High-throughput cultivation studies have been successful at bringing numerous important marine bacterioplankton lineages into culture, yet these frequently utilize natural seawater media that can hamper portability, reproducibility, and downstream characterization efforts. Here we report the results of seven experiments with a set of newly developed artificial seawater media and evaluation of cultivation success via comparison with community sequencing data from the inocula. Eighty-two new isolates represent highly important marine clades, including SAR116, OM60/NOR5, SAR92, Roseobacter, and SAR11. For many, isolation with an artificial seawater medium is unprecedented, and several organisms are also the first of their type from the Gulf of Mexico. Community analysis revealed that many isolates were among the 20 most abundant organisms in their source inoculum. This method will expand the accessibility of bacterioplankton cultivation experiments and improve repeatability by avoiding normal ...
Insight into the response of reef corals and other major marine calcifiers to ocean acidification is limited by a lack of knowledge about how seawater pH and carbonate chemistry impact the physiological processes that drive biomineralization. Ocean acidification is proposed to reduce calcification rates in corals by causing declines in internal pH at the calcifying tissue-skeleton interface where biomineralization takes place. Here, we performed an in vivo study on how partial-pressure CO2-driven seawater acidification impacts intracellular pH in coral calcifying cells and extracellular pH in the fluid at the tissue-skeleton interface [subcalicoblastic medium (SCM)] in the coral Stylophora pistillata. We also measured calcification in corals grown under the same conditions of seawater acidification by measuring lateral growth of colonies and growth of aragonite crystals under the calcifying tissue. Our findings confirm that seawater acidification decreases pH of the SCM, but this decrease is ...
An improved composition for preparing artificial sea-water comprises an electrolyte mixture which, upon being dissolved in a proper amount of water, forms an aqueous solution which simulates natural sea-water in composition except that it contains one or more boron compounds within a concentration range from 0.002 to 0.05 w/v % calculated as boron. The pH stability of an artificial sea-water is improved by adding one or more boron compounds thereto.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ocean acidification on the speciation of metals in seawater. AU - Millero, Frank J.. AU - Woosley, Ryan. AU - Ditrolio, Benjamin. AU - Waters, Jason. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - Increasing atmospheric CO 2 over the next 200 years will cause the pH of ocean waters to decrease further. Many recent studies have examined the effect of decreasing pH on calcifying organisms in ocean waters and on other biological processes (photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, elemental ratios, and community structure). In this review, we examine how pH will change the organic and inorganic speciation of metals in surface ocean waters, and the effect that it will have on the interactions of metals with marine organisms. We consider both kinetic and equilibrium processes. The decrease in concentration of OH - and CO 3 2- ions can affect the solubility, adsorption, toxicity, and rates of redox processes of metals in seawater. Future studies are needed to examine how pH affects the ...
Samples for seawater chemistry were collected in Niskin and borosilicate bottles and analyzed for total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and nutrients following standard procedures as indicated in the supplemental information.. Seawater samples from Palauan reefs were collected during daylight hours in September 2011 and March 2012. Samples from Rose Atoll, Palmyra Atoll, Kingman Atoll, and Jarvis Island were collected during NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP) cruises during daylight hours of March/April of 2006, 2008 2010, 2012, and a September 2012 cruise to Jarvis Island. Panama Ω and nitrate are taken from Manzello et al. (2008) and DCroz and ODea (2007), respectively. Parentheses indicate climatological values from World Ocean Atlas and the Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP).. Aragonite saturation state was determined from TA and DIC of seawater preserved with HgCl2 following methods and calculations described in Shamberger et al. (2014). The ...
Water was collected via Niskin bottles mounted on a rosette, equipped with a CTD.. Experiments on (operationally defined) particles were carried out by gravity-filtering water through 3 um pore size filters. 1/12th sections of the 3 um pore-size filters were submerged in 15 mL artificial seawater; enzyme activities were measured as described below.. The potential of the seawater microbial community associated with large particles (, 3 micrometer pore size filter) to hydrolyze six high-molecular-weight polysaccharides (arabinogalactan, chondroitin sulfate, fucoidan, laminarin, pullulan, and xylan) was investigated in surface and bottom water. For each substrate, three 15 mL falcon tubes were filled with autoclaved artificial seawater and one 15 mL falcon tube was filled with autoclaved seawater and a blank filter piece to serve as a killed control. Substrate was added at 3.5 uM monomer-equivalent concentrations, except for fucoidan, which was added at 5 uM concentrations (a higher concentration ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Physico-Chemical Controls on Seawater. AU - Millero, F. J.. PY - 2013/11/1. Y1 - 2013/11/1. N2 - The physical-chemical controls on seawater can be attributed to the effect that the composition of the major components have on the thermodynamics and kinetics of processes in the oceans. In this chapter, an earlier review on the experimental and modeling work that has been done on how the major components of seawater control rates and equilibria of processes in the oceans has been updated. The effect of major components on the physical-chemical properties of seawater, the carbonate system in the oceans and the effect of ocean acidification on speciation of metals in seawater has been emphasized.. AB - The physical-chemical controls on seawater can be attributed to the effect that the composition of the major components have on the thermodynamics and kinetics of processes in the oceans. In this chapter, an earlier review on the experimental and modeling work that has been done on how ...
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Drixine PureSea Baby Nasal Spray 75ml is made from natural seawater and restores easy breathing. It helps to clear nasal congestion and wash away allergens, vir
To label cellular outlines, embryos were incubated for 15 min in 5 μM BODIPY564/570 coupled to propionic acid (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) in natural seawater, then rinsed twice in natural seawater and mounted in a 1:1 mixture of natural seawater and 7.5% MgCl2 to prevent muscular contractions. Time-lapse recordings were performed with a PerkinElmer (Wellesley, MA) Ultraview RS System (spinning disk confocal). Embryos were kept during recordings (12 frames per hour) at a constant temperature of 25C or 26C in natural seawater between slide and coverslip separated by two layers of adhesive tape and silicone paste. The chamber was sealed with mineral oil (Sigma, St. Louis, MO).. ...
Elongation of the dorsal trunk ectoderm closely matches that of the ventral body side, but shows very little convergence. This time-lapse movie shows ...
