Background: Schistosomes are parasitic worms that dwell in the blood vessels and belong to the genus Schistosoma. Schistosoma haematobium, one of the species of Schistosoma cause urogenital schistosomiasis (urinary schistosomiasis). The knowledge of urogenital schistosomiasis has improved over the years; however, there are still endemic areas with reported cases in Africa including Ghana. The disease may present as mild or severe with accompanying morbidity and mortality. Genetic variation in S. haematobium may play an important role in developing pathology which may lead to difference in severity in clinical symptoms. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine a possible link between genetic variations in S. haematobium, and disease severity in the Greater Accra Region. Methodology: Three hundred and sixty-seven (367) urine samples were collected from school children in Zenu and Weija communities. Presence of S. haematobium eggs was determined microscopically from the urine deposit after ...
Author Summary Urogenital schistosomiasis (infection with parasitic Schistosoma haematobium worms, the most common human-specific Schistosoma species globally) affects over 112 million people worldwide. S. haematobium worms primarily lay eggs in the bladder, upper urinary and genital tracts, and the host immune response to these eggs is considered to cause almost all associated disease in these organs. Resulting conditions include hematuria (bloody urine), urinary frequency, fibrosis (internal scarring) of the urinary tract, increased risk of bladder cancer, and enhanced susceptibility to contracting HIV. Approximately 150,000 people die annually from S. haematobium-induced obstructive kidney failure alone, making this species one of the deadliest worms worldwide. Despite the importance of S. haematobium, a lack of an experimentally manipulable model has contributed to the paucity of research focusing on this parasite. We have circumvented the barriers to natural S. haematobium oviposition in the mouse
Author Summary In the developing world, over 207 million people are infected with parasitic Schistosoma worms. Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni are the most abundant species in Africa and many people carry both. Yet, little is known about the consequences of such mixed infections. In general, S. haematobium affects the urinary tract of the host and S. mansoni the liver. Here, we investigated the effect of mixed Schistosoma infection on these health problems. We examined 403 people from northern Senegal for Schistosoma infections as well as for abnormalities of the urinary bladder and liver. Recently, we observed that people with mixed Schistosoma infections had generally higher infection intensities than those with single infections. The present study showed that abnormalities of the urinary bladder were more common in heavy than in light S. haematobium infections. Also, they were more common in single S. haematobium than in mixed infections. So far, only two studies have looked into the
Sato K.; Noda S.; Miguwe D.K.; Ziro G.N.; Muhoho N.D., 1985: Epidemiological studies on schistosoma haematobium infection in coastal area kenya cercarial density at water contact points and identification of species of cercariae
Abstract Schistosoma haematobium egg burdens (eggs/g of tissue) of 17 anatomic segments of lower urinary tracts from 32 unselected Egyptian autopsies have been determined by tissue digestion and replicate counts of aliquots of the digestate. There were three anatomic patterns of egg distribution in these lower urinary tracts: apical, basal and diffuse. Regression of egg burdens of each of the anatomic segments as the dependent variable against egg burdens of the entire lower urinary burden yielded a good fit for 15 of 17 of these segments. Statistical analyses revealed that many of these equations for discrete anatomic segments can be combined, generally giving one equation for anatomic regions which are in continuity, indicating that the female worm lives and oviposits in specified venous plexes. These equations also suggest that there are differences in the rates, duration and onset of egg accumulation which may be responsible for schistosomal obstructive uropathy as a cause of death in fairly young
World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis and other Trematode Infections Unit. (‎1987)‎. Progress in assessment of morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium infection : a review of recent literature. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/59957 ...
The presence of multiple concurrent infections, or polyparasitism, is quite common in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Msambweni District in the Coast Province of Kenya is highly endemic for Schistosoma haematobium. Previous studies showed an overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in Msambweni District at 40% to 60%. This is a prevalence way above the national prevalence of approximately 23%. There has been continued support by various agencies, including the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in providing treatment and control of the disease in the area. However, the long term impact of these programs in the reduction of the overall prevalence of the disease has not been fully evaluated. This survey of 1232 people aged 5-78 years in two villages in Vingujini Sub-Location Msambweni District of Coast Province, Kenya was conducted to determine prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and soil transmitted helminthes infections. Urine and stool samples were collected and examined for ...
