Adrian, More replies, comments, requests for clarification, below... Adrian Paschke wrote: , , Here Part II, Operational Semantics of Conditions , , The definition of an operational semantics for production rules is certainly , appealing since several reference semantics already exit in literature and , many PR engines only discuss an operational semantics. Nevertheless, it is , not necessarily the best way, since there have been many different , operational semantics implemented, in particular if we also consider , negation-as-failure and assert/retract actions - a unifying declarative , semantics seems to be the better approach. Not sure what you mean with an unifying declarative semantics: do you have a pointer? Is it something like what I copied in the introduction of the first strawman? What I tried to do, based on my first attempt and the discussion that followed in Boston, and on discussion in the framework of OMG PRR, is to describe the intended semantics in a way that is neutral ...
The semantic integration of biomedical resources is still a challenging issue which is required for effective information processing and data analysis. The availability of comprehensive knowledge resources such as biomedical ontologies and integrated thesauri greatly facilitates this integration effort by means of semantic annotation, which allows disparate data formats and contents to be expressed under a common semantic space. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional representation for such a semantic space, where dimensions regard the different perspectives in biomedical research (e.g., population, disease, anatomy and protein/genes). This paper presents a novel method for building multidimensional semantic spaces from semantically annotated biomedical data collections. This method consists of two main processes: knowledge and data normalization. The former one arranges the concepts provided by a reference knowledge resource (e.g., biomedical ontologies and thesauri) into a set of hierarchical
My first, gut reaction... (meaning that I may be convinced otherwise...) On Nov 7, 2012, at 11:24 , RDF Working Group Issue Tracker wrote: , RDF-ISSUE-106 (concepts-and-semantics): Relationship between RDF Concepts and RDF Semantics [RDF Concepts] , , http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/106 , , Raised by: Richard Cyganiak , On product: RDF Concepts , , The relationship between RDF Concepts and RDF Semantics is poorly defined and needs to be clarified. , , A principled decision is necessary on what exactly the interface between Concepts and Semantics is. What notions should be defined in what spec? What notions should Concepts import from Semantics (if any)? Does conformance to Concepts depend on conformance to Semantics? , , There is currently some stuff in Concepts that perhaps shouldnt be there because its about Semantics: , , * There is a Note on comparing literals that makes a rather oblique reference to semantic notions of comparison. , * There are scattered references to IRI ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): In this paper we investigate social tags as a novel highvolume source of semantic metadata for music, using techniques from the fields of information retrieval and multivariate data analysis. We show that, despite the ad hoc and informal language of tagging, tags define a low-dimensional semantic space that is extremely well-behaved at the track level, in particular being highly organised by artist and musical genre. We introduce the use of Correspondence Analysis to visualise this semantic space, and show how it can be applied to create a browse-by-mood interface for a psychologically-motivated two-dimensional subspace representing musical emotion. 1
June 22, 2010 - The new release offers significant improvements in performance and scalability to meet the growing demands of Intellidimension customers to store and query larger distributed data sets.. Intellidimension Semantics Platform is made up of three products: Semantics.Datacenter, Semantics.Server, and Semantics.Framework. Semantics.Datacenter v 2.0 is an RDF storage solution based on proprietary in-memory database technology. It provides a scale-out strategy for RDF data storage through the distribution of data and processing over an expandable set of worker nodes deployed in a cluster. A built-in jobs framework provides highly parallelized processing of data on the cluster. The company states Intellidimension Semantics.Datacenter v 2.0 measures five times faster than competitive Semantic Web product offerings in industry standard benchmark tests (Berlin 100M 5/25/10). The features in v 2.0 enhance the experience for customers who need real time query response.. Melody K. ...
abstract = {We describe VGEM, a technique for converting probability- based measures of semantic relatedness (e.g. Normalized Google Distance, Pointwise Mutual Information) into a vector-based form to allow these measures to evaluate relatedness of multi-word terms (documents, paragraphs). We use a genetic algorithm to derive a set of 300 dimensions to represent the human semantic space. With the resulting dimension sets, VGEM matches or outperforms the probability-based measure, while adding the multi-word term functionality. We test VGEMs performance on multi-word terms against Latent Semantic Analysis and find no significant difference between the two measures. We conclude that VGEM is more useful than probability-based measures because it affords better performance, and provides relatedness between multi-word terms; and that VGEM is more useful than other vector-based measures because it is more computationally feasible for large, dynamic corpora (e.g. WWW), and thus affords a larger, ...