Recent advances in studying the dynamics of marine microbial communities have shown that the composition of these communities follows predictable patterns and involves complex network interactions, which shed light on the underlying processes regulating these globally important organisms. Such holi …
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Binghamton graduate student Mebrahtu Weldeghebriel is a man of many firsts: He is the Universitys first student from Eritrea, and he is presenting the first interpretation of what changed the chemistry of ancient seawater by analyzing minor and trace elements.. Scientists initially thought the chemical composition of seawater was constant. In the late 20th century, however, indirect evidence revealed that seawater chemistry has changed systematically at particular time periods during the past 550 million years. Knowing how the oceans and climate changed previously gives scientists insights into how it might change in the future.. Weldeghebriel aims to understand what caused these changes. He believes they could be a result of variations in the rate of seafloor spreading and fluctuations in hydrothermal vents, which release ions that react with the existing seawater.. To substantiate this idea, Weldeghebriel and his advisor, Tim Lowenstein, analyze marine halite, a mineral that traps and ...
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant DEB#1545288, 10/1/2015-9/30/19 and DEB#1929393, 09/01/2019-08/31/2024. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.. ...
Research Background. 97.5% of the water on Earth is seawater and only 2.5% is freshwater. Within this percentage, a mere 0.01% of freshwater resources can be easily treated in order to be utilized by humankind. However, the human population continues to increase every year. Consequently, it has been predicted that in several years time, two thirds of the worlds population will have insufficient access to freshwater. A worldwide water shortage is one of the gravest issues facing humankind. Therefore, technologies that can obtain the necessary resources by converting the Earths abundant seawater into freshwater are paramount.. Evaporation methods have been used to convert seawater to freshwater, however they require large amounts of energy in order to evaporate the seawater and remove the salt (desalination). On the other hand, membrane separation methods provide a low energy alternative; they enable freshwater to be produced by filtering water out of seawater and removing the salt. Methods of ...
There are two oceans in Earth s polar regions: the Arctic Ocean, which occupies most of the north polar region, and the Southern Ocean, which surrounds the continent of Antarctica in the south polar region. Oceans in the polar regions are a bit different from the other oceans on Earth (the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean). There is often sea ice at the surface of polar oceans, especially during the winter months. Both the Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean are homes to unique marine ecosystems that thrive in the cold conditions. Seawater from polar regions can be denser than seawater from other regions. This is because seawater in the polar oceans is often colder than other seawater. It can also become more saline than normal in the winter when sea ice freezes at the ocean surface. The salty part of the water does not freeze, making the remaining seawater saltier. Because it is denser, this seawater sinks to the bottom of the ocean. It travels in slow currents around the bottom of the world ...
Although pH is a fundamental property of Earths oceans, critical to our understanding of seawater biogeochemistry, its long-timescale geologic history is poorly constrained. We constrain seawater pH through time by accounting for the cycles of the major components of seawater. We infer an increase from early Archean pH values between ~6.5 and 7.0 and Phanerozoic…
All products in the MARIMER sprays range are made using quality seawater rich in dietary-minerals such as copper, zinc and manganese, known for their therapeutic properties in treatment of respiratory infections. This pure seawater is taken from the bay of Mont Saint Michel in Saint-Malo, France, reputed for its high tides of more than 15 metres which, due to violent currents, provide high-levels of water oxygenation and an abundance of minerals ...
Abstract. Observations indicate an expansion of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) over the past 50 years, likely related to ongoing deoxygenation caused by reduced oxygen solubility, changes in stratification and circulation, and a potential acceleration of organic matter turnover in a warming climate. The overall area of ocean sediments that are in direct contact with low-oxygen bottom waters also increases with expanding OMZs. This leads to a release of phosphorus from ocean sediments. If anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions continue unabated, higher temperatures will cause enhanced weathering on land, which, in turn, will increase the phosphorus and alkalinity fluxes into the ocean and therefore raise the oceans phosphorus inventory even further. A higher availability of phosphorus enhances biological production, remineralisation and oxygen consumption, and might therefore lead to further expansions of OMZs, representing a positive feedback. A negative feedback arises from the enhanced ...
Korean university UNIST will be working with public organisations in the energy sector to develop a new type of eco-friendly battery that can store and produce electricity using seawater. The project is expected to accelerate the commercialisation of eco-friendly, cost-efficient, and high-stability seawater batteries.. The projects consortium includes Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO), Korea East-West Power Company Ltd. (EWP), and the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST).. Seawater batteries use sodium, the sixth-most abundant element on earth, to generate electricity. This makes this system an attractive supplement to existing battery technologies. Furthermore, this new type of battery is much cheaper and more environmentally friendly than lithium and will, therefore, offer a low-cost route to large-scale energy storage. Moreover, the use of seawater can also considerably reduce fire risks, as it keeps the thermal fluid in good condition.. Seawater batteries ...
​The life of a seawater pump is limited, even if maintenance activities such as replacement of sealing and impeller are performed regularly. The reason for this is corrosion, which is caused by the constant condensation of the pump even if the engine is at a standstill, as well as material removal due to erosions as a result of the high flow speed of the seawater inside the pump housing. Often small but steadily increasing leakages, usually at the bottom of the housing, are signs of a seawater pump's demise. At that point, you should think about a replacement. In order to assist skilled skippers in carrying out their own repairs without causing a total financial loss, we have now offered seawater pumps for the most common types of engines on the market since 2015. Dimensions, connection widths, flow rates and shaft diameters can be found in the table. There you will also find information on which pump is suitable for which manufacturer/motor type. We have seawater pumps (impeller pumps) from the
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Researchers are looking for ways that crab and fish in Alaska may be able to adapt to more acidic ocean water.. With carbon dioxide levels rising on the planet, ocean water absorbs some of that CO2 and water becomes more acidic. That change is already impacting a variety of sea creatures.. Members of the Alaska Ocean Acidification Network gave an update to Alaskas Board of Fisheries and a public presentation on the topic in Anchorage in October. The network is a group of researchers, managers and stakeholders interested in the looming problem.. Its not that there hasnt been variability in the amount of carbon dioxide. Its not that this hasnt happened before, said Robert Foy, director of NOAA Fisheries Alaska Fisheries Science Center. Its the speed at which it is happening during our lifetime and whether or not the animals and plants in the ocean are able to adapt fast enough given the speed at which its occurring.. Foy outlined recent research from a variety of sources on the impacts ...
General. Aplysia californica (75-350 gm) were obtained from Alacrity Marine Biological Specimens (Redondo Beach, CA) and Marinus (Long Beach, CA) and were individually caged and kept in an aquarium containing artificial seawater (ASW) at ∼15°C with a 12 hr light/dark cycle. Animals were fed dried seaweed every other day. Three types of artificial seawater were used. Normal ASW contained (in mm): NaCl, 460; KCl, 10; CaCl2, 11; MgCl2, 30; MgSO4, 20; NaHCO3, 2.5; and HEPES, 10; pH 7.7. Low Ca2+/high Mg2+ ASW contained (in mm): NaCl, 400; KCl, 10; CaCl2, 1; MgCl2, 80; MgSO4, 20; NaHCO3, 2.5; and HEPES, 10; pH 7.7. High Ca2+/high Mg2+ ASW contained (in mm): NaCl, 386; KCl, 8; CaCl2, 13.8; MgCl2, 90; MgSO4, 20; NaHCO3, 2.5; and HEPES, 10; pH 7.7. During all procedures, except the initial dissection of the reduced tail preparation (see below), the preparations were maintained at ∼15°C. Tail sensory and motor neurons were identified based on their location, size, and electrical properties (Walters ...
