We report here an effect of exposure to ETS on the risk of head and neck cancer. Not only did we find an elevated cancer risk among individuals exposed to ETS, but we also observed dose-response associations for the degree of ETS exposure, adjusting for several potential confounders. These associations and the dose-response relationships were still present when the analysis was restricted to non-active-smoking cases and controls.. This study has several possible limitations. One limitation is potential selection bias, which might have resulted in an overestimate or underestimate of the ETS effect (bias away from or toward null). Using controls from the blood bank may result in potential selection bias because blood donors might be more health oriented. To assess the potential selection bias, we have compared selected demographic and potential risk factors between blood donor controls and non-cancer controls from the Surgical Day Hospital during the same study period at Memorial Sloan-Kettering ...
Get 24/7 Selection Bias Homework Help Online from experts on Transtutors.com. ✓25% discount ✓100% Cashback* ✓1076+ Selection Bias Experts. Ask Now ! Get 100% error-free solutions at affordable prices
Background: Despite major advances in the knowledge of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) during the last decades, no significant improvement in survival has been observed. Detailed data on the prognosis of STS are crucial in order to identify patients who might benefit from more aggressive treatment. Such data can be obtained from properly designed databases; however, the validation of data is crucial in order to obtain valid, reliable results. Furthermore, the majority of prognostic studies in STS have been limited by potential selection bias, low power, and biased estimates due to the statistical methods used, e.g., dichotomizing continuous variables, censoring competing events, as well as not adjusting for important confounders. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the prognosis of STS patients using data from the Aarhus Sarcoma Registry (ASR), covering western Denmark in the period from 1979 to 2008. Material and methods: In study I, we systematically validated data in the ASR and ...
Selection bias due to loss to follow up represents a threat to the internal validity of estimates derived from cohort studies. Over the past 15 years, stratification-based techniques as well as methods such as inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation have been more prominently discussed …
In statistics, sampling error is the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population.[1] The sampling error is the difference between a sample statistic used to estimate a population parameter and the actual but unknown value of the parameter.[2] An estimate of a quantity of interest, such as an average or percentage, will generally be subject to sample-to-sample variation.[1] These variations in the possible sample values of a statistic can theoretically be expressed as sampling errors, although in practice the exact sampling error is typically unknown. Sampling error also refers more broadly to this phenomenon of random sampling variation. Random sampling, and its derived terms such as sampling error, imply specific procedures for gathering and analyzing data that are rigorously applied as a method for arriving at results considered representative of a given population as a whole. Despite a common misunderstanding, random does not mean the same thing as chance as this ...
TECHNICAL REPORT DATA (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing) 1. REPORT NO. 12. 3. RECIPIENTS ACCESSION NO. EPA 520/8-81-004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. REPORT DATE Confounding and Selection Bias in Case Control Studies ,1rlnIJrlY1I 1 QAl 6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE 7. AUTHOR(S) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. Roderi ck J. A. Little Paul R. Rosenbaum 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO. Office of Radiation Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO. Washington, D.C. 20460 12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS 13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED 14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE 15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 16. ABSTRACT In case-control studies, the role of adjustments for bias, and ln particular the role of matching, has been extensively debated. However, the absence of a formal statement of the problem has led to disagreements, confusion, and occasionally to erroneous conclu- sions. This paper formulates precisely and ...
View Notes - 09-SelectionBias from EPID 600 at UNC. Principles of Epidemiology for Public Health (EPID600) Sources of error: Selection bias Victor J. Schoenbach, PhD Department of Epidemiology
TY - JOUR. T1 - Participants in a randomized controlled trial had longer overall survival than non-participants. T2 - a prospective cohort study. AU - Ohno, Shinji. AU - Mukai, Hirofumi. AU - Narui, Kazutaka. AU - Hozumi, Yasuo. AU - Miyoshi, Yasuo. AU - Yoshino, Hiroshi. AU - Doihara, Hiroyoshi. AU - Suto, Akihiko. AU - Tamura, Motoshi. AU - Morimoto, Takashi. AU - Zaha, Hisamitsu. AU - Chishima, Takashi. AU - Nishimura, Reiki. AU - Ishikawa, Takashi. AU - Uemura, Yukari. AU - Ohashi, Yasuo. PY - 2019/8/15. Y1 - 2019/8/15. N2 - Purpose: While some studies show improved outcomes in clinical trial participants as compared to non-participants, existence of such a trial effect has not been proved precisely. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study to compare the prognoses for participants in the randomized controlled trial (SELECT BC) and non-participants. SELECT BC compared S-1 and taxane as first-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer. Non-participants were all patients who met the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparison of participants and non-participants in the Chennai glaucoma study-rural population. AU - Paul, Pradeep G.. AU - George, Ronnie J.. AU - Baskaran, Mani. AU - Arvind, Hemamalini. AU - Augustian, Madan Raj. AU - Ve Ramesh, S.. AU - Sriram, Prema. AU - Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy. AU - McCarty, Catherine. AU - Vijaya, Lingam. PY - 2005/4/1. Y1 - 2005/4/1. N2 - Purpose: To study whether the difference in the demographic characteristics of participants and non-participants could result in biased prevalence estimates and associations. Aim: To compare the non-participant & participant characteristics, and to ascertain if non-response bias is present in the rural population of the Chennai Glaucoma Study (CGS). Methods: Rural participants and non-participants were compared with regard to socio-demographic variables (age, gender, religion, mother tongue, literacy and employment). Results: 4800 subjects aged 40 years or over were enumerated, 82% (3934: 45% male and 55% ...