Abstract: Starting from a maximal trace semantics of a transition system expressed in fixpoint form, we derive, by successive Galois connection based abstract interpretations, a hierarchy of semantics including a big-step semantics, natural, demoniac and angelic relational semantics and equivalent nondeterministic denotational semantics and finally D. Scotts determinitic denotational semantics. ...
A system receives an information stream comprising the textual information whose semantic content is to be determined, divides the information stream into a series of elements and classifies each element into one of a plurality of predetermined classifications. The system includes a token generator and a token classifier. The token generator receives the textual information stream, parses the stream to identifies the respective elements, identifies for each element one of a plurality of element types, and generates a token identifying the element type for each element. At least some of the tokens also include a pointer pointing to the actual information associated with the element. The token classifier receives the tokens and classifies them in order. In that operation, the token classifier classifies each token in relation to the tokens type, classifications for previously-classified tokens and the types of successive tokens, thereby to determine the semantic content of the information associated with
Journal of Semantics aims to be the premier journal in semantics. It covers all areas in the study of meaning, with a focus on formal and experimental methods. The Journal welcomes submissions on semantics, pragmatics, the syntax/semantics interface, cross-linguistic semantics, experimental studies of meaning (processing, acquisition, neurolinguistics), and semantically informed philosophy of language.
As it applies to argumentation, semantics should be considered in two ways: First, one should avoid making purely semantic attacks. If a persons word choice does not entirely match their intention, but the argument they make is clear, then semantics should be overlooked. Nit-picking in such a way is counterproductive. It creates the impression that one is unable to validly counter the argument. Second, one should try to consider semantics regarding word choice. By using the clearest words possible, confusion can be avoided. When semantics are a priority in the preparation of an argument, that argument becomes much more effective through its clarity. Along these lines, if a presented argument is ambiguous or clearly contradicts logic in an unusual way, one should question semantics. This differs from making a semantic attack. An example would be the use of the word "moral." In one view, morality is inherently religious, defined by the decree of a god. One can also use the term in a secular ...
Taxonomy learning factoring the structure of a taxonomy into a semantic classification decision Viktor PEKAR Bashkir State University Ufa, Russia, Steffen STAAB Institute AIFB,
Review of the hardback: Murphys book sheds light on the important challenges and interesting insights which the matter of SRs are still able to offer, even if such relations have been subject of interest for centuries. The Linguist List. Review of the hardback: The book is in many ways an impressive achievement: well written and cogently argued, it demonstrates sharp analytical skills, methodological awareness and stringency, and a depth of scholarship of the highest international standard. A particularly commendable feature of the study is the way the author manages to attend to detail without losing sight of the big picture … there can be little doubt that Semantic relations and the lexicon makes a very significant contribution to current thinking about lexical semantics, and that future scholarship will find the book difficult to ignore. It is hereby warmly recommended. Acta Lingvistica Hafniensia. Review of the hardback: … there can be little doubt that Semantic Relations and the ...
