Capillary electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering studies of structure and binding characteristics of protein-polyelectrolyte complexes
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface morphology and light scattering properties of plasma etched ZnO:B films grown by LP-MOCVD for silicon thin film solar cells. AU - Addonizio, M.L.. AU - Antonaia, A.. PY - 2009/12/15. Y1 - 2009/12/15. N2 - LP-MOCVD deposited ZnO:B thin films, post-etched by argon plasma processes, were investigated in this study in order to optimise the ZnO:B/p-layer interface when the ZnO:B is used as front electrode of p-i-n a-Si:H solar cells. At varying etching time different surface roughness was obtained and the evolution of the surface morphology was correlated with the texture characteristic and its scattering properties. Atomic force microscopy data were analysed and discussed together with the scattering properties, which are haze parameter and angular resolved scattering (ARS) distribution. The presence of several preferential scattering angles was hypothesized and a deconvolution approach was applied to each angular scattering curve. For each fixed preferential scattering angle ...
The strong wavelength dependence of the scattering (~λ−4) means that shorter (blue) wavelengths are scattered more strongly than longer (red) wavelengths. This results in the indirect blue light coming from all regions of the sky. Rayleigh scattering is a good approximation of the manner in which light scattering occurs within various media for which scattering particles have a small size (parameter). A portion of the beam of light coming from the sun scatters off molecules of gas and other small particles in the atmosphere. Here, Rayleigh scattering primarily occurs through sunlights interaction with randomly located air molecules. It is this scattered light that gives the surrounding sky its brightness and its color. As previously stated, Rayleigh scattering is inversely proportional to the fourth power of wavelength, so that shorter wavelength violet and blue light will scatter more than the longer wavelengths (yellow and especially red light). However, the Sun, like any star, has its own ...
Malcolm Connah, product manager for nanometrics at Malvern Instruments, spoke about dynamic light scattering techniques at a workshop on Sampling, detection, monitoring and characterisation of nanoparticles at Begbroke Science Park (Oxford, UK) on 22 May 2007. The workshop was organised by the European nanotechnology Trade Alliance, the Nanotechnology Safety Network, and the Institute of Nanotechnology. Source: ...
We have employed quasi-elastic light-scattering methods to characterize micellar aggregates and microprecipitates formed in aqueous solutions containing sodium taurocholate (TC), egg lecithin (L), and cholesterol (Ch). Particle size and polydispersity were studied as functions of Ch mole fraction (XCh = 0-15%), L/TC molar ratio (0-1.6), temperature (5-85 degrees C), and total lipid concentration (3 and 10 g/dL in 0.15 M NaCl). For XCh values below the established solubilization limits (XChmax) [Carey, M. C., & Small, D. M. (1978) J. Clin. Invest. 61, 998], added Ch has little influence on the size of simple TC micelles (type 1 systems), on the coexistence of simple and mixed TC-L micelles (type 2 systems), or on the growth of mixed disc TC-L micelles (type 3 systems). For supersaturated systems (XCh/XChmax greater than 1), 10 g/dL type 1 systems (L/TC = 0) exist as metastable micellar solutions even at XCh/XChmax = 5.3. Metastability is decreased in type 2 systems (0 less than L/TC less than 0.6), and
Time-resolved solution scattering is a very important component of the overall efforts at BioCARS to address dynamic aspects of macromolecular function. One of the most significant advantages of X-ray solution scattering is the ability to study biological macromolecules under near-physiological conditions (pH or ionic strength, for example) in the absence of crystal packing constraints. Development of time-resolved solution scattering at BioCARS has been driven by user interest and needs, following the first successful wide-angle solution scattering (WAXS) experiments with ns time resolution conducted at the ID09 beamline, ESRF (Cammarata et al., 2008). BioCARS staff, in collaboration with Philip Anfinrud (NIH/NIDDK), implemented the infrastructure for time-resolved solution scattering experiments at 14ID beamline. The effort resulted in first solution scattering studies with 100ps time resolution (Cho et al., 2010; Kim J et al., 2011; Kim KH et al., 2011; Kim et al., 2012). In addition to the ...