Main results : We identified two eligible studies with 633 participants. Both included studies compared the use of protocol-directed sedation, specifically protocols delivered by nurses, with usual care. We rated the risk of selection bias due to random sequence generation low for one study and unclear for one study. The risk of selection bias related to allocation concealment was low for both studies. We also assessed detection and attrition bias as low for both studies while we considered performance bias high due to the inability to blind participants and clinicians in both studies. Risk due to other sources of bias, such as potential for contamination between groups and reporting bias, was considered unclear. There was no clear evidence of differences in duration of mechanical ventilation (MD -5.74 hours, 95% CI -62.01 to 50.53, low quality evidence), ICU length of stay (MD -0.62 days, 95% CI -2.97 to 1.73) and hospital length of stay (MD -3.78 days, 95% CI -8.54 to 0.97) between people ...
Bruno Chomel, professor in the Department of Population Health and Reproduction, has been invited to serve a four-year term as an expert in zoonotic disease for the World Health Organization as a member of the International Health Regulations (IHR) Roster of Experts. As such, he would be available for potential selection in an emergency or review committee concerning disease outbreaks that pass between humans and animals. In the event of a public health threat of international concern (such as the H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009), the Director-General of WHO seeks input and expertise from an IHR Emergency Committee.. I am very honored to serve as an expert on zoonoses for the WHO, Chomel said. Many of the worlds emerging diseases are zoonotic and our role as veterinarians is to control and prevent these diseases from their animal sources to reduce the risk of transmission to humans in a global, one health approach.. ...
Bruno Chomel, professor in the Department of Population Health and Reproduction, has been invited to serve a four-year term as an expert in zoonotic disease for the World Health Organization as a member of the International Health Regulations (IHR) Roster of Experts. As such, he would be available for potential selection in an emergency or review committee concerning disease outbreaks that pass between humans and animals. In the event of a public health threat of international concern (such as the H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009), the Director-General of WHO seeks input and expertise from an IHR Emergency Committee.. I am very honored to serve as an expert on zoonoses for the WHO, Chomel said. Many of the worlds emerging diseases are zoonotic and our role as veterinarians is to control and prevent these diseases from their animal sources to reduce the risk of transmission to humans in a global, one health approach.. ...
Card and Kruegers meta-analysis of the employment effects of minimum wages challenged existing theory. Unfortunately, their meta-analysis confused publication
The Canadian Financial Monitor (CFM) survey uses non-probability sampling for data collection, so selection bias is likely. We outline methods for obtaining survey weights and discuss the conditions necessary for these weights to eliminate selection bias. We obtain calibration weights for the 2018 and 2019 online CFM samples. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Aims: Selective participation may hamper the validity of population-based cohort studies. The resulting bias can be alleviated by linking auxiliary register data to both the participants and the non-participants of the study, estimating propensity scores for participation and correcting for participation based on these. However, registry holders may not be allowed to disclose sensitive data on (invited) non-participants. Our aim is to provide guidance on how adequate bias correction can be achieved by using auxiliary register data but without disclosing information that could be linked to the subset of non-participants. Methods: We show how existing methods can be used to estimate generalisation weights under various data disclosure scenarios where invited non-participants are indistinguishable from uninvited ones. We also demonstrate how the methods can be implemented using Nordic register data. Results: Inverse-probability-of-sampling weights estimated within a random sample of the target ...
Response 3: Noridian recognizes that availability of tissue is very important. However, this is a limited coverage policy with specific data development expectations for coverage (CDD) focusing on a specific sub-group of patients who have already been tested and found to be negative by other technologies AND have tissue available for testing. As stated above, this policy is NOT about NGS testing more generally. The premise of the Drilon paper is that never- and light-smokers have a higher likelihood of having less complex driver mutations than their smoking counterparts. This premise is well founded with some patients having mutations that were missed by an LDT done at the institution. However, short-comings of the study were: its small size, predominance of never smokers, potential patient selection bias due to the ability to re-biopsy, and limited follow-up on treatment outcomes. In addition, because there was no direct comparison to an FDA-approved companion diagnostic, we cannot directly ...
D PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21331946 participants, management of dropouts, or how cognitive status and potential to consent had been ascertained.The prospective lack of energy and selection bias, implies that the research integrated within this review might contain methodological and statistical biases which have not been properly taken into account.Additionally, the implementation approach, and the education supplied werent described in detail.There was also a wide variation both inside the interventions used and inside the study styles.Hence, a limitation with our literature critique is restricted possibility to compare the research when it comes to high quality and procedures.Furthermore, conclusive suggestions based on aggregated evidence are almost not possible to make, and this in turn limits the conclusions which might be achievable to become drawn based upon this critique.On account of our selection to include each qualitative and CUDC-305 web quantitative research, ...