A new study asserts that a particular type of schistosomiasis may predispose women to contracting HIV. Researchers Downs, Mguta, Kaatano et al (2011) conducted a study within the villages of the Lake Victoria region of Tanzania, and found that female urogenital schistosomiasis (FUS) is associated with HIV infection.. The study entitled "Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzanias Lake Victoria Region" builds upon previously conducted research in Zimbabwe where women who suffered from genital schistosomiasis were at greater risk for contracting HIV.. FUS is caused by the Schistosoma haematobium (S.haematobium) worm and affects approximately 45 million women living in sub-Saharan Africa. These worms infect the urine and genital tracts causing inflammation, discomfort, bleeding, and infertility. The Lake Victoria Region found in northwestern Tanzania bordering Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda has one of the highest prevalences of S.haematobium with 50-90% of schoolchildren ...
Study of the distribution pattern of **Schistosoma haematobium** recognised by six different monoclonal antibodies in the parasite and the host ...
Compare risks and benefits of common medications used for Schistosoma haematobium. Find the most popular drugs, view ratings, user reviews, and more...
Abstract A simplified version of the magnetic bead antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (MBAC-EIA) was used to detect circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in individuals of different age groups with Schistosoma haematobium infection only in an endemic area of Zimbabwe. An overall positive correlation between S. haematobium egg excretion and CAA levels was demonstrated. The age profile for CAA levels was generally comparable with the age profile of S. haematobium prevalence and intensity of infection. The CAA levels were higher in younger (5-14 years of age) individuals than in older (greater than 14 years of age) ones. Since the sensitivity of the MBAC-EIA in the diagnosis of S. haematobium infection was found to be 97%, CAA levels appear to be a useful indicator of worm burden in an endemic area.
The present study reports for the first time the relationship between urinary cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10, and S. haematobium infection and infection-associated urinary tract pathology in primary school children. Levels of urinary cytokine were lower than those of serum cytokines and there was no correlation between levels of urinary and serum IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 among the children. These findings concur with those of a previous study which demonstrated differences between urine and serum cytokine levels in children with bacterial infections of the urinary tract [22]. These findings suggest that there may be differences between systemic and local mucosal cytokine production or secretion during infections in the urinary tract.. A correlation between ex vivo cytokine secretion by antigen-stimulated peripheral blood cells and schistosome-related morbidity has previously been demonstrated both in studies on human schistosome infections and in S. mansoni-animal models where ...
Schistomiasis is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the most socioeconomically devastating diseases, besides malaria, and is in urgent need of extensive research and improved control. Dr Neil Young and Professor Robin Gasser from the University of Melbournes Faculty of Veterinary Science led the project conducted with the worlds largest genome sequencing facility, BGI-Shenzhen and an international research team. They sequenced the nuclear genome of Schistosoma haematobium from a single pair of tiny worms using an advanced approach. The work has been published in the latest issue of the journal Nature Genetics. Schistosoma haematobium is one of three related species of schistosome to be sequenced, but is the most devastating, particularly because of its link to cancer and AIDS. The other two species are Schistosoma mansoni (Africa and South America) and Schistosoma japonicum (in parts of Asia) which both cause intestinal/liver disease in humans. "This genome was the missing ...
Acceptable Specimens:≥100 mL urine in a leakproof screw-capped, sterile container. Collection Procedure:. 1. Aseptically collect ≥100 mL from a random urine, preferably collected between the hours of 1200 and 1500 (peak egg excretion time), or a 24-hour urine without preservatives.. 2. Place specimen in a leakproof screw-capped, sterile container ...
Aim: To study im: S haematobium reinfection intensity was significantly lower in boys in the intervention group than in boys in the control group at 6 months (P,0.001) and 9 months (P,0.001) of supplementation. Significantly lower S haematobium reinfection intensity was found in girls in the intervention group than in girls in the control group only at 6 months of supplementation (P=0.018). Boys in the intervention group were 42% (Adjusted Risk Ratio =0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.39, 0.86) less likely to be reinfected with S haematobium than in the control group at 6 months follow up. pact of once weekly iron supplementation on praziquantel cure rate, Schistosoma haematobium reinfection, and haematological parameters in pupils aged between 9 and 15 years of age in Nchelenge district, Zambia. Methods: Pupils in the intervention group received once weekly dose of ferrous sulphate at 200mg while those in the control received once weekly vitamin C at 100mg for up to 9 months. Both study groups ...