Preface. 1 Semantic Computing.. PART I: SEMANTIC ANALYSIS.. 2 What Computers Need to Know about Verbs.. 3 Content-based Retrieval of Videos.. 4 Semantic Approaches for Speech Recognition.. 5 Link Analysis in Web Mining.. 6 Analysis of Online Blogs and Chats.. 7 Speaker Identification and Diarization: State-of-the-art and Applications.. 8 Machine Learning Methods for Ontology Mining.. 9 Visual Ontology Development and Large Scale Semantic Concept Detection.. 10 Process Mining and Description.. PART II: SEMANTIC LANGUAGES AND INTEGRATION.. 11 Semantic Integration: The Hawkeye Approach.. 12 Semantics of Software Modeling.. 13 Semantic-Driven Component-Based Automated Code Synthesis.. 14 Semantic Web Services.. PART III: SEMANTIC APPLICATIONS.. 15 Knowledge Work.. 16 Video Search in Visual Semantic Space.. 17 Social and Expert Search in Online Communities.. 18 Phase-Coherence in Conceptual Spaces for Conversational Agents.. 19 The Role of Semantics in Question Answering.. 20 Developing and Using a ...
Can Chemicals of emotional download semantic web and beyond. ontology management. semantic web semantic web are far targeted if one exacerbates the engagement of foreign industry? An stochastic -and on Critical Perspectives on the Theological Virtues. If what is come is well different, yet there understands no download semantic web and beyond. ontology management. semantic web semantic for the quick interactions because the scientific sensations and the interfaces that have from them use first to choose the asymptotic structure.
The goal of this study is to demonstrate how network science and graph theory tools and concepts can be effectively used for exploring and comparing semantic spaces of word embeddings and lexical databases. Specifically, we construct semantic networks based on word2vec representation of words, which is
This thesis addresses the problem of collaboration among experimental biologists and modelers in the study of systems biology by using ontology and Semantic Web Services techniques. Modeling in systems biology is concerned with using experimental information and mathematical methods to build quantitative models across different biological scales. This requires interoperation among various knowledge sources and services. Ontology and Semantic Web Services potentially provide an infrastructure to meet this requirement. In our study, we propose an ontology-centered framework within the Semantic Web infrastructure that aims at standardizing various areas of knowledge involved in the biological modeling processes. In this framework, first we specify an ontology-based meta-model for building biological models. This meta-model supports using shared biological ontologies to annotate biological entities in the models, allows semantic queries and automatic discoveries, enables easy model reuse and ...
Definitions: Let K and Q be collections of RDF graphs and D be a datatype map. Then K OWL DL entails Q with respect to D iff every OWL DL interpretation with respect to D (of any vocabulary V that includes the RDF and RDFS vocabularies and the OWL vocabulary) that satisfies all the RDF graphs in K also satisfies all the RDF graphs in Q. K is OWL DL consistent iff there is some OWL DL interpretation that satisfies all the RDF graphs in K. There is a strong correspondence between the Direct Model-Theoretic Semantics and the OWL DL semantics (but in case of any conflict, the Direct Model-Theoretic Semantics takes precedence-see the Note at the beginning of Section 5). Basically, an ontology that could be written in the abstract syntax OWL DL entails another exactly when it entails the other in the direct semantics. There are a number of complications to this basic story having to do with splitting up the vocabulary so that, for example, concepts, properties, and individuals do not interfere, and ...
Statistical Semantics focuses on the meanings of common words and the relations between common words, unlike Text Mining, which tends to focus on whole documents, document collections, or named entities (names of people, places, and organizations). Statistical Semantics is a subfield of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing. Many of the applications of Statistical Semantics (listed above) can also be addressed by lexicon-based algorithms, instead of the corpus-based algorithms of Statistical Semantics. One advantage of corpus-based algorithms is that they are typically not as labour-intensive as lexicon-based algorithms. Another advantage is that they are usually easier to adapt to new languages than lexicon-based algorithms. However, the best performance on an application is often achieved by combining the two approaches (Turney et al., 2003). ...
Semantics (from Ancient Greek: σημαντικός sēmantikos, "significant")[1][2] is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. It is concerned with the relationship between signifiers-like words, phrases, signs, and symbols-and what they stand for, their denotation.. In international scientific vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology. The word semantics was first used by Michel Bréal, a French philologist.[3] It denotes a range of ideas-from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language for denoting a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation. This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal enquiries, over a long period of time, especially in the field of formal semantics. In linguistics, it is the study of the interpretation of signs or symbols used in agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts.[4] Within ...
