potassium current and hence changing the membrane potential. Hair cells in the ampulla of a semicircular canal (semicircular duct) respond to angular acceleration of the duct because the inertia of the endolymph distorts the cupula. ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
... , is a Lawyers Limited Liability Company regulated by the Cyprus Law Council and the Cyprus Bar Association, providing services to clients both in Cyprus and worldwide. It was established in 1973 as a result of the merger of the practice of its founding members, Andis Scordis and Michalis Papapetrou.
In 1873, Hyrtl [1, p. 228] denied that any locomotory evidence could be deducted from the anatomy of the inner ear inside the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone, which has the double function of spatial orientation in three-dimensional space and detecting sound transmissions. However, with the benefits of modern non-invasive imaging techniques, such as high-resolution computed tomography (┬ÁCT), the first aspect has become a favourite topic for functional morphological analyses (e.g. [2-13]), but also for phylogenetic approaches [14-20].. The membranous organs of the vestibular system are composed of the semicircular ducts, the utricle and saccule, and are enclosed by bony structures of the petrosal bone. Utricule and saccule detect linear velocity, whereas the three semicircular canals (SCs) (anterior semicircular canal, ASC; posterior semicircular canal, PSC; and lateral semicircular canal, LSC) detect angular acceleration of the head and correlate in their anatomy with the mode of locomotion ...
It taught me to never again, never again, ever, put all of your hopes, expectations, eggs in the basket of box office," Winfrey said. "Do the work as an offering, and then whatever happens, happens." These days, Winfrey is selecting projects that are not only critical darlings but also box office hits, from "The Butler" to her latest role as Mrs. Which in "A Wrinkle in Time." It also helps that the creator of the OWN Network is also very selective when choosing roles. The only way shed agree to a role now, she said, is "if something were to come along and move me to the point that I would be willing to get up and leave here for a period of time." ...
In the anatomy of the human ear, the perilymphatic duct is where the perilymphatic space (vestibule of the ear) is connected to the subarachnoid space. This works as a type of shunt to eliminate excess perilymph fluid from the perilymphatic space around the cochlea of the ear. Perilymph is continuous with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space. CSF pressure abnormalities do not generally have clinical impact on the inner ear which is explained physically by the bore diameter and length of the perilymphatic duct. This duct goes through the skull and is parallel with but not directly associated with the endolymphatic duct. The duct is lined by an epithelium ...
...   Cristae (singular crista) are the internal compartments formed by the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. They are studded with proteins,
In a method and apparatus for the generation and transmission of complex pressure surges to the fluid system of the inner ear, this fluid system comprising an outer fluid chamber (perilymphatic space) provided with inlet and outlet, which entirely surrounds an inner fluid chamber (endolymphatic space), the fluid volume therein regulating the hearing ability of the ear in order, through intermittent compression of said inner chamber, to reduce any impairment of the hearing which may exist due to expansion of said chamber caused by too large a volume of fluid in said inner chamber, reproducible pressure pulses or surges are produced, consisting of a first pressure component (a) having varying pressure oscillations, and a second component (b) superimposed on said first component (a) and having a predeterminable overpressure, said first component (a), by means of rapidly repeated pressure variations, substantially blocking the passage of fluid from the outer fluid chamber, in
Zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822), have become a valuable model for investigating the development and molecular genetics of the vertebrate inner ear (Whitfield, 2002; Nicolson, 2005). The early development of the zebrafish inner ear is similar to that of other vertebrates (Bang et al., 2001; Whitfield et al., 2002; Riley and Phillips, 2003) and its sensory hair cells are homologous to those found in mammals (Coffin et al., 2004). Over 50 genes are known to impact the zebrafish auditory inner ear and/or vestibular system (Granato et al., 1996; Whitfield et al., 1996; Whitfield et al., 2002; Riley and Phillips, 2003; Starr et al., 2004; Nicolson, 2005) and many of these genes are conserved and affect the inner ear development and function in other vertebrates, including humans (Nicolson et al., 1998; Moorman et al., 1999; Riley and Moorman, 2000; Busch-Nentwich et al., 2004; Kappler et al., 2004; Kozlowski et al., 2005). However, unlike mammals, zebrafish develop from eggs ex utero and are ...