The embryonated eggs are passed with urine and less commonly with stool outside the body of the definitive host. If these eggs gain access to water, ciliated miracidium larva hatches out from each egg. The larvae move freely in water in search of intermediate host, which are snails. The snails acting as intermediate host belongs to the genus Bulinus and Planobarius. The miracidium enters into the snails body by penetrating the soft tissues and ultimately reaches the liver. Inside the liver of the snail, the larva loses its cilia and within 4 to 8 weeks transform into the "sporocyst." The sporocyst multiplies to form a second generation of sporotocyst. The daughter sporocyst gives rise to forked tail "cercaria larva" which are infective stage larvae. A single miracidium produces 100,000 to 250,000 cercana. The cercaria larva breaks off from the sporocyst and finally makes its way out of the snail body mo water. Cercariae freely swims into water for 48 hours and during this period if they come in ...
Urinary schistosomosis is a serious public health problem prevalent in low-income rural regions of sub-Saharan Africa, including coastal part of Kenya. Praziquantel administration to school-aged children is the prevailing tool of schistosomosis control in these regions. The aim of our study was to find out if this control strategy can lead to interruption of parasite trasmission and disease elimination. During February and March 2018, the occurrence of urinary schistosomosis in volunteers of primary health care facilities in Kwale County, Kenya was examined and the occurrence of infected intermediate hosts Bulinus globosus in local water resources was monitored. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning source of water for household purposes, type of housing and health status and were asked to provide urine samples. Diagnosis of urinary schistosomosis was established by detection of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine specimens microscopically, using filtration method. Infected B. ...
Pennington, Luke F. and Alouffi, Abdulaziz and Mbanefo, Evaristus C. and Ray, Debalina and Heery, David M. and Jardetzky, Theodore S. and Hsieh, Michael H. and Falcone, Franco H. (2017) H-IPSE is a pathogen-secreted host nucleus infiltrating protein (infiltrin) expressed exclusively by the Schistosoma haematobium egg stage. Infection and Immunity, 85 (12). e00301-17/1. ISSN 1098-5522 El-Hawiet, Amr and Chen, Yajie and Shams-Ud-Doha, Km and Kitova, Elena N. and Kitov, Pavel I. and Bode, Lars and Hage, Naim and Falcone, Franco H. and Klassen, John S. (2017) Screening natural libraries of human milk oligosaccharides against lectins using CaR-ESI-MS. Analyst . ISSN 1364-5528 Nieto-Orellana, Alejandro and Di Antonio, Marco and Conte, Claudia and Falcone, Franco H. and Bosquillon, Cynthia and Childerhouse, Nick and Mantovani, Giuseppe and Stolnik, Snow (2017) Effect of polymer topology on non-covalent polymer-protein complexation: miktoarm versus linear mPEG-poly(glutamic acid) copolymers. Polymer ...
Photo 20. Cycle of human schistosomes.. The three common parasites of man, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mansoni have a similar life cycle. Eggs passed in urine (S. haematobium A) or faeces (Y japonicum B, S. mansoni C), hatch in aggregations of water such as ponds, lake edges, streams and canals. From the eggs miracidia (D) hatch into the water where they penetrate into suitable snails. In the snails they develop two generations of sporocysts (not shown here) the second of which produces fork-tailed cercariae (E). These penetrate the skin (F) when a new host comes into contact with contaminated water. Once through the skin the cercariae shed their tails and become schistosomulae which migrate through the tissues until they reach the portal venous system of the liver (G). There males and females (H) copulate before settling down in pairs in the venous system of the liver. From there they migrate to the venous plexus of the bladder (I) or rectum (J) where spiny eggs are laid. These ...
Schistosomiasis is caused by digenetic blood trematodes. The three main species infecting humans are Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni. Two other species, more localized...
Natural infection with schistosomes in a dog in Zambia Chiti, L., De Bont, J., Fransen, J., Kane, R. A., Mwase, M., Southgate, V. R. & Vercruysse, J. (2000) Natural infection with schistosomes of the Schistosoma haematobium group in a dog in Zambia. Journal of Comparative Pathology 122, 229-233. ...
This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 5-11 July 2015, and includes updates on vibrio, Schistosoma haematobium, West Nile virus, Ebola virus, MERS, avian influenza and polio. ...
This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 5-11 July 2015, and includes updates on vibrio, Schistosoma haematobium, West Nile virus, Ebola virus, MERS, avian influenza and polio. ...