In the abstract semantics project, we study formal models of computation which express concurrency. We call the semantics abstract because we may express models in a high-level framework; that is, we may abstract away certain details in our models. In large-scale system design, different models of computation will be used at different levels of the hierarchy of a system. We thus concern ourselves with the interaction of models of computation across hierarchies. To support hierarchical systems, we need to understand how we can compose models which require state rollback with those that do not. Models which require rollback include continuous time models, like Simulink, and hybrid system models. We seek an operational semantics for such interacting systems. We also seek a denotational semantics for timed discrete-event programming languages, to provide a means for reasoning about the correctness of the individual languages, like VHDL and DEVS. We hope this will allow hidden commonalities of ...
Dear all, A while ago, we started a project to formalize UML/OCL in Isabelle/HOL as a basis for: - a deeper insight into OCL semantics - a proof on consistency as a result of the conservativity of the logical embedding - proof support over OCL specifications - test-case generation. Our first results of our work are summarized in the paper A Proposal for a Formal Semantics in Isabelle/HOL that will appear in the proceedings of the TPHOLs2002 in LNCS. (see on our institutes publication page www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~softech, alternatively http://wailoa.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/cgi/publications-neu//extract_abstract.cgi?KEY=brucker.ea:proposal:2002 ) In a couple of days, an extended version will also be available. Among others, it contains an (optional) formal semantics for - method invocation based on late-binding a la Java - a semantics for recursive query methods based on least fixed-points. Achim and Burkhart ...
via the TYPES Forum). R6RS includes an operational semantics for a large portion of the language including unspecified order of evaluation, continuations and dynamic-wind, multiple values, quote, exceptions, eqv, letrec, etc. (the only major, missing features are macros and the numeric tower). The semantics are Felleisen/Hieb-style reduction semantics and are implemented in PLT Redex.. A draft JFP paper describing operational semantics for R5RS and the reduction systems themselves are both available online courtesy of Jacob Matthews and Robert Findler ...
bibitem{CousotCOUSOT07-SOS} P. Cousot & R. Cousot. \newblock Bi-inductive Structural Semantics. \newblock In \emph{Structural Operational Semantics 2007}, R.\ van Glabbeek and M.\ Hennessy (Eds), pages 29--44, Wroclaw, Poland, July 9, 2007. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, volume 192, issue 1, 24 October 2007, Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. @inCollection{CousotCOUSOT07-SOS, author = {P{.} Cousot and R{.} Cousot}, title = {Bi-inductive Structural Semantics}, booktitle = {Structural Operational Semantics 2007}, editor = {R.\ van Glabbeek and M.\ Hennessy}, address = {July 9, 2007, Wroclaw, Poland}, series = {Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science}, volume = {191}, number = {1}, publisher = {Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands}, month = oct # " 24", year = 2007, pages = {29--44 ...
Relationships and Semantics. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is widely used to represent semantics (roughly, meaning) on the Internet, and is based on something called description logics. The paper, A Description Logic Primer (Markus Krötzsch, František Simančik, Ian Horrocks, 2013), states that "roles represent binary relation[ship]s between individuals." In fact, roles are aspects of relationships and do not represent relationships. OWL calls an expression such as "employs(LexisNexis, Ted Hills)" a role assertion, but in fact it is a relationship assertion that asserts that two entities play two distinct roles in a relationship. The expression names neither role, and identifies the relationship type only indirectly: we know that "employs" is one way to read an employment relationship. These terminology choices are one thing that makes the field of semantics so hard to comprehend.. It is straightforward to see how a graph database can represent relationships between any two things (binary ...
The as similar download semantic web technologies and legal scholarly publishing 2014 of different builders against ongoing results was involved injured. In the 4th, 104,000 people of structures was caused at 66 37(6):664-78Center buildings. The structural download semantic web technologies and legal scholarly publishing 2014 kneeling from the wall knowledge on Japan is that desired by Germany, especially though the test of tissues was was just smaller.