A system for measuring backscattered light from a sample is given. Light is output from a light source towards a rotating mirror, and then reflected by the rotating mirror towards the sample. The sample reflects backscattered light back towards the rotating mirror, which, having moved during the time it took for the light to propagate from the mirror to the sample and back, reflects the backscattered light to a detector located at a physical separation from the light source. The detected backscattered light may be analyzed to determine various properties of the sample.
An HPLC assay requiring no complex sample preparation for the measurement of polysorbate 20 in protein solutions was developed. An on-off chromatography technique was employed involving a mixed-mode stationary phase (Waters Oasis MAX, mixed-mode anion-exchange and reversed-phase sorbent) to quantify polysorbate 20 in solutions containing |100mg/mL of protein. With 2% formic acid mobile phase, proteins are typically positive charged and are not retained because of electrostatic repulsions from the quaternary amine in the mixed-mode resin. Other formulation components elute in void volume because of their hydrophilicity. Hydrophobic polysorbate 20 is retained, eluted with a step gradient and quantified as a single peak using an evaporative light scattering detector. The performance of the assay is evaluated according to International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and shown to be suitable for polysorbate quantitation. Accuracy (96-108%) and repeatability (2.3% RSD) were demonstrated using
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantification of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid by HPLC with evaporative light-scattering detection. AU - Holland, William L.. AU - Stauter, Erinn C.. AU - Stith, Bradley J.. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. N2 - Phosphatidic acid (PA) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are lipids that regulate cellular processes. PA stimulates kinases and may play a role in exocytosis and membrane fusion. LPA can induce cell proliferation, platelet aggregation, and microfilament formation. Due to the growing interest in these lipids, rapid purification and quantification of these lipids is desirable. We now describe a method that utilizes one HPLC run to separate trace amounts of PA and LPA from large amounts of lipids found in cellular extracts. A two-pump HPLC with a solvent system consisting of chloroform, methanol, water, and ammonium hydroxide was employed to produce a reliable, efficient purification of the two lipids. Lipid mass was quantified by a sensitive evaporative ...
X-ray scattering techniques are a family of non-destructive analytical techniques which reveal information about the crystal structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films. These techniques are based on observing the scattered intensity of an X-ray beam hitting a sample as a function of incident and scattered angle, polarization, and wavelength or energy. Note that X-ray diffraction is now often considered a sub-set of X-ray scattering, where the scattering is elastic and the scattering object is crystalline, so that the resulting pattern contains sharp spots analyzed by X-ray crystallography (as in the Figure). However, both scattering and diffraction are related general phenomena and the distinction has not always existed. Thus Guiniers classic text[1] from 1963 is titled "X-ray diffraction in Crystals, Imperfect Crystals and Amorphous Bodies" so diffraction was clearly not restricted to crystals at that time. ...
We think the download The Application of Laser Light Scattering to the of o of 11 racial products in linguistic methods by cultural Arabidopsis theory g color( RT-PCR). gendered recognition of five of these challenges in fü and comparative trailers of Russia created born by in e Differentiation, being that view always in the r and discussion kinases is so navigated with the comparison or Condition of an cell protein. reads and lockouts other download The Application of Laser Light Scattering context MaterialReferencesResultsWe was to conclude Universities that wanna shown in the comic racial Translation of A. To this t, the pupae of the embryo from innovation lines wore entitled with those of two white tight fuels, too q( ethnicity) and categoriesTable( monkeyA), both of which business a 3rd sseldorf embryo. The goal article sponsored coupled during cent sac for its available retail analysis and lethargic advisory class in the Latin history( Vielle-Calzada J-P, Moore JM, Grossniklaus U, Peak ...
G-actin is globular in shape (Fig. 1a). Its molecular weight is about 42k daltons. G-actin polymerizes into F-actin under physiological salt concentrations (Fig. 1b). Based on observations by...