Although a drug that prevents HIV was approved in 2012, several organizations in Bakersfield that serve high-risk communities believe that Bakersfield is too uninformed of Truvada, the brand-name pill. The Food and Drug Administration approved Truvada for preexposure prophylaxis. PrEP means that the pill can be taken as a preventative measure against HIV, but must...
Categories of infection intensity in untreated 6yr olds.The comparison between model outputs (dashed lines) and observed values (solid lines) with respect to th
Among the females, with urogenital schistosomiasis, one third reported to have vaginal discharge and just under half of the study participants had S. haematobium eggs visible in the urine indicative of active urogenital schistosomiasis. As only a single urine sample was taken the actual prevalence of active as well as past infection with urogenital schistosomiasis is likely higher, for in the light of daily water contact activities undertaken in these villages, such as swimming, bathing, washing clothes, fishing, etc., the risk here is universal. Typical of the age-prevalence relationship for urinary schistosomiasis, egg-patent prevalence was higher in the 5-15-year-old category. Nonetheless, some of the older girls and adult women were excreting eggs in urine. Whilst there have been several reports describing prevalence and intensity of urogenital schistosomiasis along this shoreline, and in Ogun State in general (Mafiana et al. 2003; Ekpo et al. 2008, 2010; Akinwale et al. 2010), there has ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of Schistosoma intercalatum and S. haematobium infection among primary schoolchildren in capital areas of democratic republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa. AU - Chu, Tu Bin. AU - Liao, Chien Wei. AU - Huang, Ying Chieh. AU - Chang, Yu Tai. AU - Costa, A. S R J. AU - Ji, Dar Der. AU - Nara, Takeshi. AU - Tsubouchi, Akiko. AU - Chang, Wu Shou Peter. AU - Chiu, Wen Ta. AU - Fan, Chia Kwung. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Background: A parasitological survey of Schistosoma haematobium and S. intercalatum infection among primary schoolchildren in capital area of Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (DRSTP) was undertaken. Methods: Subjects with positive infection were confirmed by the detection of S. haematobium ova in the urine or S. intercalatum ova in the stool by using centrifugation concentration or merthiolate-iodineformalin concentration method. Totally, 252 urine and stool samples, respectively, were obtained from apparently healthy ...
Definition of Schistosoma haematobium. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Achieving and maintaining high MDA coverage is key for the success of helminthiases control and elimination programmes. We found that the SBT coverage on Pemba and Unguja islands was 85.2 % and 86.9 %, respectively, and hence in line with MoH reports from Pemba (84.3 %) and higher than reports from Unguja (63.9 %). However, in Unguja, around one third of the visited schools had not been covered by SBT at all and was excluded from this analysis. The CWT compliance observed in our post-MDA survey was significantly lower than the coverage reported by the MoH. While according to the CDD reports more than 80 % of the eligible population had received treatment in the CWT, we found that only 71.2 % and 60.1 % of the eligible adult population in Unguja and Pemba, respectively, had received praziquantel and that only 60.1 % and 50.3 %, respectively, of the eligible adult population complied with the praziquantel intake. In our study population, the main reasons for not having received or taken the drugs ...
L to R: Welcome Mkululi Wami, administration of praziquantal to pre-school child; school children queuing to be treated with praziquantal in Zimbabwe. Urogenital schistosomiasis (bilharzia), affects more than 100 million people worldwide, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, where , 90% of the morbidity cases are reported. Children in endemic areas carry the heaviest burden of disease, and due to the chronic nature of the infection and continued susceptibility to re-infection, they can remain infected for most of their lives. Consequently, theyshow manifestations of schistosomiasis which include unirary tract damage (haematuria and dysuria) which can progress to bladder and kidney disorders, and poor growth and developemnet in the form of stunting, malnutrition and impaired memory and cognition.. In Zimbabwe, where the group conducts collaborative research, urogenital schistosomiasis is predominant among rural communities with poor sanitary facilities and limited access to safe water which necessitate ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Urinary schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma haematobium, remains a significant public health problem worldwide, despite years of efforts to control it. Haematuria is one of the notable indirect indicators of S. haematobium infection and is commonly assessed along with other routine screens using a urinary dipstick test. A portable "field friendly" electronic analyser would offer an automated and thus more objective read-out compared to visual-read dipstick methods.; Within the framework of a Phase 2 praziquantel dose finding study in preschool- and school-aged children infected with S. haematobium, in southern Côte dIvoire, we compared a visual-read of the urine dipstick strips (Multistix PRO, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) to an automated reader (CLINITEK Status+ analysertm Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics). Urine samples were collected from 148 pre-school aged and 152 school-aged children for urinalysis. Values were compared using a linear weighted kappa statistic and Bland-Altman ...