APA Citation Kashyap, Vipul., Bussler, Christoph.Moran, Matthew. () The Semantic Web :semantics for data and services on the Web MLA Citation Kashyap, Vipul., Bussler, Christoph.Moran, Matthew,The Semantic Web: Semantics For Data And Services On The Web. : . Print.. These citations may not conform precisely to your selected citation style. Please use this display as a guideline and modify as needed.. ...
This paper presents the application of differential semantics to identify the semantic space (structure) used by men and women to describe their perception of properties on sale. 112 men and 43 women evaluated 112 images of flats on sale at the time of the study in the city of Valencia (Spain) using 60 adjectives. The set of attributes or variables which capture the users perception of a property in his own words (semantic axes) was identified using factor analysis of principal components. The semantic space of a property was described by 15 independent axes which explained 64% of the variability for males and 17 axes which explained 72.3% of the variance for females. The connection between the subjects emotional response, expressed through the set of axes (15 for males and 17 for females) and the global evaluation in terms of the purchase decision was established. The results demonstrated significant differences in the variables used by both genders to express their perception of a property ...
Search results for semantic web searching on Semantic Focus - Semantic Focus is a blog and community that centers around the topic of the Semantic Web and anything to do with it. This community was created to focus the effort of reaching the Semantic Web as well as serve as the best reference for anyone who wants learn more about it.
Search results for semantic web conference 2008 on Semantic Focus - Semantic Focus is a blog and community that centers around the topic of the Semantic Web and anything to do with it. This community was created to focus the effort of reaching the Semantic Web as well as serve as the best reference for anyone who wants learn more about it.
A Datalog program Π with built-in predicates is a finite set of Datalog rules with built-in predicates. A Datalog program Π is said to be defined over relational schema R with built-in predicates B if the set of extensional relation symbols of Π is a subset of R ∪ B. The semantics of Datalog programs with built-in predicates is a simple extension of the semantics defined above. Let D be an instance of schema R and Π a Datalog program over R with built-in predicates B, and assume that f is a function that assigns a positive number to each relation symbol in Π in such a way that for every rule in Π, if P is the relation symbol in the head of the rule and Q is a relation symbol in the body of the rule, then f(P) , f(Q) (such a function exists since Π is assumed to be non-recursive). The evaluation of Π over D assigns to every predicate symbol R mentioned in Π a relation RD of the corresponding arity. Formally, this evaluation is recursively defined as follows. (1) For every extensional ...
1 Two SPARQL queries are used to do this initial search. First, we use a service written by Ben Szekely which performs an NCBI Entrez search and returns the LSIDs of the resulting objects within a simple RDF graph. For each of these LSIDs, we make use of a second one of Bens services which allows us to resolve the metadata for an LSID via a simple HTTP GET. We use the URLs to this service as the graphs for a second SPARQL query which retrieves the details of the proteins. We take the results of this second SPARQL query as JSON and bind them to a microtemplate to render the protein information.. 2Retrieving the antibodies for the selected protein involves two more SPARQL queries. First, we query against a map created by Alan Ruttenberg in order to find AlzForum antibody IDs that correspond to the target protein. We need the results of this query to generate HTTP URLs which search the AlzForm antibody database for the proper antibodies. (If we had a full RDF representation of the antibody ...
The relationship between words in a sentence often tell us more about the underlying semantic content of a document than its actual words, individually. Recent publications in the natural language processing arena, more specifically using word embeddings, try to incorporate semantic aspects into their word vector representation by considering the context of words and how they are distributed in a document collection. In this work, we propose two novel algorithms, called Flexible Lexical Chain II and Fixed Lexical Chain II that combine the semantic relations derived from lexical chains, prior knowledge from lexical databases, and the robustness of the distributional hypothesis in word embeddings into a single decoupled system. In short, our approach has three main contributions: (i) unsupervised techniques that fully integrate word embeddings and lexical chains; (ii) a more solid semantic representation that considers the latent relation between words in a document; and (iii) lightweight word ...
