TY - JOUR. T1 - Campylobacter insulaenigrae isolates from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California. AU - Stoddard, Robyn A.. AU - Miller, William G.. AU - Foley, Janet E. AU - Lawrence, Judy. AU - Gulland, Frances M D. AU - Conrad, Patricia A. AU - Byrne, Barbara A. PY - 2007/3. Y1 - 2007/3. N2 - There are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of Campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Scotland, and the other describes the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and an unknown Campylobacter species from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California. In this study, 72 presumptive C. lari and unknown Campylobacter species strains were characterized using standard phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA PCR, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Phenotypic ...
Hawaiian Monk Seals were first recorded in 1825 at the Hawaiian archipelagos northernmost island, Kure Atoll. Scientist estimate about 1,300 to 1,400 monk seals live in the Hawaiian islands chain today. The species has declined at approximately 11% per year since 1989 and is the most endangered U.S. marine mammal. Factors which threathen the persistence and recovery of monk seal populations include disturbance by human activities, interactions with fisheries, mobbing of females by males, and shark predation. Although not directly responsible for monk seal mortality, human activities on beaches, even at low levels, can cause monk seals to abandon haul-out areas. Such disturbance is particularly disruptive to mother-pup pairs. In the 1800s, shipwrecked crews ate them in order to survive. By the early 1900s, humans were developing commercial and military facilities in monk seal habitat. Bottomfish, longline, and lobster fisheries have all directly affected monk seals. Indirectly, fisheries may ...
The classical approach to quantifying the impact of stressors on wildlife is through characterization of hormones associated with the generalized stress response. However, interpretation of hormone data can be difficult due to the range of natural variation within a species and potential confounds of individual and life-history variables. Blood adrenal and thyroid hormones were measured in 144 chemically immobilized yearling northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to characterize variation between sexes and across semiannual haul-outs. There was no relationship between hormone concentrations and time needed for collecting blood nor evidence of diel patterns, suggesting that collection of samples for baseline values can be accomplished without bias due to handling artifacts or time of day. Serum cortisol concentrations did not vary with gender or across haul-out fasts but increased dramatically during molting. Cortisol was correlated with aldosterone across all measured life-history ...
Its grey coat, white belly, and slender physique distinguish them from their cousin, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).[4] The monk seals physique is ideal for hunting its prey: fish, lobster, octopus and squid in deep water coral beds.[11] When it is not hunting and eating, it generally basks on the sandy beaches and volcanic rock of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands.[12]. The Hawaiian monk seal is part of the family Phocidae, being named so for its characteristic lack of external ears and inability to rotate its hind flippers under the body.[13] The Hawaiian monk seal has a relatively small, flat head with large black eyes, eight pairs of teeth, and short snouts with the nostril on top of the snout and vibrissae on each side.[4] The nostrils are small vertical slits which close when the seal dives underwater. Additionally, their slender, torpedo-shaped body and hind flippers allow them to be very agile swimmers.[14]. Adult males are 300 to 400 pounds (140 to 180 kg) in weight and 7 feet (2.1 m) ...
The Hawaiian monk seal is one of the most endangered seal species in the world. The population overall has been declining for over six decades and current numbers are only about one-third of historic population levels. Importantly, however, the prol
Although northern elephant seals spend most of their time in the water, males, females, and juveniles each visit rookeries between Baja California and Point Reyes at different times so that some seals can be seen on land throughout the year. Populations generally peak once most births have occurred in late January, as juveniles and adult females molt in early May, and during the fall juvenile haul-out in October.. The winter months may be the most active time for the seals on land: females give birth, males fight for dominance, and adults mate before heading back out to sea. Otherwise, since northern elephant seals always fast while on land, they mainly lounge about to conserve energy. Life begins on land for northern elephant seals. Females give birth to 70-pound black-furred pups in December and January. After four weeks of their mothers high-fat milk, the 270-pound pups fur is shed to reveal a shimmery gray coat. At about this time, newborns mothers will mate and head out to sea, thereby ...
