Dusty agents"/ Powder: Theres no way that I know of to dispense Sarin as a solid or powder, although I cant completely rule out the possibility that someone has developed a "dusty agent" form of Sarin. There is some literature out there on the possibility of "dusty" chemical warfare agents. As far as I know, this was only ever a possibility with really low vapour pressure agents, not fast evaporating agents like Sarin. The only benefit I can think of for making a "dusty sarin" (in reality, not Sarin as a powder, but small particles impregnated with sarin) would be to slow down the evaporation time of the Sarin… i.e. increase its persistency. But doing so would decrease the rate at which the agent is dispensed in vapour form, thus reducing its immediate lethality somewhat. And immediate lethality is the point and purpose of Sarin. It would seem to have little utility and an awfully difficult way of engineering some persistency into Sarin. It would be far easier to use a more persistent nerve ...
The most explicit finding to-date (pre-UN report) comes from the UKs Defence Science Technology Laboratory. Soil and cloth samples "tested positive for the nerve gas sarin". The sarin in the cloth was in liquid form that soaked into the cloth. As discussed below, this finding reinforces the conclusion that "kitchen sarin" was used. Hence, so much will depend on the UNs findings when their tests are completed.The claim that the agent used was a "military sarin" is problematic because military sarin accumulates (like a gaseous crystal) around the victims hair and loose threads in clothes. Since these molecules are detached and released anew by any movement, they would have thus killed or injured the first responders who touched the victims bodies without protective clothes, gloves and masks. However, opposition videos show the first responders moving corpses around without any ill effects. This strongly indicates that the agent in question was the slow acting "kitchen sarin". Indeed, other ...
Define nerve gas. nerve gas synonyms, nerve gas pronunciation, nerve gas translation, English dictionary definition of nerve gas. n. See nerve agent . n any of various poisonous gases that have a potentially fatal paralysing effect on the central nervous system n. any of several poison...
The Sarin Memorial Legal Aid Foundation has been established in the fond memory of Late Shri H.L. Sarin, Senior Advocate and Late Shri. R.L. Sarin, Advocate.. The Foundation is dedicated to the cause of protecting public interest, spreading legal literacy, taking up causes of general public importance for legal redressal and turning lawyers into socially responsible professionals.. The Foundation is run and managed voluntarily by young lawyers and students of law to help the poor, downtrodden and the handicapped people to protect their rights as well as to generate awareness among people about issues that concern everyone, from environment to legal literacy, to freedom of speech and expression.. See our aims and objectives.. Download the Trust Deed of the Sarin Memorial Legal Aid Foundation.. Go to the Sarin & Co. website.. ...
Capital punishment is in force in Japan, applied in cases of multiple murder or aggravated single murder. After a five-year moratorium, executions resumed in 1993 and up to 15 have taken place each year since then. Thirteen of those executed in 2018 had taken part in the Tokyo subway sarin attack of 1995. ...
Sarin (o-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), one of the several highly toxic chemical warfare agents, can be readily neutralized in sodium hydroxide solution forming large quantities of brine solution containing IMPA (o-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid) and sodium fluoride that must be further processed and disposed. Two mixed cultures were successfully acclimated to use IMPA as a phosphorus source. The medium formula was chosen to provide the reactors with adequate alternative carbon sources so that the only limiting factor of the bacterial growth is phosphorus. Kinetic studies of the two cultures both in suspended and encapsulated forms were done with the initial IMPA concentrations ranged from 15 mg/L to 1,280 mg/L. Kinetic parameters were estimated based on IMPA and biomass concentrations measured over time using Monod equation and the least square method. For both cultures IMPA was not inhibitive under the tested conditions. For the free cells, n{sub max} was 131.3 mg/l/day for the APG ...
More than 5000 passengers of Tokyo subway trains were injured with toxic chemicals including the nerve gas sarin. Most of the victims examined had marked miosis and decreased serum cholinesterase activity. To monitor the genetic aftereffects of sarin exposure, we measured sister chromatid exchanges SCEs of the victims using peripheral blood...
Sarin is a nerve gas, a deadly poison. It was designed as a chemical weapon for use in war by Nazi Germany. It has been classified as a weapon of mass destruction[1] in UN Resolution 687. Production and stockpiling of sarin was outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993, and it is classified as a Schedule 1 substance. Sarin can be lethal even at very low concentrations. Death comes in 1 to 10 minutes after breathing it in. It paralyses lung muscles. Antidotes, such as atropine, can save a person if given immediately.[2] People who get a non-lethal dose, but do not get immediate treatment, may suffer permanent neurological damage. ...