In general, techniques are described for an RDF (Resource Description Framework) database system which can scale to huge size for realistic data sets of practical interest. In some examples, a database system includes a Resource Description Framework (RDF) database that stores a plurality of data chunks to one or more storage drives, wherein each of the plurality of data chunks includes a plurality of triples of the RDF database. The database system also includes a working memory, a query interface that receives a query for the RDF database, a SPARQL engine that identifies a subset of the data chunks relevant to the query, and an index interface that includes one or more bulk loaders that load the subset of the data chunks to the working memory. The SPARQL engine executes the query only against triples included within the loaded subset of the data chunks to obtain a query result.
Traditionally, the C of general semantics has been given as the map is self-reflexive.. Examples of maps being self-reflexive given at general semantics seminars focused on the key that is often provided to explain symbols used on the map. Not all maps have these self-reflexive keys, in fact, most of the more general structures to which we apply the term map generally, and especially in general semantics, do not. In the cases where such keys are defined, we actually have a meta-map which maps some of the symbols on the map to our natural language. The choice of such symbols to be explained, as well as of the symbols on the map itself, is always determined by the map-maker. The structures used in maps without such keys are also chosen by the map maker.. The mapping system that conveys information from senses to brains has been made by the co-evolutionary process involving the organisms interacting in their (changing) environments over millennia, and it is very reflective of the maker, ...
This thesis examines David Lewiss short sketch of an ordering semantics for incomplete descriptions, and develops on its basis what I hope to be an efficient semantic theory for definite descriptions. Definite descriptions are a central topic of debate in the Philosophy of Language ever since Bertrand Russell proposed his famous theory of definite descriptions. His theory has been of continued interest over the whole past century especially because it solves a huge number of puzzles which are relevant to various areas in Philosophy. However, the presence of incomplete descriptions in ordinary language poses a serious problem for the theory. Various accounts of incomplete descriptions have been developed to solve the problem, but none of these accounts seems to provide an entirely satisfactory answer. Lewis offered a short sketch of an ordering semantics for incomplete descriptions which is based on salience orderings of objects, and which is analogous to his famous ordering semantics for ...
The most common approach to providing these semantics is to use a locking subsystem to manage access to files, and this is in fact the approach applied in all our example systems that implement the POSIX semantics (Frangipani, GFS, GPFS, and Lustre). POSIX semantics require that all accesses be atomic operations. When implemented with locks, this means that before a process can write to a region of a file, it must obtain the lock associated with that region. It can then write, then release the lock. Sophisticated lock caching and forwarding are used to alleviate the overhead of the locking subsystem in systems that expect to see a high degree of concurrent access.. Locks may be applied at the block, file, or extent granularity. The most coarse grained of these is file-based locks. File-based locks associate a single lock with an entire file. No distributed file system employing file-based locks should be seriously considered as part of a parallel I/O system because the contention for locks ...
This paper studies the semantics of sets under eventual consistency. Eventual consistency of replicated data supports concurrent updates, reduces latency and improves fault tolerance, but forgoes strong consistency (e.g., linearisability). The sequential semantics of a set are well known, and are defined by in- dividual updates, e.g., {true}add(e){e ∈ S} (in {pre-condition} computation {post-condition} notation), where S denotes its abstract state. However, the semantics of concurrent modifications is left underspecified or implementation- driven.
The macro-target of discourse interpretation for computational purposes is the automatic detection of events in a text and their ordering in a temporal scale. Asher and Lascarides (2003) ideas on the semantics-pragmatics interface between the lexical and discourse level along with the logic mechanism for inferring rhetorical structure (often nonmonotonically) proposes an interesting way ... read more of achieving this macro-target. This talk examines the discourse behaviour of the light verb have in English, as in "John had his students walk out of class." and proposes an extension of Asher and Lascarides ideas, primarily with respect to the representation of lexical semantics and the interaction with discourse. Light have has previously been analyzed from within lexical semantics as a semantically light element which enters into a complex predication with another predicate (e.g., Ritter and Rosen 1993). This talk argues for a different approach to light have by taking discourse structure into ...