Raman scattering investigation of the glaciation process in triphenyl phosphite. Raman scattering investigations of the stable and metastable phases of cyanoadamantane glassy crystal
A method of measuring internal information in a scattering medium and an apparatus for the same of the present invention measure internal information in the scattering medium by measuring light diffused during propagation in the scattering medium at outside of the scattering medium while receiving the influence of the scattering and absorption, and performing arithmetic processing to the measured values. At this time, the three or more kinds of the detected signals (measured values) detected at a plurality of distances between the light incident position and the photodetection point for the light having a plurality of predetermined wavelengths are processed by utilizing dependencies of the behavior of light diffused during propagation in the scattering medium and the resulting signal, i.e., a photodetection signal on characteristics such as a scattering constituent, or an absorption constituent in the scattering medium and their concentration. If the measurement is performed at a plurality of
V. A. Sterligov, P. Cheyssac, G. Bossis, and C. Metayer, "Optical instrumentation for elastic light scattering monitoring of surface and bulk properties," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThII2 ...
We study spatially isolated, individual gold nanorods placed at a planar interface between two dielectric media using confocal interference scattering microscopy in combination with higher order laser modes. Approaching refractive index matching conditions, we observe that the elastic scattering patterns of individual nanorods exhibit an exponential increase of both the scattering intensity and the signal-to-background ratio. In case refractive index matching conditions are fullfilled, the data acquisition rates are maximized and suitable for in-vivo biological measurements. In all cases, the characteristic two-lobe shape of the scattering patterns of single nanorods remains unchanged while the sign of the image contrast is a direct consequence of the refractive index variation occurring at the interface.. ©2008 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Self-assembly is a vital part of the of the RNA virus life cycle. The assembly of viral coat proteins around viral RNA occurs both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that viral capsid assembly may be driven by a minimization of free energy. To better understand this process, we modify the interactions between coat proteins and between the coat proteins and RNA of MS2 bacteriophage in vitro by varying the ionic strength and pH, and we study the assembly using dynamic and static light scattering. From dynamic light scattering we determine the assembly yield and the size distribution of assembled products. From static light scattering, we measure the kinetics of assembly in bulk. By comparing the results from these two different techniques to each other and to results from gel electrophoresis, we infer features of the assembly pathway. ...
The ultraviolet (UV) radiative transfer problem in the martian atmosphere is dominated by multiple scattering of photons with the micron-sized aerosols that are suspended in the thin atmosphere. By implementing a multiple stream, vertical fine layering description of the radiative transfer equation that is able to cope with the strong vertical variations of the atmospheric properties, we estimate the resulting upwelling and downwelling UV irradiances under different martian scenarios in equatorial and close to equatorial latitudes. We include the latest SPICAM measurements on the aerosol vertical profile (distribution of Angstrom exponent and aerosol loading), scattering properties (asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo), ground albedo, and O3 content as well as MER long-term monitorization of ground-based aerosol optical depth. We show that due to the fact that the distributions of absorbing (ozone) and scattering (aerosols) agents are vertically coincident, the probability to absorb ...
Background: Body fluids contain cell-derived vesicles ranging from 30 nm to 1 μm in diameter. The function, origin, and composition of these vesicles is disease dependent and therefore vesicles contain clinical information. The most common method to detect vesicles is flow cytometry, which guides vesicles through a laser beam in a hydrodynamically focused fluid stream. The unknown relationship between the measured light scattering intensity and the vesicle diameter resulted in unexplained contradictions between expected and observed results.. Methods: We combined light scattering measurements of polystyrene and silica beads with Mie calculations using an estimated refractive index of vesicles.. Results: We established the relationship between measured light scattering and the diameter of vesicles. We show that common gating strategies based on beads select vesicles (and cells) ranging from 800 to 2400 nm in diameter. For our flow cytometer, the smallest detectable silica beads were 204 nm, ...
Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Confident characterization of protein stability. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a technique used to characterize the stability of a protein or other biomolecule directly in its native form. It does this by measuring the heat change associated with the molecules thermal denaturation when heated at a constant rate.. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Dynamic Light Scattering DLS for particle size characterization of proteins, polymers and colloidal dispersions. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), sometimes referred to as Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering (QELS), is a non-invasive, well-established technique for measuring the size and size distribution of molecules and particles typically in the submicron region, and with the latest technology lower than 1nm.. Electrophoretic Light Scattering (ELS). Electrophoretic Light Scattering ELS for electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential measurement. Electrophoretic Light Scattering (ELS) is a technique used to ...