Looking for Bight of Biafra? Find out information about Bight of Biafra. town, SE Nigeria, in the Niger River delta, on the Bight of Biafra. In the 18th and 19th cent., Bonny was the center of a powerful trading state, and in the... Explanation of Bight of Biafra
Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) has always been one of the favourite desalination technologies worldwide due to its high efficiency and low operating cost. However, one of the inherent drawbacks of SWRO is its prone to membrane fouling because of the high total dissolved solids concentration in seawater. As such, pre-treatment units have become more vital since they can effectively filter the seawater before the feed reaches the main reverse osmosis (RO) unit. Among the pre-treatment units, nanofiltration (NF) membrane has attracted more attention recently because with its nanoscale pores, NF can reject the divalent ions and in turn, reduces the scaling potential in RO membrane. In this project, the objective was to investigate the performance of the novel low-pressure hollow fibre NF membranes from Singapore Membrane Technology Centre in actual seawater conditions. The membranes, namely NF Loose (NFL) and NF Tight (NFT), were fabricated by the layer-by-layer deposition process and were compared ...
Tropic Marin BIO-Calcium ACTIF, 64 oz. - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on Tropic Marin BIO-Calcium ACTIF, 64 oz.. - Buy Tropic Marin BIO-Calcium ACTIF, 64 oz. - Now Only $34.95 - Tropic Marin BIO-Calcium ACTIF, 64 oz. Biologically ideal calcium supply & pH optimization Increases calcium, alkalinity & pH for optimum coral growth without disturbing the ionic balance Contains all 70 trace elements in the concentrations found in natural seawater No unnatural by-products Stabilization of optimal pH level to promote coral growth Calcium, alkalinity, and pH work together in the water to reach calcite saturation, which is essential for optimum growth of corals and coralline algae. Our Tropic Marin Bio-Calcium Actif is a simple, efficient way to raise all three factors for optimal growth of corals and coralline algae while creating the ideal conditions for successful reef aquariums. Natural seawater has a calcium content of approximately 410 mg/l, an alkalinity of 6.5 dKH
The Keahole Point pipeline shore crossing project involved open water construction that included driving two sets of parallel 67″ steel cased tunnels, from a 50 foot deep drive shaft located 15 feet from the Pacific Ocean. These tunnels were unique in that the shaft was located on the beach while two of the tunnels were at approximately 8% downward grade and the other two at a 1% upward grade. The shafts required extensive engineering to withstand both the jacking and uplift forces. A seven-foot thick concrete base was placed for the floor slab and an innovative sealant technique was implemented to minimize water seepage into the shaft.. Nova utilized a microtunneling system specifically designed for this contract. The cutterhead is hydraulically driven by a 170 HP motor yielding 195,000 ft-lbs of torque. Steel sheet piles were driven to allow deep excavations while retaining the soil excavation to a minimum at the microtunnel entry and exit pits. Two of the drives were approximately 420 feet ...
Raglan-Whale Bay water temperature - check out the ocean temperature for surfing, kayaking and windsurfing. Wetsuit guide based on current sea temperature observations.
Why is the sea water salty? Other ions are found in very small concentrations. (Also know about dead sea) William Dittmar, a scientist collected several samples of ocean water to detect the salinity. Because of the huge ocean size, it is very difficult to correctly assess its chemical composition. The high salt content in the sea water makes it unfit for human consumption. Coral reefs that are seen in warmer areas of oceans comprise of limestone. This releases ions that are carried away to streams and rivers that eventually feed into the ocean. Stated in another way, about 3.5 percent of the weight of seawater comes from the dissolved salts. Little known Facts about Fresh Water and Salt Water. Salt in the ocean comes from two sources: runoff from the land and openings in the seafloor. Rocks on land are the major source of salts dissolved in seawater. Another reason why ocean water is salty is submarine volcanism or the eruption of volcanoes under the ocean. Here, the salty water gets diluted ...
ABSTRACT: Understanding the vertical distribution and migratory behaviour of shelled holoplanktonic gastropods is essential in determining the environmental conditions that they are exposed to. This is increasingly important in understanding the effects of imminent ocean acidification and climate change. Here we investigate the vertical distribution of atlantid heteropods by collating data from publications and collections and using the oxygen isotope (δ18O) composition of single aragonitic shells. Data from publications and collections show two patterns of migration behaviour; small species that reside in shallow water at all times, and larger species that make diurnal migrations from the surface at night to deep waters during the daytime. The δ18O data show that all species analysed (n=16) calcify their shells close to the Deep Chlorophyll Maximum. This was within the upper 110 m of the ocean for 15 species, and down to 146 m for a single species. These findings confirm that many atlantid ...
Gould, J, Kienast, M, Dowd, M and Schefuß, E (2019) An open-ocean assessment of alkenone δD as a paleo-salinity proxy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 246. 478-497. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2018.12.004 ...
Dont worry; were not going all scientific. Theres no need to anyway, the detail the marine aquarist needs to know is straightforward.. Oxygen is a very important dissolved gas in the seawater. The livestock need it to survive as we do - no oxygen, no life. If dissolved oxygen is in short supply then the aquarium livestock will be subject to stress, and if the oxygen level is continuously too low disease and maybe death will follow.. It isnt just the livestock that will suffer either, the bacteria in the bio-filter will too. These bacteria operate the nitrogen cycle when ammonia is converted to nitrite which in turn is converted to nitrate. The ammonia and nitrite are toxins and will kill at quite low levels, so the bacterias welfare is paramount. The bacteria that convert the toxins are oxygen hungry and rely on the amount available in the seawater.. In addition if there is a good supply of dissolved oxygen in the seawater the redox potential will be reasonably high meaning a clean ...