Luis Lassaletta is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: A Comparative Study of Drug Delivery Methods Targeted to the Mouse Inner Ear: Bullostomy Versus Transtympanic Injection
To understand the basic biological property of hair cells (HCs) from lower vertebrates, we examined transcriptomes of adult zebrafish HCs. GFP-labeled HCs were isolated from the utricle, saccule, and lagena, the three inner-ear sensory epithelia of a pou4f3 promoter-driven GAP-GFP line of transgenic zebrafish. 2,000 HCs and 2,000 non-sensory cells from the inner ear were individually collected by suction pipet technique. RNA sequencing was performed and the resulting sequences were mapped, analyzed, and compared. Comparisons allow us to identify enriched genes in HCs, which may underlie HC specialization.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). AU - Pineda, J. A.. AU - Holmes, T. C.. AU - Swick, Diane. AU - Foote, S. L.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - To more fully characterize brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in non-human primates, BAEPs were recorded from chronically implanted epidural electrodes in 10 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). The effects of stimulus intensity, repetition rate, and anesthesia (ketamine 20 mg/kg i.m.) on peak latencies and inter-peak intervals were evaluated. Monkey wave forms consisted of approximately 7 peaks (I-VII), each exhibiting similar latencies across sessions, with later peaks exhibiting greater variability. In some subjects, additional peaks (IIa, IIIa) and slow potentials were recorded. The slow potentials provided a substratum for peaks IV through VII. As with human, monkey peaks exhibited systematic changes in latency with changes in stimulus intensity or repetition rate. These shifts ...
Saimiri has a complicated taxonomic history, and there is continuing disagreement about the number of valid taxa. Despite these controversies, one point of consensus among morphologists has been that the eastern Amazonian populations of squirrel monkeys form a single terminal taxon, Saimiri sciureus sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758). This group is distributed to both the north and south of the middle to lower Amazon River and in the Maraj├│ Archipelago. However, a recent molecular study by Lavergne and colleagues suggested that the Saimiri sciureus complex (comprised of S. s. sciureus sensu lato, S. s. albigena, S. s. macrodon, and S. s. cassiquiarensis) was paraphyletic. The discordance between morphological and molecular studies prompted us to conduct a new multidisciplinary analysis, employing a combination of morphological, morphometric, and molecular markers. Our results suggest the currently recognized taxon S. s. sciureus contains two distinct species, recognized by the Phylogenetic Species ...
Na+ concentrations in endolymph should be controlled to maintain hair cell function since the transduction channels of hair cells are cation-permeable but not K+-selective. membrane saccular extramacular epithelium semicircular canal duct epithelium and endolymphatic sac. ENaC activity is usually controlled by a number of signal pathways but most notably by genomic regulation of channel numbers in the membrane via glucocorticoid signaling. Nonselective cation channels in the apical membrane of outer sulcus epithelial cells and vestibular transitional cells mediate Na+ and parasensory K+ absorption. The K+-mediated transduction current in hair cells is also accompanied by a Na+ flux since the transduction channels are nonselective cation channels. Cation absorption by all of these cells is BMS-387032 usually regulated by extracellular ATP via apical nonselective cation channels (P2X receptors). The heterogeneous population of epithelial cells in the endolymphatic sac is usually thought to have ...
Mechanosensitive hair cells and encouraging cells comprise the physical epithelia of the internal ear. particular to locks cells and 103 protein that had been just detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical studies Kaempferol prolonged these organizations by 53 protein that are highly upregulated in locks cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 protein. Our outcomes demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl Kaempferol dye-labeled physical locks cells and non-sensory cells is usually a valid technique to generate real plenty of cell populations for circulation cytometry and following molecular studies. Intro Molecular studies of the internal ears specific cell types are impeded by the paucity of these cells. This truth might become one of the factors why hearing and stability are among the feelings that are still just partly elucidated at the molecular level. Although a solitary internal hearing consists of many thousand physical locks cells, the cells are spread into five ...
TUESDAY, May 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Actress Angela Bassett has graced film and TV screens with a wide range of award-winning performances for decades.. But her latest role is that of spokeswoman, raising awareness of links between type 2 diabetes and heart disease.. Unfortunately, its an issue Bassett understands only too well.. "I got involved with this movement because of my mom -- to honor her," Bassett said. "She had type 2 diabetes and three years ago she died from heart disease.". Bassetts mother, Betty Jane Bassett, passed away in 2014 at the age of 78.. "Until that time, I know I was pretty unaware of the connection between type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease," Bassett admitted.. And although her mothers particular situation was complicated, Bassett believes that knowing about that risk and having the opportunity to make potentially helpful lifestyle changes "would have made a big difference.". Currently, more than 29 million Americans have diabetes. Another 86 million ...