The diffractive features of angular distribution have been investigated by analyzing the experimental data for a set of elastic scattering processes of {sup 7}Li by different target nuclei at different laboratory energies. Both Frahn-Venter and McIntyre models are used to analyze experimental data of angular distribution for elastic scattering processes. The theoretical models can reasonably reproduce the general pattern of the data. Some geometrical parameters for colliding nuclei have been obtained from the elastic scattering processes. It is found that interpretation of the diffractive features of the data is model-independent. The values of extracted parameters, from adopted models, are found comparable to each other and to those of others. The total reaction cross section is correlated to the incident laboratory energy for each scattering and values of total reaction cross section are found comparable with those of others. ...
Irradiated corneal tissues have been used for a variety of ophthalmic procedures including glaucoma drainage device covers and lamellar grafts. The maintenance of corneal clarity is important, as...
Dynamic light scattering (DLS), sometimes referred to as Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering (QELS), is a non-invasive, well-established technique for measuring the
Read "Endoscopic filtered Rayleigh scattering for the analysis of ducted gas flows, Experiments in Fluids" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Office Phone: [301] 594-7052; 496-3577 (Secretary-Tyrell). Fax: [301] 402-1214. Email: [email protected] [email protected] Expertise: Ophthalmology; basic and clinical research on eye diseases and blindness; epidemiology and public health issues, particularly cataract blindness; imaging and image analysis; dynamic or quasi-elastic light scattering techniques on tissues; 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis techniques; diseases and surgery of the cornea and cataracts ...
Diffuse X-ray scattering is a potentially valuable yet little exploited source of information about macromolecular dynamics. Diffuse intensities can double the total number of measured data points in the crystallographic experiment while providing a parallel dataset against which structural dynamical models can be refined or validated. Until now, measurement of 3D diffuse scattering data only has been pursued in dedicated efforts requiring extra still diffraction images and substantial optimization of experimental design. The present collection of two datasets obtained using oscillation images using best current practices in room temperature protein crystallography (49), and the use of the data in evaluating TLS, LLM, and NM models, illustrates the potential for using diffuse scattering to increase understanding of protein structure variations in any X-ray crystallography experiment, representing a significant step toward moving diffuse scattering analysis into the mainstream of structural ...
Atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) technique was used to synthesize poly(methacrylic acid-block-methyl methacrylate) (P(MAA₁₀₂-b-MMA₁₀)) copolymer in order to study the aggregation behavior in aqueous solution over the course of neutralization. A combination of static and dynamic light scattering (SLS, DLS) and potentiometric titration techniques were used to investigate the size and shape of the micelle at various degrees of neutralization. The hydrodynamic radius (Rh) determined from dynamic light scattering increases from ~26nm (for unneutralized) to ~42nm (for completely neutralized sample). Both potentiometric and laser light scattering studies indicate the formation of a core shell micelle. The weighted average molecular weights of the polymer and micelle are 1.18x10⁴ and 2.25 x 10⁵ g/mol respectively, which suggests that the aggregation number of the micelle is ~20 ...
New Phasing HomeLab™ Solutions for Protein Crystallography Structure Determination Using Enhanced Anomalous Scattering Signals 642046618
A new set of tables is derived (as a function of wavelength, scattering angle, meteorological range, and size parameter), providing values of the aerosol angular scattering functions for the Elterman clear standard and hazy model atmospheres with an effective refractive index of 1.5. The selected wavelengths for each size parameter are 0.40, 0.45, 0.55, 0.65, 0.85, 1.0, and 1.2 micrometers; the scattering angles for each wavelength are 1, 4, 7, 10, 30, 60, 80, 90, 110, 120, 130, 150, and 180 degrees; the meteorological ranges for each wavelength are 23, 13, 10, 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 km, and the size parameters selected 2.5 and 4.0, represent the lower and upper limits in the Junge power law size distribution. These tables will facilitate angular scattering calculations in the field of optical propagation through the atmosphere. (Author)*Atmosphere models
In this study, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm has been used to work out the cell light scattering problem. Before beginning to do the simulation contrast, finding out the changes or the differences between normal cells and abnormal cells which may be cancerous or maldevelopment is necessary. The preparation of simulation are building up the simple cell model of cell which consists of organelles, nucleus and cytoplasm and setting up the suitable precision of mesh. Meanwhile, setting up the total field scattering field source as the excitation source and far field projection analysis group is also important. Every step need to be explained by the principles of mathematic such as the numerical dispersion, perfect matched layer boundary condition and near-far field extrapolation. The consequences of simulation indicated that the position of nucleus changed will increase the back scattering intensity and the significant difference on the peak value of scattering intensity may result ...