The Indus Delta, which is 150 kms wide at its mouth and covers almost 85% of Sindhs coastal belt, is the most prominent ecological feature of the coast east of Karachi. It comprises of 17 major creeks and numerous minor creeks, all intermingling with mangrove forests in the creek pockets, as well as expansive mudflats.. Cash crops like rice and wheat used to be grown here in abundance and though the percentage of people deriving income from farming has dwindled to barely 20%, this source is coming under increasing strain from the twin scourges of water-logging and salinity, exacerbated by the influx of seawater.. This degradation has been precipitated, amongst other associated factors, by the gradual ingress of seawater, some 70 kms inland by some estimates, during the past 30 yrs. The reasons for this are threefold: drastically reduced waterflows downstrem of Kotri, dwindling mangrove cover and overall seawater rise due to global warming.. Although the Water Apportionment Accord of 1991 ...
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Raincoast Education Society is our partner organization in Tofino who is working with citizen scientists to help us collect seawater to monitor for the arrival of Fukushima contamination along our coastline. The video below shows a volunteer wading into the surf at Cox Bay to collect seawater today for the project. Cox Bay Beach, Tofino…
LG Chems NanoH2O™ seawater RO membranes, incorporated with innovative Thin Film Nanocomposite (TFN) technology, reduce the cost of desalination while delivering superior water quality. Our seawater RO membranes provide industry leading salt rejection and produce 20% more flow than membranes manufactured with conventional technologies. We continue to leverage the technological advantages of our seawater RO membranes to expand our market share accruing more than 1,000 Million Liter per Day (MLD). Datasheet_LG_SW_400_R_ENG. 200120_Brochure_SW_ENG ...
1. Seawater is a solution of about 96. 5% water and 3 1. Seawater is a solution of about 96.5% water and 3.5% dissolved salts. The most abundant salt in seawater is sodium chloride (NaCl).
The oceans are full of water. Ocean water is not just pure water, though. Ocean water has many different chemicals in it, especially salt. The salt in sea water is a lot like the salt we sprinkle on food. Sea salt has other chemicals in it too. The main other chemicals in sea salt are magnesium, sulfate, calcium, and potassium.. Why is the ocean salty? When it rains on land, some of the water dissolves minerals in rocks. That water flows in rivers to the sea. It carries the minerals with it. When the water evaporates back out of the ocean, it leaves the minerals behind. The minerals make sea water salty. Some parts of the ocean have more salt than others. For example, melting glaciers dump lots of fresh water into the ocean. Places in the ocean near melting glaciers arent as salty as the rest of the ocean. Some gases are dissolved in sea water too. There is carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere dissolved in sea water. That is important because carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. Scientists ...
Scientists from the University of Toronto and the University of California Santa Cruz are shedding light on one potential cause of the cooling trend of the past 45 million years that has everything to do with the chemistry of the worlds oceans.
Scientists from the University of Toronto and the University of California Santa Cruz are shedding light on one potential cause of the cooling trend of the past 45 million years that has everything to do with the chemistry of the worlds oceans.
ASTM-D4130 Standard Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Brackish Water, Seawater, and Brines - brackish; brine; seawater; sulfate;; ICS Number Code 13.060.50 (Examination of water for chemical substances)
This method is appropriate for volatile materials and although good water solubility is desired, poorly soluble materials can be tested. The test vessels are closed filled bottles containing the test substance dissolved in the natural seawater. The bottles are incubated in the dark at 20°C and the degradation is followed by analysis of the dissolved oxygen over a 28 day period.. ...
The cleanest, most lifeless ocean waters on Earth are found in the Pacific - visibility extends over 100 metres deep in the unique area
PENN SSV Spinfisher v all metail 3500/4500/5500/6500 fishing reel Seawater Spinning Wheel Max 13kg 6.2:1/5.6:1 Sea Spinning Reel. Full Metal Body, sideplate, and rotor. Sealed HT-100 Slammer drag system. Superline Spool TM - No backing needed because of the rubber gasket keeps. Friction trip ramp prevents premature bail trip when casting. 5 Shielded stainless steel ball bearings. The PENN Spinfisher V features our Water Tight Design so whether you dunk the reel in the surf, or let it ride in the spray all the way home, you dont have to worry about saltwater getting into the gearbox or drag system. Our Slammer® Drag System is a truly sealed drag system with a total of 3 HT-100 drag washers (1 on the top of the spool, 2 underneath the spool). A Full Metal Body and sideplate keep precise gear alignment under heavy loads. Available in standard, Live Liner, and bail-less models. The item PENN SSV Spinfisher V all Metal Fishing Reel Seawater Sea Spinning Wheel Reel is in sale since Monday, October ...
The marine aquarium, be it fish only or reef, needs quality seawater for health. Quality seawater is the number one on the list of requirements for success. This is more easily achieved nowadays. First of all, the aquarist will usually obtain sea salt, online or from the local dealer. This. Read more → ...
Mewes, Konstantin; Mogollón, José M; Picard, Aude; Rühlemann, Carsten; Kuhn, Thomas; Nöthen, Kerstin; Kasten, Sabine (2014): Depth profiles of pore-water and solid-phase constituents, respiration rates and grain size distribution in sediments of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.844005, Supplement to: Mewes, K et al. (2014): Impact of depositional and biogeochemical processes on small scale variations in nodule abundance in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 91, 125-141, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2014.06.001
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production with concentrated natural seawater produced by membrane process. AU - Oh, Seichang. AU - Nam, Wonsik. AU - Joo, Hyunku. AU - Sarp, Sarper. AU - Cho, Jaeweon. AU - Lee, Chang Ha. AU - Yoon, Jaekyung. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - Water shortages are anticipated to occur all over the world and are likely to have a significant effect on the availability of water for processes such as photocatalysis and electrolysis, as well as for drinking and industrial water. To overcome this problem, it has been suggested that seawater could be used as an alternative resource for the various water industries, such as hydrogen production, industrial and drinking water. Seawater contains a large amount of dissolved ion components, thus allowing it to be utilized as an electrolyte in photoelectrochemical system for producing hydrogen. Especially, the concentrated shows higher salinity (total dissolved solids, TDS) than the general seawater fed to the ...
The effect of microstructure of nickel-aluminum bronze alloy (NAB) on the corrosion behavior in artificial seawater is studied using linear polarization, impedance and electrochemical noise tests. The alloy was heat treated in different heating cycles including quenching, normalizing and annealing. Microstructure of the specimens was characterized before and after heat treatment by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the value of pearlite phase in the normalized alloy is much more than other specimens, leading to higher corrosion resistance. Polarization test showed that starting point of passivation in the polarization of the normalized alloy is lower than other specimens. The dissolution of Mn and Fe rich phases increased the Mn and Fe contents in solid solution, and this enhanced the passivation power of the surface of the alloy. The effect of the alloying elements was seen by a lower corrosion potential and an inflexion at around 280 mV (SCE) in the polarization
The analysis of the iron (Fe) isotopic composition of seawater can provide unique information about Fe sources to seawater, and Fe cycling within the oceans, which are important for understanding global climate because of the links between the marine carbon and iron cycles. The low dissolved Fe (dFe) concentrations found in seawater mean that analyses of the iron isotopic composition of seawater is an analytical challenge. This thesis describes the development methods for accurate and precise analysis of Fe isotopes in seawater with concentrations as low as ~0.4 nM Fe, and the results of iron isotope analysis of seawater samples from within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, and the dissolved phase of hydrothermal plumes in the Southern Ocean ...