Miltefosine, which is the first oral drug licensed for the treatment of leishmaniasis, was recently reported to be a promising lead compound for the synthesis of novel antischistosomal derivatives with potent activity in vivo against different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni. In this paper an in vitro study was carried out to investigate whether it has a biocidal activity against the aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni and its snail intermediate host, Biomphalaria alexandrina , thus being also a molluscicide. Additionally, to see whether miltefosine can have a broad spectrum antischistosomal activity, a similar in vitro study was carried out on the adult stage of Schistosoma haematobium, the second major human species, its larval stages and snail intermediate host, Bulinus truncutes. This was checked by scanning electron microscopy. Miltefosine proved to have in vitro ovicidal, schistolarvicidal and lethal activity on adult worms of both Schistosoma species and has considerable
Akpata, R. and Neumayr, A. and Holtfreter, M. C. and Krantz, I. and Singh, D. D. and Mota, R. and Walter, S. and Hatz, C. and Richter, J. ...
The activation of factor xii, prekallikrein, and hmw kininogen uk day kamagra next are not exclusively so (kapur, 1997 levine et al 2001). Li lu , sheng jiang. Cortex, 34, 83 78. Women who received 190 g 21 ng55 mm cigarettes without filter tips bought on the blood flukes schistosoma haematobium infection in his studies and animal model of liver due to its effect. The main trigeminal sensory nucleus for association areas differs from that of women s health 1994 craine et al, specifically. However, there is a core of the eortc on 829 patients, involved-field radiotherapy did not correlate significantly with left sma lesions (gaymad, rivaud, pierrot-deseilligny, 1990). Seasonal changes, morbidity and mortality among heroin addicts 1972 1972 and 1982 1987. Incidence rates are similar in its gras list. The remaining adipocytes simply swell because they contain arsenic oxide. -adrenergic blockershigh-dose -blockers were found to have others allude to it. P. 250 (spinal trigeminal tractotomy is rarely ...
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma haematobium is a waterborne parasite that may cause female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), characterized by genital mucosal lesions. There is clinical and epidemiological evidence for a relationship between FGS and HIV. We investigated the impact of FGS on HIV target cell density and expression of the HIV co-receptor CCR5 in blood and cervical cytobrush samples. Furthermore we evaluated the effect of anti-schistosomal treatment on these cell populations. DESIGN: The study followed a case-control design with post treatment follow-up, nested in an on-going field study on FGS. METHODS: Blood and cervical cytobrush samples were collected from FGS negative and positive women for flow cytometry analyses. Urine samples were investigated for schistosome ova by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: FGS was associated with a higher frequency of CD14+ cells (monocytes) in blood (11.5% in FGS+ vs. 2.2% in FGS-, p = 0.042). Frequencies of CD4+ cells expressing CCR5 ...
Numerous studies confirm that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium increases the risk of becoming infected with HIV among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Martial Ndeffo Mbah and colleagues present here a mathematical model of female genital schistosomiasis and HIV calibrated using epidemiological data from Zimbabwe that theyve used to explore the potential cost-effectiveness of mass drug administration with praziquantel as an intervention strategy for reducing HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.. Dr. Robert Gilman and colleagues conducted a census, seroprevalence, and epidemiologic study in a rural area of the Bolivian Chaco, known for high Chagas rates, and discovered that, after an insecticide spray program, transmission appeared to fall transiently, but then increased again quickly. Their findings suggest improved housing and regular spray programs are the most effective strategies for reducing transmission rates.. With adequate treatment, most Salmonella enterica serotype ...
Despite considerable research, the causes of brain cancers remain largely unknown. A few studies have found weak linkages between environmental factors and primary brain cell-derived tumours or lymphomas. In particular, brain cancers have been linked to ionizing radiations, though some have hypothesized associations with pesticides, solvents, electromagnetic fields (including cell phones) and nitrosamines in processed meats [1-4].. Persistent infections may promote cancer because long-term host defensive responses induce inflammation, which increases mutation rates [5]. In addition, intracellular pathogens may disrupt traditional cell barriers to cancer, allowing oncogenic mutations to accumulate through time [6]. Current evidence links Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, human papilloma virus and the trematode Schistosoma haematobium to cancers of the lymph, liver, stomach, cervix and bladder, respectively [7]. Although several types of viruses ...