From time to time, an unexpected finding arises from a clinical trial. The surprise may relate to an endpoint for which there was no prior hypothesis, a subgroup that appears inconsistent with the overall treatment effect, or an unduly large treatment effect that exceeds prior expectations. It may relate to treatment benefit or harm.. The cycle of progress in medical research needs to be borne in mind. A new dramatic claim (whether benefit or harm) is often on the basis of a small study. Accordingly, it is prone to exaggerate the issue, even if the study has no design flaw. The issue becomes high profile without adequate recognition of all of the selection biases that have occurred, for example, across multiple analyses (endpoints, trials, and subgroups). If one focuses on the most extreme result, it will look more impressive than is justified.. One then needs to collect more substantial evidence on the issue, for example, continued follow-up, a larger trial, or a meta-analysis of related ...
Downloadable! We present a simple way to estimate the effects of changes in a vector of observable variables X on a limited dependent variable Y when Y is a general nonseparable function of X and unobservables. We treat models in which Y is censored from above or below or potentially from both. The basic idea is to first estimate the derivative of the conditional mean of Y given X at x with respect to x on the uncensored sample without correcting for the effect of changes in x induced on the censored population. We then correct the derivative for the effects of the selection bias. We propose nonparametric and semiparametric estimators for the derivative. As extensions, we discuss the cases of discrete regressors, measurement error in dependent variables, and endogenous regressors in a cross section and panel data context.
Early studies reported high success rates; in one study in 1925, 60% of patients became seizure-free, and another 35% of patients had a 50% reduction in seizure frequency. These studies generally examined a cohort of patients recently treated by the physician (a retrospective study) and selected patients who had successfully maintained the dietary restrictions. However, these studies are difficult to compare to modern trials. One reason is that these older trials suffered from selection bias, as they excluded patients who were unable to start or maintain the diet and thereby selected from patients who would generate better results. In an attempt to control for this bias, modern study design prefers a prospective cohort (the patients in the study are chosen before therapy begins) in which the results are presented for all patients regardless of whether they started or completed the treatment (known as intent-to-treat analysis).[19 ...
Some medical studies follow a cohort of many people for many years, gathering data on them and sometimes their relatives, so reducing the selection biases that creep into single-snapshot studies.
Strengths of our study contain the huge geographic distribution of your nurses plus the nesting within a very well-defined cohort, which decreases the likelihood of selection bias. Moreover, the specificity of our conclusions with the pregnancy interval areas important constraints on doable residual confounding. Exclusively, any element thats not differentially relevant to PM for the duration of pregnancy as opposed to before or immediately after pregnancy is rather not likely to confound our benefits. So, by way of example, Though inhabitants density, a choice to choose folate nutritional supplements throughout pregnancy, or a host of other opportunity confounders (Grey et al. 2013; Kalkbrenner et al. 2012) could possibly be associated explanation with PM2.five exposure, they might be anticipated to become Similarly relevant to PM2.five exposure ahead of or just after pregnancy as for the duration of it ...
Selection bias is common in clinic-based HIV surveillance. Clinics located in HIV hotspots are often the first to be chosen and monitored, while clinics in less prevalent areas are added to the surveillance system later on. Consequently, the estimated HIV prevalence based on clinic data is substantially distorted, with markedly higher HIV prevalence in the earlier periods and trends that reveal much more dramatic declines than actually occur. Using simulations, we compare and contrast the performance of the various approaches and models for handling selection bias in clinic-based HIV surveillance. In particular, we compare the application of complete-case analysis and multiple imputation (MI). Several models are considered for each of the approaches. We demonstrate the application of the methods through sentinel surveillance data collected between 2002 and 2008 from India. Simulations suggested that selection bias, if not handled properly, can lead to biased estimates of HIV prevalence trends and
In this large prospective study, employees representing occupations from the municipalities and county councils as well as the Swedish industry were included. A limitation is the restriction to those employees who reported sickness absence to AFA Insurance. The response rate in our study was relatively low (60%). In an analysis of a potential selection bias, we tested the proportion of employees with disability pension (,0 day) for the years 2000/2001 for those included in the study who answered the questionnaire, compared with those who did not. We found significantly higher levels of disability pension for the non-responders compared with the responders. This is in line with previous research30 indicating poorer health of persons not participating in health studies.. The measures on treatments and change of occupation as well as most baseline-measures were self-reported, and might therefore be subject to recall bias. Moreover, we could not establish exactly when the treatments took place. ...
PURPOSE: The aim was to study selective participation and its effect on prevalence estimates in a health survey of affected residents 3 weeks after a man-made disaster in The Netherlands (May 13, 2000). METHODS: All affected adult residents were invited to participate. Survey (questionnaire) data were combined with electronic medical records of residents general practitioners (GPs). Data for demographics, relocation, utilization, and morbidity 1 year predisaster and 1 year postdisaster were used. RESULTS: The survey participation rate was 26% (N = 1171). Women (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.67), those living with a partner (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.72-2.33), those aged 45 to 64 years (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.59-2.52), and immigrants (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.30-1.74) were more likely to participate. Participation rate was not affected by relocation because of the disaster. Participants in the survey consulted their GPs for health problems in the year before and after the ...