Understanding how rising seawater pCO2 and temperatures impact coral aragonite accretion is essential for predicting the future of reef ecosystems. Here we report 2 long term (10-11 month) studies assessing the effects of temperature (25 and 28°C) and both high and low seawater pCO2 (180-750 μatm) on the calcification, photosynthesis and respiration of individual massive Porites spp. genotypes. Calcification rates were highly variable between genotypes but high seawater pCO2 reduced calcification significantly in 4 of 7 genotypes cultured at 25°C but in only 1 of 4 genotypes cultured at 28°C. Increasing seawater temperature enhanced calcification in almost all corals but the magnitude of this effect was seawater pCO2 dependent. The 3°C temperature increase enhanced calcification rate on average by 3% at 180 μatm, by 35% at 260 μatm and by ,300% at 750 μatm. The rate increase at high seawater pCO2 exceeds that observed in inorganic aragonites. Responses of gross/net photosynthesis and ...
Due to biological uptake, the photic zone has relatively low levels of nutrient concentrations. As a result, phytoplankton dont receive enough nutrients when there is high water-column stability.[5] The spatial distribution of organisms can be controlled by a number of factors. Physical factors include: temperature, hydrostatic pressure, turbulent mixing such as the upward turbulent flux of inorganic nitrogen across the nutricline.[6] Chemical factors include oxygen and trace elements. Biological factors include grazing and migrations.[7] Upwelling carries nutrients from the deep waters into the photic zone, strengthening phytoplankton growth. The remixing and upwelling eventually bring nutrient-rich wastes back into the photic zone. The Ekman transport additionally brings more nutrients to the photic zone. Nutrient pulse frequency affects the phytoplankton competition. Photosynthesis produces more of it. Being the first link in the food chain, what happens to phytoplankton creates a rippling ...
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The crc handbook of chemistry and physics hbcp contains over 700 tables in over 450 documents which may be divided into several pages, all categorised into 17 major subject areas. Seawater is made up mainly of liquid water about 96. Introduction to co2 chemistry in seawater part 2 duration. A firstlevel text stressing chemistry of natural and polluted water and its application to wastewater treatment. Option questions option a modern analytical chemistry 1 4 option b human biochemistry 5 9 option c chemistry in industry and technology 10 option d medicines and drugs 14 16.. History of seawater carbonate chemistry, atmospheric co2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred. The table below gives the concentration of some ions in the sample. Some workers feel that the raman and jr data indicate that two.. Answer key for worksheet on seawater compostion microsoft word 2007. A schematic ...
Terrestrial larvae of B. antarctica tolerated extensive osmotic dehydration when challenged by hyperosmotic seawater. Nearly 50% of the larvae survived a 10-day exposure in ∼1000 mOsm kg-1 seawater, during which the total body water content of the larvae was reduced by∼ 30% to ,1.80 g H2Og-1 DM. Survival declined rapidly during exposure to higher seawater concentrations; however, even in ∼2000 mOsm kg-1 seawater ∼25% of larvae survived a 6-day exposure. As the larvae are known to tolerate an extensive loss of body water, survival during exposure to hyperosmotic seawater is probably not solely dependent on tolerance to dehydration. During desiccation in air, larvae survive the loss of nearly 70% of their body water to ,1.0 g H2Og-1 DM (Benoit et al., 2007). Instead, during seawater exposure, an incurred salt load from the external medium probably contributed to the observed mortality. Inorganic ions, and especially Na+ and Cl-, are well known to disrupt cellular activity by binding to and ...
Krause, Evamaria; Wichels, Antje; Erler, Rene; Gerdts, Gunnar (2013): Study on the effects of near-future ocean acidification on marine yeasts: a microcosm approach. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.832468, Supplement to: Krause, E et al. (2013): Study on the effects of near-future ocean acidification on marine yeasts: a microcosm approach. Helgoland Marine Research, 67(4), 607-621, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10152-013-0348-1
A flow injection-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (FI-ICP-MS) procedure, utilising ultrasonic nebulisation with membrane desolvation (USN/MD), has been developed for the determination of plutonium (Pu) in seawater at fg l−1 concentration levels. Seawater samples (1 l), after filtration, were subjected to co-precipitation with NdF3, followed by ion exchange to enrich Pu and to reject seawater matrix ions and co-existing uranium. The seawater concentrate (1.0 ml) was then analysed by FI-ICP-MS. The limit of detection for in seawater based on an enrichment factor of 1000 was 5 fg l−1, and precision at the 0.80 pg l−1 level was 12% RSD. Accuracy was verified via recovery experiments, and by comparing survey data for the Irish Sea with that derived by standard methodology based on co-precipitation and α-spectrometry. Concentrations for dissolved in the Irish Sea were in the range of 0.267-0.941 pg l−1 (0.614-2.164 mBq l−1) and 0.051-0.196 pg l−1 (0.428-1.646 mBq l−1), ...
Comeau, S, Tambutté, E, Carpenter, RC, Edmunds, PJ, Evensen, NR, Allemand, D, Ferrier-Pagès, C, Tambutté, S and Venn, AA (2017). Coral calcifying fluid pH is modulated by seawater carbonate chemistry not solely seawater pH. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 284(1847 ...
The residues and risks of heavy metals in the environment and organisms have attracted great concern for many years. However, the information on their long-term spatiotemporal trends and potential health and ecological risks are scarce. In this study, a total of 1815 seawater samples, 451 sediment samples, and 54 seafood samples were collected in Xiangshan Bay, China, between 2011 and 2016. The residue, distribution, seasonal variation, and potential health risks of seven heavy metals in seawater, sediment, and seafood were evaluated. Dissolved Zn (mean = 16.8 μg L−1) and Cu (mean = 3.4 μg L−1) concentrations were high in seawater. Sediments were mainly contaminated by Zn (mean = 120.8 mg kg−1) and Cr (mean = 81.7 mg kg−1). The highest levels of Cu and Zn were observed in Ostreidae with the concentrations of 84.3 and 99.0 mg kg−1, respectively. The Kendall test indicated that only As, Cu, Cd, and Hg showed decreasing trends in seawater with time and no significant temporal trends ...