As is often the case in species where males compete to mate with as many females as possible, northern elephant seal males are much larger than females (1,800 kg versus 650 kg on average). Competitions can be battles, but more often involve mock threats and loud vocalizations. The dominant (alpha) male gets to mate with the most females, maximizing the number of offspring he produces. Fasting is part of their life cycle: males stay on the beach and fast for up to three months during the breeding season, while they are guarding a harem. Females stay on shore with their pups and fast for about a month while they are nursing. Afterward, males and females spend 8-10 mostly solitary months at sea. Males often migrate along a northern route and the females remain farther south. They may travel as far as Japan and log more than 20,000 km annually, spending much of their time underwater foraging for squid and fish. Dives can be as deep as 1,500 m and last as long as two hours, but the seals typically ...
Instantly recognisable by the large, inflatable proboscis, the male southern elephant seal is the biggest seal in its family. Males can weigh eight to ten times as much as females, making them the most sexually dimorphic of all mammals (2). Females do not have a proboscis, but rather a short nose and a muzzle (4). Both sexes have robust bodies, thick necks and broad heads, and each digit of the fore flippers bears a large, black nail (4). The coat is light to dark silvery-grey or brown in adults and juveniles, whilst newborns have black coats, which turns into a short silvery-grey coat at around three weeks of age (5). Males develop a chest shield of thickened, creased and heavily scarred skin as they age, and also become paler across the face, proboscis and head (4). During the breeding season, southern elephant seals become stained rusty orange and brown from lying in their own excrement ...
Dirk-Martin Scheel, Graham Slater, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Charles Potter, David Rotstein, Kyriakos Tsangaras, Alex Greenwood and Kristofer M. Helgen. 2014. Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology, ZooKeys 409 (2014): 1-33. [Downloadable in various formats from Zookeys]. Abstract. Extinctions and declines of large marine vertebrates have major ecological impacts and are of critical concern in marine environments. The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis, last definitively reported in 1952, was one of the few marine mammal species to become extinct in historical times. Despite its importance for understanding the evolutionary biogeography of southern phocids, the relationships of M. tropicalis to the two living species of critically endangered monk seals have not been resolved. In this study we present the first molecular data for M. tropicalis, derived from museum skins. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b ...
The huge male northern elephant seal typically weighs 1,500-2,300 kg (3,300-5,100 lb) and measures 4-5 m (13-16 ft), although some males can weigh up to 3,700 kg (8,200 lb).[2] Females are much smaller and can range from 400 to 900 kg (880 to 1,980 lb) in weight, or roughly a third of the males bulk, and measure from 2.5 to 3.6 m (8.2 to 11.8 ft).[3] The bull Southern Elephant Seals are, on average, larger than those in the Northern species but the females in both are around the same size, indicating the even higher level of sexual dimorphism in the Southern species.[4] Both adult and juvenile elephant seals are bar-skinned[discuss] and black before molting. After molting, they generally have a silver to dark gray coat that fades to brownish-yellow and tan. Adult males have hairless necks and chests speckled with pink, white and light brown. Pups are mostly black at birth and molt to a silver gray after weaning.[citation needed]. The eyes are large, round and black. The width of the eyes and a ...
The fossil record of pinnipeds is heavily biased toward the northern hemisphere - and the north Pacific record is particularly densely sampled. One of the most famous north Pacific pinnipeds is the smelly, gigantic, bizarre, violent, and utterly charismatic elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Its one of only two temperate latitude true seals in the eastern North Pacific, aside from the harbor seal. Whereas the closest relatives of harbor seals all live in the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and Arctic, the closest relatives of northern elephant seals (southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, and other lobodontines) are all in the southern ocean - making their evolutionary history a bit of a puzzle. Modern biogeography suggests that the modern northern elephant seal originated in the southern hemisphere with other lobodontines (antarctic seals). Unfortunately, the fossil record of elephant seals is a bit crap; fragmentary specimens indicate the presence of modern species in the mid-late ...