Notably, there is no bias if U has the same relative effect on heart failure risk among obese and normal weight persons. Bias also depends on the prevalence of heart failure and the effects of obesity on heart failure and mortality overall-all of which can be estimated from available data. With these inputs, we first calculate the prevalence of U in obese and normal weight patients with heart failure (p1 and p0, respectively) and then calculate the biased relative risk (RR) for the effect of obesity on mortality in an analysis not adjusting for U as RRm.obese × [1 + (RRm.u − 1) × p1]/[1 + (RRm.u − 1) × p0], where RRm.obese and RRm.u are the true causal effects of obesity and U on mortality in heart failure patients, respectively.14 This formula assumes that the effect of U on mortality is the same in obese and normal weight heart failure patients.. How large would these unmeasured factors have to be to generate the observed data patterns under the selection bias causal structure? Using ...
This page discusses the nature and extent of two common problems we see with formal evaluations: selection bias and publication bias.
Comprehensive cohort study (CCS) designs are a type of pragmatic trial which include participants who do not consent to be randomised to the treatment group. (see Study Design: Pragmatic Trial). This reduces selection bias and improves generalisability.. In a typical randomised controlled trial (RCT) patients who do not consent to be randomised to treatment are excluded from the trial and all analyses. This may result in selection bias based on patient preference, and therefore a lack of generalisability of the trial results to a real-world population. CCS designs allow the patient preference to be incorporated into the trial, using a parallel-preference group.. At the beginning of a CSS patients preferences are elicited before randomisation occurs, and the study recruits all patients that are eligible regardless of their consent to randomisation. Those who do not consent to randomisation are retained in the study but their treatment choice is made based on preference (often as a combination ...
One of the strangest aspects of our understanding of evolutionary biology is the tendency to conflate a sprawling protean dynamic into a sliver of a phenomenon. Most prominently, evolution is often reduced to a process driven by natural selection, with an emphasis on the natural. When people think of populations evolving they imagine them being buffeted by inclement weather, meteors, or smooth geological shifts. These are all natural, physical phenomena, and they all apply potential selection pressures. But this is not the same as evolution; its just one part. A more subtle aspect of evolution is that much of the selection is due to competition between living organisms, not their relationship to exterior environmental conditions.. The question of what drives evolution is a longstanding one. Stephen Jay Gould famously emphasized of the role of randomness, while Richard Dawkins and others prioritize the shaping power of natural selection. More finely still, there is the distinction between those ...
Our study derives part of its strength from our comprehensive approach apparent from the inclusion of health-related behavioural, psychological and material as well as social determinants. Furthermore, the use of educational status as a proxy for socioeconomic position offered the double advantage of relative stability over a lifespan, and the ease of retrieval and recording. The risk of selection bias was minimized by the choice of educational status, which introduces less reverse causation than its alternative, occupational class and income, as mobility of individuals with poor health into certain strata is less likely to be effected by differences in educational level. Selection bias is more likely to influence health differences by occupational class and income, as occupation and income tends to decrease when an individual become chronically ill [28]. The independent effects of occupation and income were moreover taken into account by making separate adjustments for the effect of each ...
07 How accurate are self-selection selection web surves?0t s? Jelke Betlee Te views expressed in tis paper are tose of te autor(s and do not necessaril reflect te policies of Statistics eterlands Discussion
test in 30 elementary schools with high non-participation rates: ... participation in optional training from 12% to 13.4%, in essential instruction from 3.7% to ...
We achieved a pleasing overall retention rate of 78% at infant age two years. This is comparable to the retention rate of 75% at two years of age recently reported for another Australian RCT of an obesity prevention intervention commencing in infancy. [21] A recent pilot study [22] examining an early feeding intervention with first-time mothers (n=160) reported 69% retention at age 12-months. In these studies the intervention was delivered via six and two home visits respectively and as such had much lower participant burden than NOURISH. The NOURISH retention rate is consistent with other longitudinal nutrition studies such as the dietary intake and anthropometric sub-studies of the well-regarded ALSPAC which had 5-6 year retention rates of 54% [23] and 64% [24]. Consistent with the pattern of selection bias, there was evidence of attrition (retention) bias in both maternal age and education. The potential impact of this bias on outcomes will be considered through planned comprehensive process ...
Randomisation eliminates selection bias: there are, however, other forms of bias we guard against. We also take measures to ensure the external validity of trial results. We will undertake the following:. • Adherence to local guidelines for radiographic assessment will be actively promoted. If not stipulated already, we will encourage the use of the full shoulder trauma series [8]. Documentation including a power point presentation illustrating the full trauma series will be made available as part of the trial materials. A minimum of two radiographic views/projections is required for the assessment of study eligibility.. • At the end of the recruitment period, there will be scrutiny and categorization based on the Neer classification system, using pre-prepared forms, of the baseline radiographs of all randomised patients. This will be performed by an independent panel of musculoskeletal radiologists or orthopaedic surgeons who have experience with the Neer classification [3]. Copies of ...
This course will provide students with an introduction to advanced topics in survey data analysis. In Survey Data Analysis DEMO8014 students are introduced to basic multivariate statistical methods for analysing survey data. The present course will provide several important extensions: (1) dealing with sample selection bias and endogeneity bias in survey data (instrumental variable regression and Heckman selection correction); (2) using panel data to control for unobserved heterogeneity (fixed effects and random effects models); (3) modelling the time to an event (survival analysis) and (4) multi-level modelling for hierarchical or clustered data. Participants will gain experience in using the Stata statistical software package to apply these methods to survey data. ...