Bacterioplankton communities are deeply diverse within and across environments, yet also display repeatable patterns over seasonal and annual time scales. We assessed patterns of bacterioplankton community variability across the Columbia River coastal margin over space and time. Coastal zones encompass a complex spectrum of environmental gradients, which impact the composition of bacterioplankton communities. Few studies have attempted to address these gradients comprehensively, especially across large spatial and long temporal scales. We generated a synoptic, 16S rRNA gene-based bacterioplankton community profile of a coastal zone from water samples collected from the Columbia River, estuary, plume, and along coastal transects covering 360 km of the Oregon and Washington coasts and extending to the deep ocean (,2000 m). Over 600 water samples were collected across four consecutive years and eleven research cruises. Spatially, bacterioplankton communities separated into seven environments across ...
We observed the initial release rate of metals from four fresh (i.e., without long time exposure to the atmosphere) hydrothermal sulfide cores into artificial seawater. The sulfide samples were collected by seafloor drilling from the Okinawa Trough by D/V Chikyu, powdered under inert gas, and immediately subjected to onboard metal-leaching experiments at different temperatures (5 °C and 20 °C), and under different redox conditions (oxic and anoxic), for 1-30 h. Zinc and Pb were preferentially released from sulfide samples containing various metals (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) into seawater. Under oxic experimental conditions, Zn and Pb dissolution rates from two sulfide samples composed mainly of iron disulfide minerals (pyrite and marcasite) were higher than those from two other sulfide samples with abundant sphalerite, galena, and/or silicate minerals. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the high metal-releasing sample contained several galvanic couples of iron disulfide with other
Abstract Maxent niche model was used to project the potential distribution of alien plant species Spartina alterniflora in China, with 96 S. alterniflora records and marine and climatic data along China coastal area. The results showed that suitable area for the distribution of S. alterniflora occupied 85% of coastal areas, with the highly suitable area, the medium, and low suitable area accounting for 18%, 34% and 33%, respectively. Only 15% of the coastal areas were regions with distribution possibility of less than 5%. Its distribution suitability was mainly related to annual lowest seawater temperature, annual mean seawater temperature, annual mean air temperature, and annual lowest temperature in January. However, the importance of annual mean precipitation, annual mean daily diurnal range, seawater salinity, annual highest seawater temperature, annual highest tempe-rature in June and current velocity was relatively small. At the highly suitable areas for S. alterni-flora, the annual lowest ...
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DANISH OPERATORS Offshore Oil and Gas Operators in Denmark Use of Nitrogen Purge in Flare and Vent Systems 7 September 2009 Esplanaden 50 6 1263 Copenhagen K 6 Denmark Telephone: +45 3363 4097 6 E-mail: [email protected] 1. Title of Initiative Use of Nitrogen Purge in Flare and Vent Systems. 2. Description of Initiative The offshore installations flare and atmospheric vent headers are required to be purged in order to prevent oxygen ingress to the flare and atmospheric vent systems. This is required in order to avoid the formation of explosive mixtures in the headers, which could lead to explosions if ignited. Fuel gas or nitrogen can be used as purge gas. The purge gas is injected at different locations in the systems in order to maintain a positive pressure in the flare headers thus preventing air ingress. Cold vents (atmospheric vent headers) are used to vent hydrocarbon gas from low pressure sources where insufficient pressure is available to allow the gas to be flared. Under normal ...
In order to evaluate performs of lightly cross-linked highly porous amidoxime resins in uranium-adsorption systems utilizing natural seawater motions, uranium uptake by the resins from seawater was studied by different approaches, such as simulated sea current exposure tests, towing trials, and/or mooring trials. In general, the efficiency of uranium uptake became higher with a decrease in the thickness of packing layers, indicating important roles of fluidization of the resin particles. On the basis of these fundamental data, mooring tests in the natural sea current were designed and conducted. By mooring flat adsorption beds (base area 260 cm2, height 3.0 cm) packed with 780 mL of the resin for 40 h, promising uranium uptake as high as 44 mg/kg of resin (9.9 mg/L of resin) was achieved under sea conditions in which the velocity of sea currents and the vertical velocity of waves were 5.5-49.7 cm/s and 3.4-27 cm/s, respectively. ...
The natural alternative to the Otrivin medicated range. It contains a seawater formulation that provides a nasal decongestant effect. Otrivin Natural Seawater & Eucalyptus contains, hypertonic seawater with eucalyptus essential oil and extract of wild mint. The solution also retains the richness of all the importan
This study examines the potential effects of ocean acidification on countries and fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. The implications for seafood security and supply are evaluated by examining the sensitivity of the Mediterranean to ocean acidification at chemical, biological, and macro-economic levels. The limited information available on impacts of ocean acidification on harvested (industrial, recreational, and artisanal fishing) and cultured species (aquaculture) prevents any biological impact assessment. However, it appears that non-developed nations around the Mediterranean, particularly those for which fisheries are increasing, yet rely heavily on artisanal fleets, are most greatly exposed to socioeconomic consequences from ocean acidification.
A taxonomic study was carried out on strain CIC4N-9T, which was isolated from deep-sea water of the Indian Ocean. The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped and non-motile. Growth was observed at salinities of 0-9% and at temperatures of 4-41 °C. The isolate was able to degrade gelatin but not aesculin. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CIC4N-9T belonged to the genus Pararhodobacter , with the highest sequence similarity to the only recognized species, Pararhodobacter aggregans D1-19T (96.9 %). The average nucleotide identity and estimated DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain CIC4N-9T and P. aggregans D1-19T were 80.4 and 23.0 %, respectively. The principal fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c), C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl, C18 : 0 and C17 : 0. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 66.8 mol%. The sole respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-10. Phosphatidylcholine,
The goal of the Arabian Sea section of the TARA oceans expedition was to study large particulate matter (LPM , 100 μm) distributions and possible impact of associated midwater biological processes on vertical carbon export through the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of this region. We propose that observed spatial patterns in LPM distribution resulted from the timing and location of surface phytoplankton bloom, lateral transport, microbial processes in the core of the OMZ, and enhanced biological processes mediated by bacteria and zooplankton at the lower oxycline. Indeed, satellite-derived net primary production maps showed that the northern stations of the transect were under the influence of a previous major bloom event while the most southern stations were in a more oligotrophic situation. Lagrangian simulations of particle transport showed that deep particles of the northern stations could originate from the surface bloom while the southern stations could be considered as driven by 1-D vertical ...