The fossil record of pinnipeds is heavily biased toward the northern hemisphere - and the north Pacific record is particularly densely sampled. One of the most famous north Pacific pinnipeds is the smelly, gigantic, bizarre, violent, and utterly charismatic elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Its one of only two temperate latitude true seals in the eastern North Pacific, aside from the harbor seal. Whereas the closest relatives of harbor seals all live in the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and Arctic, the closest relatives of northern elephant seals (southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, and other lobodontines) are all in the southern ocean - making their evolutionary history a bit of a puzzle. Modern biogeography suggests that the modern northern elephant seal originated in the southern hemisphere with other lobodontines (antarctic seals). Unfortunately, the fossil record of elephant seals is a bit crap; fragmentary specimens indicate the presence of modern species in the mid-late ...
If you'd like to see what one of the original Hawaiian inhabitants looks like, take a look at the photo of the Monk Seal below! The original human Hawaiians arrived in Hawaii from the South Pacific Islands about 1600 years ago, the Monk Seal arrived in Hawaii about
Elephant seals have a thick skin and fur to keep them warm in the freezing cold waters, but it is the thick layer of blubber that the elephant seal has under its skin that does the best job at insulating the elephant seal. The skin of the elephant seal molts every year and the elephant seals have to find land in order for the old skin of the elephant seal to molt and the new of the elephant seal to regrow. The molting process of the elephant seal does not occur during mating season, so the male elephant seals are able to stop fighting as there are no child-bearing females to protect ...
To the Editor: Until 1999, influenza B virus was considered to infect humans only. However, more recent data proved that harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) also can be infected (1). Since the identification of seals as a novel host, antibodies against human influenza B viruses have been detected in some additional otarid and phocid species in a few relatively small studies (2,3). It has been speculated that seals may be an animal reservoir for human influenza B viruses, although whether influenza B viruses continues to circulate among pinnipeds is unknown.. To investigate whether influenza B viruses had continued to circulate in seals, we analyzed serum samples from 615 seals (548 harbor seals [Phoca vitulina] and 67 gray seals [Halichoerus grypus]). The samples had been collected upon the animals admission to the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in Pieterburen, the Netherlands, from seals living in Dutch coastal waters during 2002-2012. We tested ...
Twenty-seven adult male southern elephant seals were immobilised to enableattachment of satellite transmitters and to obtain tissue samples. Large AnimalImmobilon (LA Immobilon) was injected remotely to achieve initial sedation(x=0,0009 mg/kg etorphine; 0.0037 mg/kg acepromacine) while ketamine wasinjected manually on demand to maintain narcosis (x=81 min). The total dosages(x=1,7 mg/kg) of ketamine required were negatively correlated with those ofLA Immobilon (p , 0,01). The dosages of LA Immobilon were approximately15 to 30 times lower than recommended for other large-sized mammal species,and the therapeutic range was low. Nine cases required the application of theetorphine-antidote Large Animal Revivon (x=0,0052 mg/kg diprenorphine) injectedintraveneously (n=3), intramuscularly (n=5), or sublingually (n=1). LA Immobilonappears to be useful to attain immobilisation in adult male southern elephantseals by remote injection owing to its high potency and hence small volume required.It must, ...
The results of the study of certain biochemical parameters of blood in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius, 1791) from birth to weaning are presented. In the blood plasma, 20 indices describing the state of the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals (total protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase) are studied. It has been established that metabolic changes in the early period of postnatal development of grey seals occur in mammals in general, but the expression level of individual reactions may be considered a feature of pinnipeds. By the ratio of transaminase activity, the predominance of catabolism over anabolism was established in animals in the studied period of development. The most significant changes in the metabolism of grey seals
Arcanobacterium phocae was for the first time in Denmark isolated from cases of dermatitis and other pathological conditions in mink, seals and otters. Furthermore the detection of A. phocae in nine seals and two otters shown here suggest the existence of a wildlife reservoir. The bacterium, A. phocae, originally isolated from lesions and internal organs in seals living in the coastal waters surrounding Scotland [7, 8], has in recent years become an important pathogen in farmed mink in both Europe [15] and Canada [3]. Hypothetically, since association with disease was originally observed in marine animals [4] and the tiny colonies could easily be overlooked, overgrown by contaminant flora, or mixed up with streptococci, A. phocae may have been present and associated with disease in mink earlier than reported. Prior to 1997 A. phocae had not been characterized and was therefore unknown as a pathogen. Historically, until the description of A. phocae as a pathogen, the bacterium has been suggested ...