Although no other treatments showed any clear or reliable effects, most of the studies included in this review had several problems. Many trials were at an unclear risk of selection bias, and some trials were rated as having high risk of detection bias. We considered it unlikely that blinding of participants or providers would introduce any important bias, and we did not downgrade for this reason. It is possible to blind assessors in studies of psychological interventions, and we considered that any lack of assessor blinding could introduce bias and contribute to downgrading our quality assessment. Only four studies were clearly free of selective outcome reporting, with several studies not reporting all outcomes. All identified trials were at a high risk of bias owing to incomplete outcome data; however, this result reflected a high rate of attrition in studies of this type of population rather than a methodological deficiency in the studies themselves. In addition, the definitions of prodromal, ...
However, when the questions to be answered arise in and from more complex patient populations in which the patient characteristics and interventions are more complex and heterogeneous it become much more difficult to separate out causality from bias,confounding and even random variation.In fact, some times it is more than difficult in that after the trial has been done and analyzed we still do not know the answer we were searching for. Case in point is the recent back surgery for herniated disc versus conservative management RCT published in JAMA. In this instance, there was so much cross over between the two groups as they were randomized that the intent to treat analysis was not considered valid and the as treated analysis suffers from the very real risk of selection bias which is why we have randomization in the first place. One is left with the disturbing thought that it may not be possible to solve this clinical issue by doing a randomized trial as long as we deal with patients who are ...
Our study had several methodological strengths, including the matching process of villages across the implementation boundaries. While we used propensity score matching using census data from several years before the study, we found that the villages matched well on multiple observed dimensions not used in the matching process, suggesting that the villages were matched on unobserved variables as well. We also focused on health outcomes proximal to the services covered by the scheme, as its circumscribed set of covered services enabled measurement of changes in cause specific mortality even if changes in general population health were difficult to measure.. This study was, however, also limited in several ways. First, it was quasi-experimental in that the scheme was not randomly assigned to villages. This posed several methodological challenges but also presented opportunities for using rigorous approaches designed to reduce selection bias. The northern portion of Karnataka was selected for ...
Jason Thomas research focuses on health and mortality with an emphasis on the social and economic processes that generate inequalities in these outcomes over the life course. His work also explores the intergenerational component of the associations involving health, family structure, and the development of skills and traits in childhood and adolescence. In this work he pursues his interest in quantitative methodology by tackling issues related to sample selection biases, missing data, and unobserved heterogeneity. Dr. Thomas is currently working on a project that seeks to explain the role that experiences early in life play in producing the steepening of the education-mortality gradient in the United States.. ...
We externally validated and compared seven published models for the prediction of CKD onset [14, 15], using a recent 5-year window with well-studied EHR data, typical of UK NHS primary care and chronic disease management. All models discriminated well between patients who developed CKD compared with those who did not. Five models had an associated simplified scoring system, each of which had a similar performance to its parent model. Only two models were well-calibrated to the risk levels in our population [36, 54]. Among the 10 % of patients with highest predicted risks, 48.0 % to 64.5 % actually developed CKD.. Two key strengths of this study are (1) its large sample size and (2) its cohort being based on a geographically-defined population rather than tied to a particular EHR, which minimizes selection bias at enrolment. In addition, whilst five out of seven models had already been externally validated [17, 36, 51, 54, 55, 58] and two had been mutually compared [17], our study is the first ...
A randomized trial is needed to eliminate possible selection biases in our observational study that are related to the prescription of replacement hormones. Nevertheless, hormone-replacement therapy appears to be associated with a favorable physiologic profile, which probably mediates its protective …
This survey was conducted online within the U.S. by Harris Interactive on behalf of CareerBuilder.com among 6,704 U.S. employees (employed full-time; not self-employed) ages 18 and over within the U.S. between November 13 and December 3, 2007. Figures for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, region and household income were weighted where necessary to bring them into line with their actual proportions in the population. The data have been weighted to reflect the composition of U.S. employees, and propensity score weighting was also used to adjust for respondents propensity to be online. With a pure probability sample of 6,704, one could say with a 95 percent probability that the overall results have a sampling error of +/- 1.3% percentage points. Sampling error for data from sub-samples is higher and varies. However that does not take other sources of error into account. This online survey is not based on a probability sample and therefore no theoretical sampling error can be calculated. A full ...
James Poterba is President of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is also the Mitsui Professor of Economics at M.I.T ...
Is there bias in the sample used in the study? Are there any problems in defining or measuring the variables of interest - Answered by a verified Tutor
In this study of 196 SCFE treated at a tertiary-care childrens hospital, the median delay in diagnosis was 8.0 weeks. Longer delay in diagnosis was associated with greater slip severity. Longer delays in diagnosis were identified in patients with primarily knee/distal-thigh pain (compared with those with primarily hip/proximal-thigh pain), in patients with Medicaid coverage (compared with those with private insurance), and in patients with stable slips (compared with those with unstable slips).. Limitations of this study include potential selection bias and the operational definition of some covariates. Because of the tertiary-care nature of the study setting, cases with greater delays in diagnosis and greater slip severity may have been preferentially selected. Because of the retrospective nature of this study, the primary outcome measure and covariate definitions were limited by the quality of available data in the medical record. Patients without a documented delay in diagnosis in terms of ...