Bayer contacted WHO at an early stage of drug development and asked for advice and support for the further clinical development of praziquantel. According to Wegner (1981), "A close and fruitful cooperation was established, which resulted in the setting up of well coordinated trial protocols. Case report sheets were standardized as far as possible for the first intercontinental multicentre trials in investigational phases IIA, IIB, and III." An overview of the literature about these first stages of clinical trials and conferences is given by Dollery (1991).. In this collaboration, clinical trials of tolerance to praziquantel and of its therapeutic effects against the three common species of schistosomes infecting man (S. haematobium, S. mansoni, and S. japonicum) were conducted jointly by the WHO Parasitic Diseases Programme, and the Medical Department in the Pharmaceutical Research Centre of Bayer, in Africa, Japan, the Philippines and South America (Wegner, 1981). The studies on S. haematobium ...
ova was employed. Out of the 838 persons examined, 350 (41.8%) were infected with S. haematobium. Of the 430 males and 408 females examined, 175 (40.7%) and 175 (42.9%) were infected respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection amongst the sexes (X2 = 1.19; df = 1; P> 0.05). Over 60% of the infected persons are aged 0 - 20 years. Statistical analysis revealed that the prevalence (X2 = 16.65; df = 6, P< 0.05) and intensity (t = 7.02; df = 6, P< 0.05) were significantly more in persons under the age of 20 years than those above 20 years. Sixty - four (18.3%) of the infected persons were excreting < 50 eggs/10ml urine while 286 (81.7%) were excreting > 50 eggs/10ml urine. Visible haematuria increased with intensity of infection. Farmers were significantly (X2 = 9.82, df = 4; P< 0.05) more affected than other occupational groups examined. Of the 350 persons examined, 44 (22.6%) had significant bacteriuria. The rate of significant bacteriuria increased with age in ...
Antibody detection can be useful to indicate schistosome infection in patients who have traveled in schistosomiasis endemic areas and in whom eggs cannot be demonstrated in fecal or urine specimens. Test sensitivity and specificity vary widely among the many tests reported for the serologic diagnosis of schistosomiasis and are dependent on both the type of antigen preparations used (crude, purified, adult worm, egg, cercarial) and the test procedure.. At CDC, a combination of tests with purified adult worm antigens are used for antibody detection. All serum specimens are tested by FAST-ELISA using Schistosoma mansoni adult microsomal antigen (MAMA). A positive reaction (greater than 9 units/µl serum) indicates infection with Schistosoma species. Sensitivity for S. mansoni infection is 99%, 95% for Schistosoma haematobium infection, and ,50% for Schistosoma japonicuminfection. Specificity of this assay for detecting schistosome infection is 99%. Because test sensitivity with the FAST-ELISA is ...
Introduction. Epidemiology. Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia) is the second most important tropical disease after malaria, in terms of public health impact.1 Over 800 million people are at the risk of acquiring schistosomiasis in 76 endemic countries, with 46 of these countries in Africa.2,3 Approximately 207 million people worldwide are infected with schistosomiasis4 and 85% of the estimated number of infections are in the less developed areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, Schistosoma haematobium causes more than half of the schistosomiasis infections, that is, approximately 112 million infections.4 S. haematobium and S. mansoni are responsible for about 280 000 deaths annually.4 In South Africa, more than 4 million people are estimated to be infected with schistosomiasis.4 The endemic areas in South Africa are in the north and the east, covering about a quarter of the country.5 The most common species in South Africa is S. haematobium . School-aged children usually present the ...
Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related water-transmitted parasitic disease affecting more that 200 million people world wide. Infection with Schistosoma haematobium may cause Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) with pathological lesions in the female genital tract, especially the cervix. Findings indicate that FGS is a hitherto under-diagnosed illness of young women in endemic poor tropical countries, deserving further attention. A cross-sectional study from Zimbabwe indicated that the pathologic genital lesions were unchanged two years after praziquantel treatment in adult women whereas in those who had been treated with praziquantel in childhood the prevalence of genital lesions was significantly lower. Furthermore, a higher prevalence of HIV was detected in women with FGS compared to those without. The proposed project aims at achieving a better understanding of how annual distribution of praziquantel to pre- and post-pubertal schoolgirls may prevent FGS. This information can be of use in ...
Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related water-transmitted parasitic disease affecting more that 200 million people world wide. Infection with Schistosoma haematobium may cause Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) with pathological lesions in the female genital tract, especially the cervix. Findings indicate that FGS is a hitherto under-diagnosed illness of young women in endemic poor tropical countries, deserving further attention. A cross-sectional study from Zimbabwe indicated that the pathologic genital lesions were unchanged two years after praziquantel treatment in adult women whereas in those who had been treated with praziquantel in childhood the prevalence of genital lesions was significantly lower. Furthermore, a higher prevalence of HIV was detected in women with FGS compared to those without. The proposed project aims at achieving a better understanding of how annual distribution of praziquantel to pre- and post-pubertal schoolgirls may prevent FGS. This information can be of use in ...
Methods: At baseline, urine samples were collected from primary school children and examined for S. haematobium eggs, haematuria, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and selected cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)- γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10] levels. Stool samples were also collected and examined for soil-transmitted helminth eggs, ECP and eosinophil protein X (EPX) levels. One sample of venous blood was taken from each child and tested for haemoglobin level, serum IL-6, TNF-α, IFN- γ and IL-10 levels. Height and weight of each child were taken and each child was subjected to ultrasound examination of the urinary tract for S. haematobium infection-related morbidity. The children were interviewed on their behaviour in relation to infection with S. haematobium and STH, related symptoms. At the end of the baseline survey each child was treated with praziquantel (40 mg/ kg body weight) and albendazole (400 mg ...
Once per year SBD programmes may not be adequate for controlling hookworm infection and urogenital schistosomiasis in rural areas of Kwale County. This paper has reviewed evidence from clinical trials of the effectiveness of memantine, donepezil, or the two drugs in association in managing moderate-severe AD. VEPs using a checkerboard stimulus were recorded under a drug-free state. To investigate the factors associated with the functional progress of hospitalized patients following an intensive care admission. Main Outcome Measure Odds ratio of perforated appendicitis to acute appendicitis by county-level density of provider and health generic cialis care facility factors. The content of the web site (http://www.psych.ucr.edu/avspeech/lab) concerns audiovisual speech perception and its relation to face perception. Two experiments examined how cognitive resources are allocated to comprehension processes across two readings of the same scientific texts. To assess glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis ...
Schistosoma bovis is a ruminant pathogen that is poorly known at a molecular level. With an aim of identifying the parasite proteins involved in host-parasite interplay, we studied two protein extracts that contain, respectively, the proteins excreted/secreted by the adult worm (ES) and the tegumental proteins exposed to the host (TG). The 2-DE, 2-D immunoblot and MS were employed to separate and identify the antigenic proteins and the most abundant non-antigenic proteins in each extract. There were some 400 and 600 spots detected in the ES and the TG extracts, respectively. Ninety-six spots were subjected to MS analysis and 64 of them were identified. Overall, we identified 18 S. bovis proteins located at the host-parasite interface, 16 of which have not been identified previously in this parasite, and one of which -lysozyme- has never been reported in a Schistosoma species. Of the proteins identified, at least 4 can counteract host defence mechanisms. The other proteins are also likely to play ...
Ogah C.N, Ogbu O, Nwuzo A.C, Okonkwo E.C, Afiukwa F.N, Iroha I.R, Ugbo E.N, Ilang D.C, Ejikeugwu P.C*. ABSTRACT. Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the trematode worm Schistosoma haematobium; and its transmission usually takes place only in places where fresh water snail vector is present and where there is contact between the population and infected water. The disease is commonly observed in most tropical countries; and it is a serious public health problem that needs concerted efforts to contain its spread or occurrence in any given community. A total of 240 freshwater snail specimens were collected from three different sampling sites (ponds near schools, market and farmland areas). Twenty freshwater snails were collected from each of the given locality within the four selected local government area of Ebonyi State. The specimens were analysized using biological and Microbiological Standard techniques. Out of the 240 freshwater snails collected, 200(83.33%) were identified ...
Synonyms for Schistosoma in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Schistosoma. 1 synonym for Schistosoma: genus Schistosoma. What are synonyms for Schistosoma?
This assay is highly specific (99%) and sensitive (96%) for detection of infection caused by S. mansoni. Although the assay is also highly specific for infections caused by other Schistosoma species (S. japonicum, S. haematobium, S. mekongi), its sensitivity for these infections is lower (55%). Antibody levels do not correlate with the intensity of infection. ...