The effects of micro-gravity on the biophysical properties of frog labyrinthine hair cells have been examined by analysing calcium and potassium currents in isolated cells by the patch-clamp technique. The entire, anaesthetised frog was exposed to vector-free gravity in a "random positioning machine" (RPM) and the functional modification induced on single hair cells, dissected from the crista ampullaris, were subsequently studied in vitro. The major targets of microgravity exposure were the calcium/potassium current system and the IA kinetic mechanism. The amplitude of ICa was significantly reduced in micro-gravity conditioned cells. The delayed current, IKD (a complex of IKV and IKCa), was drastically reduced, mostly in its IKCa component. Micro-gravity also affected IKD kinetics by shifting the steady-state inactivation curve towards negative potentials and increasing the sensitivity of inactivation removal to voltage. As concerns the fast, transient potassium current, IA, the I-V and ...
|ul| |li|Laminated, flexible, and colorful poster|/li| |li|Features a large central illustration showing the temporal bone and the structures that make up the inner ear|/li| |ul| |li|Mastoid portion|/li| |li|Petrous portion|/li| |li|Squamous portion|/li| |/ul| |li|Illustrated and labeled are: |ul| |li|Right external ear|/li| |li|Auditory ossicles|/li| |li|Lateral aspect of right tympanic membrane|/li| |li|Crista ampullaris|/li| |li|Cochlea|/li| |li|Organ of Corti|/li| |li|Membranous Labyrinth|/li| |li|Macula of Utricle|/li| |/ul| |li|(2) Grommets located at top of poster for use when hanging|/li| |li|Size: 20 W x 26 H|/li| |/ul|
Terence Young. The film was shot in Ireland (due to the fact that it was neutral), with the Irish plains having to double for the fields of Agincourt. During the shooting of one of the battle scenes, a horse collided with a camera that Olivier was attending. Olivier had had his eye to the viewfinder, and when the horse crashed into his position, the camera smashed into him, cutting his lip, and leaving a scar that would be prominent in later roles.. The film opened to rave reviews, despite Oliviers initial reluctance. It was the first widely successful Shakespeare film, and was considered a work of art by many. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Picture and Best Actor, but the Academy, in Oliviers opinion, did not feel comfortable in giving out all of their major awards to a foreigner, so they gave him a special Honorary Award. Olivier disregarded the award as a fob-off.. ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Mechanistic Studies of HIV-exposed Seronegative Individuals (HESN)(R21) PA-11-217. NIAID
O. Harold Warwick graduated in medicine from Mc-Gill University as a gold medalist and Rhodes Scholar in 1940. After World War II, he started postgraduate training in Montreal, and in 1946, he began studying the newly described drug treatment of cancer in London, England. There he carried out the first study of nitrogen mustard in a group of adult patients with a non-hematologic solid tumour, lung cancer. After a brief period of practice in Montreal, he moved in 1948 to Toronto, where he became executive director of the Canadian Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute of Canada. Simultaneously, he joined the staff of Toronto General Hospital and its Radiotherapy Institute, where he became the first physician-oncologist to provide medical care and administer anticancer drugs in a Canadian cancer centre. In 1958, the new Princess Margaret Hospital opened in Toronto; Warwick became its first chief physician, responsible for clinical drug trials. Here he carried out his best known clinical ...
A 17-year-old, 1-kg, colony-housed, male squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) developed clinical signs of congestive heart failure. The monkey presented with lethargy, increased heart and respiratory rates, and mild abdominal distention. The clinical history, laboratory analysis, and radiographic findings were consistent with heart failure due to dilative cardiomyopathy. Gross and microscopic examination of the heart confirmed a dilative cardiomyopathy. This is the first report describing congestive heart failure caused by dilative cardiomyopathy in a squirrel monkey. Spontaneous dilative cardiomyopathy may be infrequently observed in the squirrel monkeys because they are not routinely housed in the research environment during their advancing years ...