Title:Experimental Study on Seawater Applications in Organic Reactions. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Gang Liu, Mingxiang Qiu, Lin Sun, Quanwu Wen, Shengguang Xu, Xuyuan Wang and Peng Wang. Affiliation:School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, P.R. China.. Keywords:3-amino-2-chloro-4-methyl pyridine, anthranilic acid, hofmann degradation, quinazolin-4-one, seawater.. Abstract:Background: Total water resources account for only 2.5% of freshwater on earth, and only 1% of total water resources can be exploited by humans. The development of practical methods of seawater desalination and comprehensive utilization technology can help address the shortage of freshwater resources in the world, and achieve sustainable use of water resources to ensure sustainable development in a society. Direct seawater utilization currently involves industrial cooling water, water for agricultural irrigation, and flushing water. Applications in aqueous phase organic reactions, ...
Coral skeletal Sr/Ca is a palaeothermometer commonly used to produce high resolution seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) records and to investigate the amplitude and frequency of ENSO and interdecadal climate events. The proxy relationship is typically calibrated by matching seasonal SST and skeletal Sr/Ca maxima and minima in modern corals. Applying these calibrations to fossil corals assumes that the temperature sensitivity of skeletal Sr/Ca is conserved, despite substantial changes in seawater carbonate chemistry between the modern and glacial ocean. We present Sr/Ca analyses of 3 genotypes of massive Porites spp. corals (the genus most commonly used for palaeoclimate reconstruction), cultured under seawater pCO2 reflecting modern, future (year 2100) and last glacial maximum (LGM) conditions. Skeletal Sr/Ca is indistinguishable between duplicate colonies of the same genotype cultured under the same conditions, but varies significantly in response to seawater pCO2 in two genotypes of ...
The package consists of 3 main pumps - vertically mounted ZW 20x16x30 model - and 1 startup Seawater Lift Pump - vertically mounted ZW 12x8x19 (A) model. In order to provide water for firing up the steam boilers, the startup seawater lift pump is first started. Once the power generation system is running, high voltage power supply is available to activate the main seawater lift pumps whose function will be to supply seawater for the topside processes such as water injection and for the accommodation quarters.. These pumps were manufactured, tested and commissioned by RP India and designed by RP Specialists in México combining specialized analysis and the latest software technology. The pumps are designed to meet the very specific needs of the offshore industry and operate according to DNV Marine Class Certification.. The package is located in the sea chest of the FPSO Cyrus. This vessel has a storage capacity of 600,000 barrels and utilizes a tri-fuel (gas, crude oil and heavy fuel oil) fired ...
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The ability to collect uranium from seawater offers the potential for a long-term green fuel supply for nuclear energy. However, extraction of uranium, and other trace minerals, is challenging due to the high ionic strength and low mineral concentrations in seawater. Herein we evaluate the use of nanostructured metal oxide sorbents for the collection and recovery of uranium from seawater. Chemical affinity, chemical adsorption capacity and kinetics of preferred sorbent materials were evaluated. High surface area manganese and iron oxide nanomaterials showed excellent performance for uranium collection from seawater. Inexpensive nontoxic carbonate solutions were demonstrated to be an effective and environmental benign method of stripping the uranium from the metal oxide sorbents. Various formats for the utilization of the nanostructured metals oxide sorbent materials are discussed including traditional and nontraditional methods such as magnetic separation. Keywords: Uranium, nano, manganese, ...
Several investigations have recently considered the possible impacts of climate change and seawater level rise on seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. All have revealed the severity of the problem and the significance of the landward movement of the dispersion zone under the condition of seawater
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January 16, 2018 , Four students from Tel Aviv University won first place in the Accenture Israels Universities Competition, according to a statement from the company. The first place winners, Gal Meshulam-Lautker of the Faculty of Law and Economics, Mahmoud Meidlij of the Faculty of Accounting and Economics, Matan Marudi studying Industrial Engineering and Management, and Sari Kader of the Department of East Asia and Japan, proposed an interactive virtual store and built a VR-based digital strategy to implement the idea. The students have won a one month at the Herzeliya-based Accenture office, with a stipend, that could potentially lead to a job offer, as was the case with winners from last years competition. As part of the competition, Accenture presented students with a business problem the company has deal with in the past - to build a strategic plan for a toy company interested in conquering the digital sales market. The teams were asked to propose solutions and methods of action ...
As humans release more and more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, the gas is dissolving into the ocean, making seawater more acidic. This threatens the growth and survival of animals such as some corals and snails, whose skeletons and shells may become thinner under more acidic conditions.. But ocean acidification can have more subtle consequences, such as affecting animal behavior and the relationships between predators and prey. Researchers in Senior Scientist Jim Barrys lab at MBARI have been studying these effects in the institutes state-of-the-art seawater lab. They recently published a paper showing how ocean acidification makes some snails more susceptible to being eaten by invasive (and predatory) green crabs.. The study, published in early May 2019 in the journal Marine Ecology Progress Series, involved placing green crabs in containers with three different species of marine snails, and exposing the animals to seawater at different temperatures and levels of acidity. The idea was to ...
Investigations of the compositions of microbial communities are important steps in understanding the role of bacterial and archaeal populations in biogeochemical processes. Due to poor culturability of natural bacteria, particularly anaerobic bacteria, we used molecular approaches based on rDNA sequences to investigate microbial community structure in the anoxic Cariaco Basin. However, we caution that the 16S rDNA library strategy for sequence retrieval contains several sources of potential bias. A bias caused by the reannealing kinetics of product molecules can skew gene frequencies when PCR product concentrations exceed threshold values (39). Another important potential bias is that organisms belonging to the domain Archaea have been found to have only one or a few gene copies of the 16S rRNA gene, while members of the domain Bacteria can have from one to seven or more copies, which may bias amplification towards theBacteria (26). Therefore, the frequency of rDNA clones should be regarded as ...
Pseudohaliea rubra strain DSM 19751 ᵀ is an aerobic marine gammaproteobacterium that was isolated from surface coastal seawater of the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we present its genome sequence and annotation. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll- a and the reserve compound glycogen ...
The Chilean region of Aysén has 19 fishing coves operated by artisanal fishermen who depend on fish -sea urchin in northern Aysén, southern hake and other species in central Aysén- for their livelihoods. The conservation status of these resources and the precarious existence led by the fishermen are a cause for concern.. The climate crisis has raised seawater temperatures, causing changes in marine wildlife. We do not know for certain how ocean resources are faring in the face of such abrupt shifts.. These circumstances call for new technologies enabling fishermen to actively monitor their fisheries management zones; for example, for seawater temperature, a factor that directly impacts fish behavior. This would improve fishing opportunities and sustainable resource management by artisanal fishermen. In addition, the region can make a valuable contribution to marine research. Because of its subantarctic influence, scientists regard Aysén as highly suitable for the study of biodiversity and ...