Downloadable! In the neighbourhood effects literature, the socialisation mechanism is usually investigated by looking at the association between neighbourhood characteristics and educational attainment. The step in between, that adolescents actually internalise educational norms held by residents, is often assumed. We attempt to fill this gap by looking at how educational commitments are influenced by neighbourhood characteristics. We investigate this process for migrant youth, a group that lags behind in educational attainment compared to native youth, and might therefore be particularly vulnerable to neighbourhood effects. To test our hypothesis we used longitudinal panel data with five waves (N=4179), combined with fixed-effects models which control for a large portion of potential selection bias. These models have an advantage over naïve OLS models in that they predict the effect of change in neighbourhood characteristics on change in educational commitment, and therefore offer a more dynamic
Introduction: Studies of delirium after acute stroke focus on stroke units (SUs). A protective effect of SUs against delirium has been suggested. We hypothesized that selection bias against medically complex patients accounts for this apparent effect.. Methods: An observational cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients was screened for post-stroke delirium. Delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Key patient variables were prospectively recorded including initial NIHSS score and medical complications. Univariate associations with delirium were identified and a logistic regression model was developed for the entire cohort. Separate logistic regression models were also developed for non-stroke unit (NSU) and SU patients. The SU consisted of a specialized stroke ward, step-down stroke unit, and a neuroscience ICU.. Results: Over 10 months 246 patients (56% male, mean 65 years, 29% in NSUs) met inclusion criteria. Delirium occurred in 30 (12%) patients and was less ...
The authors conclude: [C]ancer care and research are becoming more global and complex as clinicians incorporate new knowledge about the molecular characteristics of the disease, the addition of new and often targeted treatments, [and] greater reliance on shared decision making and patient input while also confronting rising costs. Observational research offers a previously untapped resource to navigate and inform these health care decisions. This research is likely to rapidly expand the evidence base that supports critical aspects of cancer care decision making and that complements the evidence collected in [randomized controlled trials]. The knowledge gained from observational studies will help the cancer care community reach its goal of providing high-quality, evidence-based care to all patients with cancer.. Laura A. Levit, JD, of ASCO, is the corresponding author of the Journal of Clinical Oncology article.. The content in this post has not been reviewed by the American Society of Clinical ...
The number of people with a chronic disease will strongly increase in the next decades. Therefore, prevention of disease becomes increasingly important. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that negatively influence participation in population-based disease prevention programs in General Practice and to establish whether the program type is related to non-participation levels. We conducted a systematic review in Pubmed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, covering 2000 through July 6th 2012, to identify publications including information about characteristics of non-participants or reasons for non-participation in population-based disease prevention programs in General Practice. A total of 24 original studies met our criteria, seven of which focused on vaccination, eleven on screening aimed at early detection of disease, and six on screening aimed at identifying high risk of a disease, targeting a variety of diseases and conditions. Lack of personal relevance of the program, younger age,
The objective of this study was to compare the overall survival of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy versus noncancer controls to discern whether there is a survival advantage according to prostate cancer treatment and the impact of selection bias on these results.
Primary PTCA has compared favorably with fibrinolytic therapy in the treatment of AMI in a number of randomized controlled trials (8,13,14). These trials largely excluded patients who were fibrinolytic ineligible for various reasons, with the presence of chest pain for ,12 h among them. Although it is widely assumed that these patients benefit from late reperfusion therapy with PTCA, this issue has not been well studied. A study of 139 patients presenting with 6 to 48 h of chest pain with a median time to angioplasty of 15 h found a 5.5% in-hospital mortality rate in patients who had successful primary PTCA (15). Mortality was substantially higher when angioplasty was unsuccessful, or when performed in the presence of cardiogenic shock, advanced age or an ejection fraction ≤30%. However, there was no control group in this trial.. The MATE trial (Medicine vs. Angiography in Thrombolytic Exclusion) randomized fibrinolytic ineligible patients with acute coronary syndromes to early triage ...
To date, considerable research has focused on ARG dissemination between natural ecosystems and humans or domestic animals (for examples, see references 27 and 44 to 46). However, less attention has been paid to understanding whether ARGs circulate independently within wild animal populations after an introductory anthropogenic spillover event (but see references 27 and 47). In this study, we investigated the potential drivers shaping patterns of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli within a population of wild giraffe. While we did find clinically resistant E. coli in this population, social network analyses provided little evidence for the spread of acquired ARGs via interhost associations. Instead, the presence of AMR in this population may be primarily driven by repeated spillover of resistant bacteria from anthropogenic sources or related to other potential selection pressures for ARGs.. Giraffe home ranges overlap extensively with herds of domestic cattle, and all animals within OPC share common ...
A common application of the inverse Mills ratio (sometimes also called non-selection hazard) arises in regression analysis to take account of a possible selection bias. If a dependent variable is censored (i.e., not for all observations a positive outcome is observed) it causes a concentration of observations at zero values. This problem was first acknowledged by Tobin (1958), who showed that if this is not taken into consideration in the estimation procedure, an ordinary least squares estimation will produce biased parameter estimates.[6] With censored dependent variables there is a violation of the Gauss-Markov assumption of zero correlation between independent variables and the error term.[7] James Heckman proposed a two-stage estimation procedure using the inverse Mills ratio to correct for the selection bias.[8][9] In a first step, a regression for observing a positive outcome of the dependent variable is modeled with a probit model. The inverse Mills ratio must be generated from the ...