The population of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the southern Weddell Sea is in a unique position on the continental shelf edge, with vast shelf waters to the south, and deep Southern Ocean to the north. We describe sex-related differences in the winter distribution of this population, from data collected by 20 conductivity-temperature-depth satellite relay data loggers deployed in February 2011 at the end of the annual molt. The regional daily speed was calculated, and a state-space model was used to estimate behavioral states to positions along individuals tracks. GLMMs estimated that males and smaller individuals, diving in shallower water, traveled less far per day of deployment (males 14.6 ± 2.26 km/d, females 18.9 ± 2.42 km/d), and males were estimated to dive in shallower water (males 604 ± 382 m, females 1,875 ± 1,458 m). Males and smaller individuals were also estimated to be more resident; males spent an average 83.4% ± 7.7% of their time in a resident behavioral ...
The lumbosacral plexus was investigated in the California sea lion and Northern elephant seal. In 9 California sea lions and 2 Northern elephant seals the femoral nerve rises from the ventral branches of the 3ʳᵈ and 4ᵗʰ lumbar nerves, whilst in one male and two specimens of the Northern elephant seal the 5ᵗʰ lumbar nerve was also involved. Ventral branches of the 3ʳᵈ and 4ᵗʰ lumbar nerves comprise ...
Phocid seals go through dramatic seasonal changes in body mass and composition as a result of the spatial and temporal separation of foraging, reproduction and moulting. These changes in body fat content and body mass result in seasonal changes in buoyancy, which in turn may influence diving behaviour. We examined the longitudinal changes in buoyancy and diving behaviour of 14 adult grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) during two periods that represent maximal contrast in body mass and composition. During both the post-moulting (PM) and pre-breeding (PB) periods, grey seals were negatively buoyant. However, buoyancy increased by 47.9 % between the PM and PB periods. Descent rate was significantly faster during the PM period (1.0+/−0.07 m s(−1)) than during the PB period (0.7+/−0.06 m s(−1)), suggesting that seals were aided by negative buoyancy during the downward portion of dives. Ascent rate was also significantly faster during the PM period (0.8+/−0.06 m s(−1)) than during the PB ...
Modern tracking technology and international collaboration have given IMAS researchers and their colleagues from eight countries unprecedented new insights into the life, behaviour and distribution of southern elephant seals.
in Marine Ecology-Progress Series (2003), 247. PCB contamination was measured in the milk and serum of grey seal Halichoerus grypus mothers and in the serum of their pups sampled from 2 to 5 times between parturition and weaning on the Isle of May ... [more ▼]. PCB contamination was measured in the milk and serum of grey seal Halichoerus grypus mothers and in the serum of their pups sampled from 2 to 5 times between parturition and weaning on the Isle of May, Scotland, in 1998 and 2000. Blubber biopsies were also taken from the lactating females at early and late lactation in 2000. Concentrations of PCBs in milk stayed constant during the first part of lactation (0.31 +/- 0.17 mug g milk(-1)) and then increased at late lactation (0.67 +/- 0.42 mug g milk(-1)). Curiously, it did not follow the changes of milk lipid content, which increased at early lactation and then stayed constant until the end of the nursing period. As a result, even when expressed per unit of milk lipids, PCBs underwent a ...
Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from hemeproteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O-2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O-2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (+/- s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 +/- 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein ...
Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are most at home in the water, plumbing the depths during their extensive dives and holding their breath for an hour or more, tolerating conditions that would damage humans irreversibly. The seals only emerge onto land for 2-4 months of the year to breed and moult. When asleep on land they show long natural breath-holds called apneas, which last up to 25 min. These apneas probably occur to conserve energy and water since the seals fast while they are on land, and studying them might give scientists clues as to how seals manage their oxygen stores when they hold their breath. To find out more, Torre Stockard, Paul Ponganis and colleagues monitored nine juvenile elephant seals as they slept (p. 2607).. To measure oxygen levels in the blood, the team inserted catheters into the arteries and veins supplying the major internal organs and took blood samples during normal breathing and at regular intervals during apnea. To find out how much of a blood ...
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Harbor seals (and sea lions) haul out (come out of the water) almost daily to rest and to warm up. They cannot maintain their body temperature if they stay in cold water all the time because of their smaller size and thinner blubber layer. Northern elephant seals lose less heat than harbor seals because are much larger and have a thicker blubber layer that allows them to stay at sea for months at a time before coming onshore to rest and give birth.. All pinnipeds give birth on land, and that is one fact that distinguishes them from cetaceans, another group of marine mammals. Harbor seals give birth between March and June on tidal sandbars, rocky reefs and pocket beaches. They can give birth on areas which are inundated at high tide because harbor seal pups, unlike most pinniped species, can swim at birth. During the pupping season, mother seals will spend more time onshore nursing pups and resting, for an average of around 10-12 hours per day. The mother harbor seal stays with the pup almost ...
SAD-AFAG and other relevant organizations in the world had been trying to feed orphaned monk seals under rehabilitation without relying on force-feeding for a long time. However, force-feeding proved to be the only feasible technique until this last case in 2011. In our experience, food range changes from octopus to eel and from bonito to grey mullet depending on the different phases of the rehabilitation and care process.. As for the feeding of monk seal pups, since a cow-based milk formula is not advised for monk seal pups, only fish porridge, which is prepared carefully prior to force-feeding, is given to pups through a tube. Fish porridge is not a thin liquid and contains fine particles of fish flesh - although minced well and mixed with water - and therefore easily obstructs the opening of a silicone nurser. Apart from this apparent limitation, monk seal pups also refuse to suckle from the nurser. During the rehab and care process by SAD-AFAG of the two pups named Dilara and Tina, both ...
Northern elephant seals are highly polygynous, but not territorial. Males compete for access to females by ranking themselves in a hierarchy. There is much male-to-male fighting, vocalizing, and displaying during the breeding season, when bulls may be ashore for months at a time. One of the most impressive displays occurs when a male rears up on his hindquarters, thrusts some two-thirds of his body upward, and produces a distinctive threat voalization as a challenge to other bulls. Females give birth within a few days of coming ashore, from late December to March. Northern elephant seals hold the record as the deepest-diving pinniped. Time-depth recording devices have recorded dives of an amazing 1 580 m and 80 minutes. Rest intervals at the surface are very short, usually only a few minutes. After leaving the rookeries, most of these seals spend 80 to 90% of their time underwater, accounting for the fact that they are infrequently seen at sea.Prey consists mostly of squids, small sharks, and ...
The hallmark adaptation to breath-hold diving in Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) is enhanced concentrations of myoglobin in their skeletal muscles. Myoglobin is a cytoplasmic hemoprotein that stores oxygen for use in aerobic metabolism throughout the dive duration. In addition, throughout the duration of the dive, Weddell seals rely on oxygen stored in myoglobin to sustain aerobic metabolism in which lipid is the primary contributor of acetyl CoA for the citric acid cycle. Together, enhanced myoglobin concentrations and a lipid-based aerobic metabolism represent some of the unique ...