Seawater Greenhouse has developed horticultural solutions for some of the most arid of conditions by utilising two abundant resources - sunshine and seawater - to grow crops in hot and desert environments. Through a method of desalination, these completely solar-powered greenhouse operations use saltwater - piped directly from the sea into wells - to create ideal growing…
The Black Sea is the largest anoxic water basin on Earth and its stratified water column comprises an upper oxic, middle suboxic and a lower permanently anoxic, sulfidic zone. The abundance of sulfatereducing bacteria (SRB) in water samples was determined by quantifying the copy number of the dsrA gene coding for the alpha subunit of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The dsrA gene was detected throughout the whole suboxic and anoxic zones. The maximum dsrA copy numbers were 5 ¥ 102 and 6.3 ¥ 102 copies ml-1 at 95 m in the suboxic and at 150 m in the upper anoxic zone, respectively. The proportion of SRB to total Bacteria was 0.1% in the oxic, 0.8-1.9% in the suboxic and 1.2-4.7% in the anoxic zone. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA clones showed that most clones from the anoxic zone formed a coherent cluster within the Desulfonema-Desulfosarcina group. A similar depth profile as for dsrA copy numbers was obtained for the concentration of ...
According to FAO estimates, by 2025 nearly 2 billion people may not have enough drinking water to satisfy their daily needs. One of the possible solutions to this problem is desalination, namely treating seawater to make it drinkable. However, removing salt from seawater requires 10 to 1000 times more energy than traditional methods of freshwater supply, namely pumping water from rivers or wells.. Motivated by this problem, a team of engineers from the Department of Energy of Politecnico di Torino has devised a new prototype to desalinate seawater in a sustainable and low-cost way, using solar energy more efficiently. Compared to previous solutions, the developed technology is in fact able to double the amount of water produced at given solar energy, and it may be subject to further efficiency improvement in the near future. The group of young researchers who recently published these results in the journal Nature Sustainability is composed of Eliodoro Chiavazzo, Matteo Morciano, Francesca ...
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Seawater is probably the most common aqueous salt solution. Not only is it encountered in marine transportation and offshore oil rigs, but it is also used as a coolant in coastal facilities. Listed are data generated as part of a U.S. Navy study at the LaQue Laboratories in Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina (and published by D.M. Aylor et al, Paper No. 329, CORROSION 99, NACE International, 1999). Crevice tests were performed in both still (quiescent) and flowing seawater, at 29°C, plus or minus 3°C. Two samples (A & B) of each alloy were tested in still water for 180 days, and likewise in flowing water. Each sample contained two possible crevice sites. The results indicate that C-22® alloy is very resistant to crevice corrosion in seawater.. ...
Scientists from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) demonstrated a fuel they created from seawater could power an off-the-shelf internal combustion engine. A radio controlled P-51 Mustang modelled after the famous Red Tailed Tuskegee Squadron was flown using the lab created fuel without any modifications to the planes engine.. The fuel is the combination of two NRL projects. The first is uses an electrolytic cation exchange module that removes CO2 from seawater. Seawater contains a lot more carbon than air - nearly 140 times as much. Most of this carbon is in the form of bicarbonate with smaller amounts carbonate and carbonic acid. The NRL process converts the carbonate and bicarbonate into carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas.. The second project uses CO2 and hydrogen gases to synthesize hydrocarbon liquids. This project is a two step process. The first step creates unsaturated hydrocarbon olefins from the gases using an iron catalyst. The second step polymerizes the olefins into into the ...
Effect of Surface Charging on the SIMS Depth Profile of Bismuth Titanate Thin Film SIMS;bismuth titanate;FRAM;charging effect;depth profile; The effect of SIMS analysis conditions such as mesh grid, offset voltage and ion species on the in-depth profile for bismuth titanate thin film was examined in terms of charging effect and detection limit. The results shows that the use of offset voltage -40 V reduces the charging effect and the detection limit. The employment of mesh grid in sample preparation leads to the reduction of the charging effect in small amount, but deteriorate the detection limit. Utilization of primary $O^-$ ion for SIMS analysis of bismuth titanate thin film showed almost the same effect as using offset voltage -40 V. However, it takes approximately triple acquisition time than using $O_2{^+}$ ion due to the poor beam current of the source in the experiment.
New Orleans, La. - The 2013 Arthur D. Smith Endourology Lectureship has been awarded to Thomas Knoll, MD, Associate Professor of Urology at University Medical Center Mannheim and the head of the Department of Urology at the Sindelfingen Medical center of the University of Tuebingen, Germany.. Dr. Knoll was presented the award, commonly known as the Arthur award, today at the World Congress of Endourology (WCE) annual meeting in New Orleans. Knoll received the Arthur award for his extensive scientific and clinical work on the interventional treatment of urolithiasis and benign hyperplasia. Knoll recently performed a large study on the pathogenesis and prevention of calcium oxalate and cystine stone formation.. ...
A seawater greenhouse is a greenhouse structure that enables the growth of crops in arid regions, using seawater and solar energy. The technique involves pumping seawater (or allowing it to gravitate if below sea level) to an arid location and then subjecting it to two processes: first, it is used t...
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Management strategies use information provided by research and tools that can be used to make sound decisions to effectively conserve marine resources. Baseline research about organism and community sensitivity to ocean acidification is incorporated into these strategies, in an effort to sustain these resources for the future. Before management plans can be created it is necessary to have baseline research about the effects of ocean acidification on marine resources, such as Pacific oysters, Dungeness crabs and rockfish. The OAP funds NOAA Fisheries Science Centers to expose various life stages of valuable species to present and future acidification conditions. The biological response research is then incorporated into models that can be used to create tools for managers to use so that they can test different scenarios on species populations and habitats. Modeling efforts led by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution are now being used to produce one of these tools for Atlantic sea scallop ...
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Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential cofactors for microbial metalloenzymes, but little is known about the metalloenyzme inventory of anaerobic marine microbial communities despite their importance to the nitrogen cycle. We compared dissolved O2, NO3−, NO2−, Fe and Cu concentrations with nucleic acid sequences encoding Fe and Cu-binding proteins in 21 metagenomes and 9 metatranscriptomes from Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific oxygen minimum zones and 7 metagenomes from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station. Dissolved Fe concentrations increased sharply at upper oxic-anoxic transition zones, with the highest Fe:Cu molar ratio (1.8) occurring at the anoxic core of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone and matching the predicted maximum ratio based on data from diverse ocean sites. The relative abundance of genes encoding Fe-binding proteins was negatively correlated with O2, driven by significant increases in genes encoding Fe-proteins involved in dissimilatory ...