List of words make out of Nonparticipants. Anagrams of word Nonparticipants. Words made after scrabbling Nonparticipants. Word Creation helps in Anagrams and Puzzles.
This EULAR task force has defined an RA core set, including both items and instruments to support standardised RA data collection in clinical practice and research. This will enable collaborative research studies and increase comparability across studies.. Unlike most previous core sets, this set was specifically developed keeping clinical feasibility in mind. Importantly, core underscores that the set represents a minimum, acknowledging that individual stakeholders are likely to add items or instruments of particular interest to their own data collection.. Consensus for inclusion was straightforward for the majority of items: 16 of the final 21 items were agreed in the first round of voting. Six additional items were included, and after a ratification survey and discussion, joint surgery was excluded in the subsequent process. Discussion for each item is summarised in table 3 in the online supplementary file 1. Of the 26 items ultimately excluded from the core data set, nine were seen as ...
Of all the potential forms of bias that limit the validity and generalisability of clinical trial findings, selection bias is probably the most important. In the Miceli-Richard study, particularly, a number of aspects regarding the source and characteristics of the participants merit careful consideration.. Firstly, the participants were recruited from general practice. Normally this should be beneficial and reduce the referral selection that accompanies many hospital based studies. However, there were fully 200 recruiting sites giving a very small average recruitment of just 3-4 patients for each practitioner. Apart from the difficulty of standardising the research conduct of 200 study personnel the generalisability of the findings is greatly diminished. It would have been far preferable, and more cost effective, to have enrolled a larger number of participants from a smaller number of centres, thus capturing a greater proportion of representative patients from the total available OA population ...
Selection bias. The manner in which individuals are selected into a study cohort and subsequently into an analysis sample can produce biased results. Diabetics younger than 60 years old have at least double the mortality rate of nondiabetics of the same age [20], meaning that fewer diabetics survive to the age of eligibility for enrollment into studies of AD. Therefore, the diabetic participants in these studies represent a selected subset of individuals, likely with better-controlled, less severe or more recently acquired diabetes and better overall health. Further, death, worsening health and the burden of study participation contribute significantly to the selective depletion of diabetic participants from study cohorts over time. The mortality rate among diabetics aged 60-79 is 30% to 148% higher than among non-diabetics of the same age [20]. This pattern of selective attrition can be seen in longitudinal studies of cognitive decline and AD. For instance, a history of diabetes was predictive ...
Henrikson and colleagues (1) concluded that pain relief by nitroglycerin did not predict disease in 459 patients admitted to the hospital for work-up of possible ischemic heart disease. Many study participants with missing or uninterpretable test results were dropped from the analysis, an important type of selection bias that can be measured (and eliminated) when calculating likelihood ratios (2). In addition, the study involved a highly select subgroup-patients with rest pain occurring during evaluation-rather than all patients presenting with chest pain. However, the most serious threat to the validity and generalizability of Henrikson and colleagues findings ...
Background: Online recruitment is feasible, low-cost, and can provide high-quality epidemiological data. However, little is known about the feasibility of recruiting postpartum women online, or sample representativeness. Objective: The current study investigates the feasibility of recruiting a population of postpartum women online for health research and examines sample representativeness. Methods: Two samples of postpartum women were compared: those recruited online as participants in a brief survey of new mothers (n=1083) and those recruited face-to-face as part of a nationally representative study (n=579). Sociodemographic, general health, and mental health characteristics were compared between the two samples. Results: Obtaining a sample of postpartum women online for health research was highly efficient and low-cost. The online sample over-represented those who were younger (aged 25-29 years), were in a de facto relationship, had higher levels of education, spoke only English at home, and were
In Europe there are more than 20 large longitudinal studies in which the main focus has been or is to study prenatal or early life factors in relation to adult disease risk. Many of them are historical cohort studies, or data collection has started after birth retrospectively at various points of life. The most important historical cohort studies, from the point of view of the fetal origin hypothesis, are the Hertfordshire,4 14Preston,12 21 and Sheffield8 studies, as well as the Helsinki27 and Uppsala28 cohort studies.. The studies to date have had a number of important limitations that complicate interpretation. They have not been able to address the complexities of interactions between environmental and genetic factors in explaining the associations between maternal, fetal, and later life factors in the evolution of adult CVD risk. This is because they have been variously too small; retrospective and therefore subject to survival and selection biases; or prospective, but in children and ...
This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.
In the literature, use of TEE estimates is inconsistent and a topic of methodological research [25, 26, 39, 49, 51]. The following are examples of methods to distinguish individuals who are under-reporters, plausible reporters and over-reporters or to control for magnitude of over- and under-reporting.. I. The ratio of total energy intake to TEE. Different approaches of using the ratio can be undertaken. A study may exclude individuals based on certain cut-points defined within that study, for example bottom and/or top percentiles and means ±1 standard deviation (Note the standard deviation represents within-individual variation or uncertainty of the ratio). Some more recent studies have suggested statistical adjustment for the ratio to hold degrees of misreporting consistent in a population and stratification of results based on misreporting status to avoid unnecessary loss of power and introduction of unpredictable selection bias [26, 49, 51].. Using the ratio of total energy intake to TEE, ...