The domestic cat (Felis catus) shows remarkable sensitivity to the adverse effects of phenolic drugs, including acetaminophen and aspirin, as well as structurally-related toxicants found in the diet and environment. This idiosyncrasy results from pseudogenization of the gene encoding UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6, the major species-conserved phenol detoxification enzyme. Here, we established the phylogenetic timing of disruptive UGT1A6 mutations and explored the hypothesis that gene inactivation in cats was enabled by minimal exposure to plant-derived toxicants. Fixation of the UGT1A6 pseudogene was estimated to have occurred between 35 and 11 million years ago with all extant Felidae having dysfunctional UGT1A6. Out of 22 additional taxa sampled, representative of most Carnivora families, only brown hyena (Parahyaena brunnea) and northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) showed inactivating UGT1A6 mutations. A comprehensive literature review of the natural diet of the sampled taxa
Polar regions are particularly sensitive to climate change, with the potential for significant feedbacks between ocean circulation, sea ice, and the ocean carbon cycle. However, the difficulty in obtaining in situ data means that our ability to detect and interpret change is very limited, especially in the Southern Ocean, where the ocean beneath the sea ice remains almost entirely unobserved and the rate of sea-ice formation is poorly known. Here, we show that southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) equipped with oceanographic sensors can measure ocean structure and water mass changes in regions and seasons rarely observed with traditional oceanographic platforms. In particular, seals provided a 30-fold increase in hydrographic profiles from the sea-ice zone, allowing the major fronts to be mapped south of 60°S and sea-ice formation rates to be inferred from changes in upper ocean salinity. Sea-ice production rates peaked in early winter (April-May) during the rapid northward expansion of ...
Memorandum of Understanding concerning Conservation Measures for the Eastern Atlantic Populations of the Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus). ...
A plethora of the globe’s marine animals are in trouble, but one of the most notable is that of the Mediterranean monk seal, which the International | Plants And Animals
Changes in grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) serum thyroid hormones with age, sex and during lactation were investigated. Concentrations were related to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake and exposure in pups and females. There was no effect of sex or stage of lactation on either free or total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), but significant age-related variability was seen. Pups had significantly higher concentrations of total T4 than adults (p ,0.0001) and serum levels declined with age. In general, there was no significant relationship between PCB exposure to pups through female milk or between PCB blubber concentrations and thyroid hormone levels, when the effect of age was controlled for. However, the ratio T3:T4 was significantly correlated with the concentration of one congener, CB169 (p = 0.048), when stage of lactation was used as a covariate. In conclusion, serum thyroid hormone levels may be less useful biomarkers of contaminant exposure in seals than other biochemical ...
Agafonova, E. V., Verevkin, M. V., Sagitov, R. A., Sipilä, T., Sokolovskay, M. V. and Shahnazarova, V. U. 2007. The Ringed Seal in Lake Ladoga and the Valaam Archipelago. Baltic Fund for Nature of Saint-Petersburg Naturalist Society, St. Petersburg State University & Metsähallitus, Natural Heritage Servives, Vammalan Kirjapaino OY., Vammala, Finland.. Belikov, S.E. and Boltunov, A.N. 1998. The ringed seal (Phoca hispida) in the western Russian Arctic. In: M.P. Heide-Jørgensen and C. Lydersen. (eds), Ringed seals in the North Atlantic., pp. 63-82. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Volume 1, Tromso.. Bergman, A. and Olsson, M. 1986. Pathology of Baltic grey seal and ringed seal females with special reference to adrenocortical hyperplasia: is environmental pollution the cause of a widely distributed disease syndrome? Finnish Game Research 44: 47-62.. Blackwell, S. B., Greene, C. R. and Richardson, W. J. 2004. Drilling and operational sounds from an oil production island in the ice-covered Beaufort ...
The occasional sightings at Point Lobos might include a recently weaned pup who hasnt learned to successfully forage and is suffering from malnutrition. The Marine Mammal Center rescues them, nurses them back to health and then releases them to the ocean. Subadults might also haul out on our beaches to rest. Less frequently an adult male might visit Point Lobos. Older animals rarely appear at Point Lobos, but the photo at left shows a young adult male hauled up on a beach just to the north of the Reserve.. For almost guaranteed elephant seal viewing, drive a couple hours to one of the nearby mainland rookeries. Ano Nuevo State Park is about 2 hours north of Point Lobos. Piedras Blancas rookery, the largest rookery, is a little over 2 hours drive to the south on the Big Sur coastline near San Simeon. Elephant seals haul out to molt at different times based on age and gender, so you can always see some elephant seals at the rookeries. Visit one of the rookeries during the winter birthing and ...