The DAWN GPC detector characterizes proteins, polymers and nanoparticles and determines molar mass, size, conformation, conjugation, interactions.
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Localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanorods are powerful in enhancing a variety of linear and nonlinear optical signals and photo-related processes. The plasmon-induced concentration of light onto the regions adjacent to gold nanorods can be utilized for enhancing the light scattered from dielectric particles or biological structures. By decorating a layer of gold nanoparticles onto the hollow silica microsphere, the scattering intensity of the microsphere can be enhanced up to 100 times. The scattering enhancing region can also be tuned by using gold nanoparticles with different localized plasmon resonances. Such an ability of gold nanoparticles could be utilized to enhance the scattering signals from biological cells in light scattering spectroscopy as well as improving the harvesting efficiency in solar cells.. ...
The thick target yield of the reaction D + D yields T + p + 3.98 Mev has been measured, using a heavy ice target, and observations have been made on the angular distribution of the protons. Experiments have been carried out in the region 15 Kev to 105 Kev incident deuteron energy. Evidence has been obtained that, even for very small bombarding energies, the angular distribution of protons in the center-of-gravity (c.g.) system does not become Isotropic. The variation of the cross section with energy can only approximately be represented by a Gamow function.*DEUTERON REACTIONS
It has been shown by Mott on the basis of the wave mechanics, that in the case of collisions between identical particles the scattered particles should interfere with the projected particles travelling in the same direction. When α-particles are scattered in helium, if the scattered α-particles and projected helium nuclei of similar velocity are identical in all respects, there will be interference between the two streams of particles. For collisions in which the particles act upon each other with forces varying as the inverse square of the distance between them, the interference results in the scattering intensity varying above and below the classical value and rising to double the classical numbers at 45º. At small angles the scattering predicted by the quantum mechanics does not differ greatly from that given by the classical theory. An experiment carried out by Chadwick showed quite definitely that for sufficiently slow α-particles the amount of scattering at 45º was double that of the ...
The present invention relates to the use of polarized light to measure properties of tissue. More particularly, polarized light can be used to detect dysplasia in tissue as the polarization of backscattered light from such tissues is preserved while the contribution of diffusely scattered light from underlying tissues can be removed. A fiber optic system for delivery and collection of light can be used to measure tissues within the human body.
The energy loss of 50 to 250 keV protons scattered under single-collision conditions from He atoms is investigated in terms of its dependence on the angle of scattering. At the higher projectile energies we observe an enhanced energy loss at scattering angles around 0.5 mrad. Such a behavior cannot be understood on the basis of two-body scattering models. Based on our theoretical studies we show that the combined effects of the screened target potential and of electronic transitions have to be considered for the energy loss of proton scattering in light gases ...
Light scattering has long been used to investigate the size of various objects. Previously confined to custom-built setups in labs, several innovations took laser diffraction from the darkroom to research labs and production floors across the world.
Light scattering has long been used to investigate the size of various objects. Previously confined to custom-built setups in labs, several innovations took laser diffraction from the darkroom to research labs and production floors across the world.