Theres also the issue of there being far more demand for reviews than time to do them. Selection of products for review is currently governed by Mikes editorial instincts (selection bias in a positive manner). Products are prioritized by how interesting they are likely to be to our readers, and how likely they are to actually get a positive review (based on a visual inspection and the weight of experience). There is probably a years worth of backlog products in the pipeline, and many products simply never see reviews because they are out of date or irrelevant by the time we get to them. Point being, we already break promises of reviews to manufacturers all the time because we simply dont have time to do every review. Reader-donated money creates obligations towards readers that are likely to be broken unless we can find a way to guarantee that the reviews get done. Guaranteeing that every product that sees a certain level of donation is not the way to do this ...
Background/Purpose: Glucocorticoid reduction in different profiles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and sarilumab treatment. Real clinical practice studies are tasked with providing clinically relevant data that may clarify the benefits of this new IL-6 receptor blocking alternative, with higher affinity and dosing every two weeks. Beyond the magnitude of the effect that a drug can give us in a randomized, double-blind, control group clinical trial, the well-known selection biases of these studies do not always offer a representative picture of reality when using that drug on the day consultation day. Methods: The data, hereafter commented, is the result of a retrospective analysis carried out in March 2020 on patients who were assigned to Sarilumab from September 2018 to November 2019 and therefore have at least a first clinical evaluation carried out 12 weeks after their Start. This study offers in our opinion several novelties: Firstly, almost two thirds of the analyzed cohort are ...
Infanti JJ, ODea A1, Gibson I, McGuire BE, Newell J, Glynn LG, ONeill C, Connolly SB, Dunne FP. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2014 Jan 24;14:13. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-14-13.. ...
If a population is finite in size (as all populations are) and if a given pair of parents have only a small number of offspring, then even in the absence of all selective forces, the frequency of a gene will not be exactly reproduced in the next generation because of sampling error. If in a population of 1000 individuals the frequency of a is 0.5 in one generation, then it may by chance be 0.493 or 0.505 in the next generation because of the chance production of a few more or less progeny of each genotype. In the second generation, there is another sampling error based on the new gene frequency, so the frequency of a may go from 0.505 to 0.501 or back to 0.498. This process of random fluctuation continues generation after generation, with no force pushing the frequency back to its initial state because the population has no genetic memory of its state many generations ago. Each generation is an independent event. The final result of this random change in allele frequency is that the ...
If a population is finite in size (as all populations are) and if a given pair of parents have only a small number of offspring, then even in the absence of all selective forces, the frequency of a gene will not be exactly reproduced in the next generation because of sampling error. If in a population of 1000 individuals the frequency of a is 0.5 in one generation, then it may by chance be 0.493 or 0.505 in the next generation because of the chance production of a few more or less progeny of each genotype. In the second generation, there is another sampling error based on the new gene frequency, so the frequency of a may go from 0.505 to 0.501 or back to 0.498. This process of random fluctuation continues generation after generation, with no force pushing the frequency back to its initial state because the population has no genetic memory of its state many generations ago. Each generation is an independent event. The final result of this random change in allele frequency is that the ...
If a population is finite in size (as all populations are) and if a given pair of parents have only a small number of offspring, then even in the absence of all selective forces, the frequency of a gene will not be exactly reproduced in the next generation because of sampling error. If in a population of 1000 individuals the frequency of a is 0.5 in one generation, then it may by chance be 0.493 or 0.505 in the next generation because of the chance production of a few more or less progeny of each genotype. In the second generation, there is another sampling error based on the new gene frequency, so the frequency of a may go from 0.505 to 0.501 or back to 0.498. This process of random fluctuation continues generation after generation, with no force pushing the frequency back to its initial state because the population has no genetic memory of its state many generations ago. Each generation is an independent event. The final result of this random change in allele frequency is that the ...
Rethinking the assessment of risk of bias due to selective reporting: a cross-sectional study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Not so bothered about the people and cows... A bit of a self-selection blip given its the only photo taken today - and that was for a different...
Researchers seeking to establish causal relationships frequently control for variables on the purported causal pathway, checking whether the original treatment effect then disappears. Unfortunately, this common approach may lead to biased estimates. In this article, we show that the bias can be avoided by focusing on a quantity of interest called the controlled direct effect. Under certain conditions, the controlled direct effect enables researchers to rule out competing explanations--an important objective for political scientists.
First, researchers clearly define the sample used for each study. This helps readers understand what biases may have been built into the data due to the sample. If possible, researchers will compare the sample to other estimates to help the reader understand further what differences this particular sample may have from the total population. For example, authors often list the age and ethnic backgrounds of the women in the study. They explain where the participants were recruited, and even how many of the eligible women agreed to participate.. Second, researchers repeat previous studies with different samples. Remember, every sample provides an estimate of the true value, and no researcher considers their study to represent the whole picture of a problem. Multiple similar studies help researchers understand where that true value lies, and how differences in the sample change that value. For example, in the discussion or conclusion section of a study researchers will often discuss how the ...
AI bias on black skin diseases. A number of reports have echoed the non inclusiveness of AI tools with a strong bias to caucasian white skin