Well relaxed Baikal seals. Picture from Uryah. http://diertjevandedag.classy.be/zoogdieren/roofdieren/zeehond/baikalrob.htm. Well, and how this seal came to lake Baikal ?. Well, it is not very clear, it is almost a mystery, since the seal lives far from the open seas, where all other species of seals live. But anyway, as for everything, we can look for the more reliable scientific hypothesis. Lets see what we can found ….. This species is most similar to the Arctic seal or ringed seal, Pusa hispida, which lives in the Arctic. Like this and other of the family of Phocids (such as the common seal, Phoca vitulina), it is earless, unlike other Pinnipedia (sea lions and fur seals). Another species quite similar is the Caspian seal, Pusa caspica, which is also a curious case, because the Caspian is also an isolated sea. But the Caspian is almost a real sea, with a salinity of 1.2% (the third of the others seas and oceans), and therefore the Caspian seal, such as the Arctic, is not a freshwater ...
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide oxytocin is increasing the focus of many studies investigating human and animal social behaviours and diseases. However, interpretation and comparison of results is made difficult by a lack of consistent methodological approaches towards analysing this hormone. NEW METHOD: This study determined the sample collection and analysis protocols that cause the least amounts of protocol dependant variation in plasma oxytocin concentrations detected by ELISA. The effect of vacutainer type, sample extraction prior to analysis and capture and restraint protocol were investigated while validating an assay protocol for two novel species, grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina). RESULTS: Where samples are extracted prior to analysis, vacutainer type (EDTA mean: 8.25±0.56pg/ml, heparin mean: 8.25±0.62pg/ml, p=0.82), time taken to obtain a sample and restraint protocol did not affect the concentration of oxytocin detected. However, concentrations of ...
Explore the fascinating world and interesting adaptations of northern elephant seals during a special weekend celebration. Unique pop-up exhibits will reveal natural history, migration strategies, and allow visitors to become citizen scientists (helping out UC Santa Cruz researchers). As a citizen scientist, learn about elephant seals, sea lions, and seabirds that visit Año Nuevo Island, an important natural reserve north of Santa Cruz; then analyze drone photos to identify and count different types of animals that visit the island. Top the weekend off with February Science Sunday speakers Dr. Roxanne Beltran and Sarah Wood who will provide insight into their lives as scientists as well as exciting facts about elephant seals. Special Valentines-themed arts and crafts are offered throughout the weekend. Elephant Seal Weekend Celebration was February 14-16, 2020. 2021 dates TBD ...
Stock Photo of Grey Seal pup. High Quality Grey Seal Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
McKenna, K., Williams, C.R., Zagzebski, K.A., Madden, M.R., and Voorhis, A. 2017. Shell necrosis of the dermal bone related to cold-stunning in sea turtles and terrapins. Presentation at the Greater Atlantic Region Stranding Conference, Hull, Massachusetts.. Pugliares-Bonner, K., McKenna, K.R., Sette, L., Niemeyer, M., and Tlusty, M. 2017. The prevalence of alopecia in gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Massachusetts, USA, 2004-2013. Presentation at the Greater Atlantic Region Stranding Conference, Hull, Massachusetts.. Puryear, W.B., Madden, M.R., Myers, L., Schuh, J., Williams, C.R., Tuttle, A., Romano, T., Zagzebski, K.A., and Runstadler, J. 2017. Influenza A and B viruses in rehabilitated seals have increased in both frequency and species diversity since 2014. Presentation at the Greater Atlantic Region Stranding Conference, Hull, Massachusetts.. Starzynski, K.L., Williams, C.R., Shaffer, K.E., Madden, M.R., and Zagzebski, K.A. 2017. Charismatic microfauna: findings from the National Marine ...