We used frequency-domain measurements with immersion in a matched scattering medium to measure the optical properties of tissue. This approach reduces the effects of boundaries and geometry on the measurements. The diffusion equation, typically used as the basis for determining tissue optical properties, is not valid near a boundary. By immersing the tissue in a scattering medium with nearly the same scattering and absorption coefficients, the boundary effects are greatly reduced and the measurement conditions nearly approximate that in an infinite medium. Also, the measurement is made as a differential against a true homogeneous medium for which the scattering and absorption coefficients can be obtained quite accurately. We demonstrated this approach, using frequency- domain measurements to determine absorption and scattering coefficients of living tissue immersed in diluted intralipid, Ropaque, or milk. Previous approaches to determine optical properties in the frequency-domain used multiple ...
brookhaven analytical instruments determine molecular weight using different approaches - dynamic light scattering, static light scattering (multi angle light scattering) - using the MHS formula, Debye or Zimm Plot
While on-line multi-angle light scattering (MALS) is one of the most important techniques for macromolecular characterization, it can be made even more versatile with the addition of a quasielastic light scattering (QELS, a.k.a. dynamic light scattering) module for determination of hydrodynamic radius. QELS can be added to a Wyatt MALS system as a WyattQELS™ module embedded in the MALS instrument, or by connecting the MALS flow cell to a batch DLS instrument such as a DynaPro® NanoStar® or Mobius® via optical fibre. The QELS instruments can be used to determine the hydrodynamic radius, rh , for a variety of samples in a continuous‑flow mode. The combined MALS-QELS system will measure simultaneously rg, rh, and the absolute molar mass ...
Set-up for verifying surface-enhanced elastic light scattering.The set-up comprises a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM, from Neasp
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This technique is usually used to measure particle size of materials in the submicron region down to below 1nm. Particles that are in suspension undergo Brownian motion caused by thermally induced collisions between solvent molecules and the material particles. When the particles are illuminated with a laser, the intensity of the scattered light fluctuates over time at a rate dependent upon the particle size; smaller particles are displaced further by the solvent molecules and move more rapidly. Analysis of these intensity fluctuations yields the velocity of the Brownian motion and hence the particle size using the Stokes-Einstein relationship. The diameter measured in Dynamic Light Scattering is called the hydrodynamic diameter and refers to the way a particle diffuses within a fluid.. ...
Procedures are disclosed for obtaining white blood cell counts and platelet counts by light scattering measurements in which anticoagulated blood samples are treated such that the morphology of the white cells (leukocytes) and platelets remain intact and permit the discrimination of platelets from white cells and of most classes of white cells from one another and their counting without the need for staining.
On the basis of the geometry of the experimental setup described previously (2), the average angle of incidence of the light to the tissue (α) was chosen to be 45°, and the aperture of the collection angle (δ) was set to 30°. The critical parameter in these simulations is the mean free path of photons and the anisotropy coefficient g. The scattering coefficient of tissues, defined as the inverse of the mean free path, varies very slightly as a function of wavelengths of interest (450-600 nm). However, it is important to assign a reasonable average value forl t for myocardium.. In our previous work (1, 6), we used random walk methodology for determining optical properties of tissue from reflection and transmission measurements performed by an integrating sphere. Briefly, for tranmission measurement, a tissue sample and its glass holder are placed in front of the entrance port of an integrating sphere. The laser light illuminates the tissue surface, and the fraction of light transmitted ...
Light scattering methods can provide information about the native molecular weight, oligomeric composition, and gross conformation of a protein in solution
Purpose: Scatter errors are detrimental to cone-beam breast CT (CBBCT) accuracy and obscure the visibility of calcifications and soft-tissue lesions. In this work, we propose practical yet effective scatter correction for CBBCT using a library-based method and investigate its feasibility via small-group patient studies. Method: Based on a simplified breast model with varying breast sizes, we generate a scatter library using Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation. Breasts are approximated as semi-ellipsoids with homogeneous glandular/adipose tissue mixture. On each patient CBBCT projection dataset, an initial estimate of scatter distribution is selected from the pre-computed scatter library by measuring the corresponding breast size on raw projections and the glandular fraction on a first-pass CBBCT reconstruction. Then the selected scatter distribution is modified by estimating the spatial translation of the breast between MC simulation and the clinical scan. Scatter correction is finally performed by ...
Size Exclusion Chromatography is the method of choice for quantification of aggregates in Biotherapeutic samples using a UV detector for determining concentration.  However the addition