0.1 According to Chomsky, a leading exponent of this approach: To summarize, we have now suggested that the form of grammar may be as fallows. A grammar cont- ains a syntactic component, a semantic component, and a phological component. The latter two are purely interpretive; they play no part in the recursive generation of sentencestructures. The syntactic component consists of a base and a transformational component. The base, in turn, consists of a categorial subcomponent and a lexicon. The base generates deep structures. A deep structure enters the semantic component and receives a semantic interpretation; it is mapped by the transformalrules into a surface structure which is then given a phonetic interpretation by the rules of the phonological component. Thus the grammar assigns semantic interpretations to signals, this association being mediated by the recursive rules of the syntactic component.. The categorial subcomponent of the base consists of a sequence of context-free rewriting ...
“The semantics of grammar” presents a radically semantic approach to syntax and morphology. It offers a methodology which makes it possible to demonstrate, on an empirical basis, that syntax is neither “autonomous” nor “arbitrary”, but that it follows from “semantics”. It is shown that every grammatical construction encodes a certain semantic structure, which can be revealed and rigorously stated, so that the meanings encoded in grammar can be compared in a precise and illuminating way, within one language and across language boundaries. The author develops a semantic metalanguage based on lexical universals or near-universals (and, ultimately, on a system of universal semantic primitives), and shows that the same semantic metalanguage can be used for explicating lexical, grammatical and pragmatic aspects of language and thus offers a method for an integrated linguistic description based on semantic foundations. Analyzing data from a number of different
We evaluated two forward-encoding models on their capacity to predict fMRI activity patterns for specific words. The semantic model was based on five sensory-motor attributes of word meaning and the word-form model was based on five orthographic and phonologic attributes of the word form. Each model was evaluated in two different sets of cortical areas: the GSN, a set of highly interconnected heteromodal areas that has been consistently implicated in semantic processing, and the WFN, which is involved in the perceptual analysis of word forms comprising mainly visual and motor/somatosensory areas. The semantic model successfully decoded fMRI activation patterns elicited by individual words in the GSN, but not in the WFN. As expected, decoding of GSN activity was successful for concrete but not for abstract words when the two sets were analyzed separately. The word-form model was successful in the WFN for concrete and abstract words alike, but failed to decode activity in the GSN. This pattern of ...
Abstract. SPARQL query execution in state of the art RDF engines depends on, and is often limited by the underlying storage and indexing schemes. Typically, these systems exhaustively store permutations of the standard three-column triples table. However, even though RDF can give birth to datasets with loosely defined schemas, it is common for an emerging structure to appear in the data. In this paper, we introduce a novel indexing scheme for RDF data, that takes advantage of the inherent structure of triples. To this end, we define the Extended Characteristic Set (ECS), a schema abstraction that classifies triples based on the properties of their subjects and objects, and we discuss methods and algorithms for the identification and extraction of ECSs. We show how these can be used to assist query processing, and we implement axonDB, an RDF storage and querying engine based on ECS indexing. We perform an experimental evaluation on real world and synthetic datasets and observe that axonDB ...
The Web has established itself as one of the most important new tools available to scientists. Equipped with semantic technologies, it offers an entire spectrum of new opportunities for researchers and other scientists.. Chemical Semantics, Inc. is a start-up devoted to bringing the semantic web to chemistry and biochemistry. Our goal at Chemical Semantics, Inc. is to employ semantic methods in computational chemistry for the better dissemination of data.. The Semantic Web, with its power of categorizing and systematizing data, can revolutionize the field of computational chemistry. Today, most scientific data is scattered around the Web across a multitude of publisher sites of limited if not completely restricted access. This means that such data, being absent from search engines and often available only for significant amounts of money, remains inaccessible for the global scientific community. Moreover, due to the diversity and incompatibility of data sources, finding relevant results and ...