The life-history of many colonial-breeding species includes a period of absence from the natal colony followed by a period of attendance as prebreeders prior to first reproduction. During this prebreeder period, survival rates, and the probability of temporary emigration is variable, and patterns of attendance can have implications for future reproduction. We used 26 - 28 years of encounter data of female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in Erebus Bay, Antarctica to estimate variability in survival and temporary emigration rates and to evaluate implications for recruitment rates. Temporary emigration rates were nearly 1 at age 1, decreased until age 8, and increased slightly thereafter. Annual variation in temporary emigration rates was substantial, and rates were positively related to the distance from the fast-ice edge to Erebus Bay and to the population of adult females in the previous year. Recruitment rates varied annually, and were typically, but not always, positively related to ...
Its the time of year when elephant seal pups, harbor seal pups and California sea lion pups like Popsicle arrive at The Marine Mammal Center in large numbers. You can help feed these pups with your donation today ...
The location and timing of predatory attacks are also far from indiscriminate. At high tide on the Farallon Islands, for instance, there is heavy competition for space where northern elephant seals can haul themselves onto the rocks, and the competition forces many low-ranking juve-nile seals into the water. Klimley-along with Peter Pyle and Scot D. Anderson, both wildlife biologists then at the Point Reyes Bird Observatory in California-has shown that at the Farallons, most white-shark attacks take place during high tide, near where the mammals enter and exit the water.. Similarly, at Seal Island, Cape fur seals leave for their foraging expeditions from a small rocky outcrop nicknamed the Launch Pad. Coordinated groups of between five and fifteen seals usually leave together, but they scatter while at sea and return alone or in small groups of two or three. White sharks attack almost any seal at Seal Island-juvenile or adult, male or female-but they particularly target lone, incoming, ...
Award-winning Kauai author, Monika Mira brings you a repetitive rhyming story about ocean animals that encourages early reading skills and answers the burning questions that the inquisitive minds of young children tend to ask about the world around us. The rhythmic verse is accompanied by captivating collage illustrations that introduce children to sea creatures like whales, dolphins, sharks and starfish and the endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal. A perfect gift for children visiting Hawaii, or any child that is interested in marine life. Recommended for Ages 2-5. Available on Amazon ...
Studies suggest that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUPAs) are beneficial in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and may enhance the cytotoxicity induced by certain chemotherapeutic agents. It is known that seal oil is rich in ω-3 PUPAs. The effect of seal oil and its role on the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by paclitaxel was, therefore, investigated in breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. -- MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were respectively treated with seal oil, paclitaxel, and paclitaxel in combination with seal oil. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis was investigated by morphological changes and DNA strand break assay. Western blot assay was used to assess the expression of p53 and Bcl-2 proteins. The lipid peroxide products were measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS) assay and the intracellular lipid composition was determined by gas chromatography (GC). -- MTT assay showed that seal oil induced cell death and enhanced paclitaxel ...
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Weddell seals in McMurdo Sound pup on the sea ice from the middle of October to early November. They weigh about 65 Ib. at birth (Bertram, 1940), double their weight in 10 days, and are page 135 weaned in six to eight weeks. From this point until they return to breed as three year olds, little is known of their habits. It has been postulated they go into the pack ice or along the northern inaccessible coast (Smith, 1966a) although it is not indicated whether this means the Victoria Land Coast, the periphery of the continent, or both. However, this postulation is based on the negative evidence that young seals have never been seen in large numbers anywhere.. Females first become pregnant at three years of age and have one pup a year thereafter. One female was found pupping in her third year, thus having bred in its second year, but this is exceptional (Smith, 1966a). Twinning is virtually non-existent. Weddell seals may live to 15 or 16 years of age but the average age in McMurdo Sound is about ...
This June 5, 2009 photo released by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shows an adult ringed seal in Kotzebue, Alaska. An ice seal thats the main prey of Alaskas polar bears will receive threatened species protection. The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals on Monday, Feb. 12, 2018, overturned a District Court decision and said the National Marine Fisheries Service acted properly in listing ringed seals. (Mike Cameron/NOAA via AP) less ...