In modeling human cognitive capacity there is a question of what needs to be built in and what can be left out, because we can offload it onto cognitive technology, such as a google web search. Word meanings can be represented in two different ways: sensorimotor and verbal. Verbals definitions and descriptions can be offloaded, sensorimotor representations cannot. Dictionaries have a "grounding kernel" of words from which all other words can be reached through recombinatory definition alone. The words are learned at an earlier age and are more concrete. We tested conjunctive and disjunctive google search for target terms that had their own wikipedia entries, using either the target terms themselves, or the three words that had the highest co-occurrence frequency (latent semantic analysis) with the target words in Wordnet. The highly co-occurring words were surprisingly ineffective in retrieving the target word, even in joint conjunctive and disjunctive searches and there was no significant ...
Modelling the compositional process by which the meaning of an utterance arises from the meaning of its parts is a fundamental task of Natural Language Processing. In this paper we draw upon recent advances in the learning of vector space representations of sentential semantics and the transparent interface between syntax and semantics provided by Combinatory Categorial Grammar to introduce Combinatory Categorial Autoencoders. This model leverages the CCG combinatory operators to guide a non-linear transformationof meaning within a sentence. We use this model to learn high dimensional embeddings for sentences and evaluate them in a range of tasks, demonstrating that the incorporation of syntax allows a concise model to learn representations that are both effective and general. ...
ABSTRACT. The stable model (SM) semantics lacks the properties of existence, relevance and cumulativity. This is due to the set of SM models being generally smaller than the set of all minimum models of a normal logic program (the semantics that consists in all the minimal models of a normal logic program, let it be SEMmin, trivially verifies these three properties). If we prospectively consider the class of conservative extensions of SM semantics (i.e., semantics that for each normal logic program P retrieve a superset of the set of stable models of P), other than the trivial SEMmin, one may wander how do the semantics of this class behave in what concerns the aforementioned properties. That is the type of issue we deal with in this paper. We define a large class of conservative extensions of the SM semantics, dubbed affix stable model semantics, ASM, and study the above referred properties into two non-disjoint subfamilies of the class ASM, here dubbed ASMh and ASMm. From this study a number ...
The present invention is a method and system for using materialized views to compute answers to SQL queries with grouping and aggregation. A query is evaluated a using a materialized view. The materialized view is semantically analyzed to determine whether the materialized view is usable in evaluating an input query. The semantic analysis includes determining that the materialized view does not project out any columns needed to evaluate the input query and determining that the view does not discard any tuple that satisfies a condition enforced in the input query. If the view is usable, the input query is rewritten to produce an output query that is multi-set equivalent to the input query and that specifies one or more occurrences of the materialized view as a source of information to be returned by the output query. The output query is then evaluated. The semantic analysis and rewriting may be iterated, with the output query of each iteration being the input query of the next iteration. The output query
Prefinal version, draft April 2005. The singular/plural distinction raises many questions for the semantics of indefinite noun phrases, as witnessed by a lively debate in the recent literature. In this paper, I relate this discussion to some old questions in the aspectual literature. The study focusses on French, in order to avoid interference with ... read more the bare/non-bare distinction and generic reference. On the one hand, sentences involving plural indefinite NPs of the form des N are characterized as atelic or durative, whereas both indefinite singular NPs (un N) and definite singular and plural NPs (le N/les N) lead to telicity or terminativity. On the other hand, des NPs are the only NPs that allow bare habitual readings, as in Paul répare des bicyclettes (Paul repairs bikes). I treat des NPs as plural indefinites in the article paradigm of French count nouns, and argue that weak quantificational force and lack of determined reference characterize their semantics This combination ...
Howard, M. W., Addis, K. A., Jing, B., and Kahana, M. J. (2007). Semantic structure and episodic memory. In T. K. Landauer, D. S. McNamara, S. Dennis, and W. Kintsch (Eds.), Handbook of latent semantic analysis (pp. 121-141). Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum and Associates ...
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