Sarin napada nervni sistem živih bića. Kada se simuliše funkcionalni motorni neuron ili parasimpatetički neuron on otpušta neuroprenosnik acetilholin koji prenosi impuls do mozga. Nakon toga enzim acetilholinesteraza razlaže acetilholin da bi se mišić opustio. Sarin remeti rad nervnog sistema tako što sa holinesterazom gradi kovalentnu vezu na mjestima u kojim bi normalno acetilholin podlegao hidrolizi.[9][10][11] Zbog ovoga se nervni impulsi kontinuirano prenose. Početni simptomi nakon izlaganja sarinu su nos koji curi, stiskanje u grudima. Ubrzo nakon toga osoba ima poteškoće sa disanjem, gubi kontrolu nad telesnim funkcijama, pa povraća i mokri. Udisanje sarina ili dodir sa njim preko kože je jednako opasan. Čak i koncentracija pare je dovoljna da brzo prodire u kožu. Ljudi koji se izlože sarinu, a ne dobiju odgovarajući tretman mogu imati posljedice za čitav život. Sarin može biti smrtonosan čak i u malim količinama. Smrt može uslijediti i minut nakon direktnog ...
Njegov mehanizem delovanja je podoben nekaterim pogosto uporabljenim insekticidom, kot so malationa.[5]Z vidika biološke aktivnosti pa spominja na karbamat insekticiode, kot so Sevin in zdravila pyridostigmin, neostigmin in fizostigmin. Tako kot druga živčna zdravila sarin napade živčni sistem.[6] [7]. Natančneje je sarin močan zaviralec encima holinesteraze. Sarin deluje na holinesteraze s tvorjenjem kovalentne vezi z določenimi serinskimi ostanki na aktivno mesto. Fluorid je nato zapuščena skupina in posledično rezultat je phosphoester, ki je robusten vendar biološko neaktiven. Z encim zaviral, acetilholin kopiči v sinapse in še naprej tako deluje, da so vsi živčni impulzi v bistvu ves čas v prenašanju. Običajno acetylcholinesteras pokvari acetilholin kot sinaptično razcepljen, da se omogoči efektor na mišicah ali organu, da se sprosti. ...
Yamaguchi, T.; Yamashita, J.; Ohmoto, M.; Aoudé, I.; Ogura, T.; Luo, W.; Bachmanov, A. A.; Lin, W.; Matsumoto, I.; Hirota, J. (2014) Skn-1a/Pou2f3 is required for the generation of Trpm5-expressing microvillus cells in the mouse main olfactory epithelium. BMC Neuroscience, 15, 13.. Bachmanov, A.A.; Bosak, N.P.; Lin, C.; Matsumoto, I.; Ohmoto, M.; Reed, D.R.; Nelson, T.M. (2013) Genetics of taste receptors. Current Pharmaceutical Design, (Electronic citation) PMID: 23886383. Matsumoto, I.; Ohmoto, M.; Abe, K. (2013) Functional diversification of taste cells in vertebrates. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 24, 210-214.. Matsumoto, I.(2013) Gustatory neural pathways from taste receptor cells revealed by genetic tracing. Bioscience, Biotechnology, Biochemisty, 77, 1359-1362.. Ohmoto, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamashita, J.; Bachmanov, A.A.; Hirota, J.; Matsumoto, I. (2013) Pou2f3/Skn-1a is necessary for the generation or differentiation of solitary chemosensory cells in the anterior nasal cavity. ...
The nerve agent sarin causes a deadly overstimulation of the nervous system that can be stopped if treated with an antidote within minutes of poisoning. A groundbreaking study was recently published in PNAS, which in detail describes how such a drug works. Researchers at the Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå University and in Germany are behind the study.. Sarin is a colourless, odourless liquid fatal even at very low concentrations. Serious sarin poisoning causes visual disturbance, vomiting, breathing difficulties and, finally, death.. "Nerve agents are dreadful weapons, and our hope is for these results to lead to improved drugs against them," says Anders Allgardsson, biochemist at the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).. Nerve agents destroy the function of a very important protein in the nervous system called acetylcholinesterase. As long as the nerve agent is bound to the protein, the breakdown of an important signal substance is prevented. The antidote HI-6 removes the nerve agent ...
On Sunday (Sept 1, 2013), the Obama administration indicated evidence that the Syrian regime has relied on chemical warfare to quell the current insurrection. In what could be the gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years, the Assad administration reportedly used the nerve toxin sarin to wipe out 1,400 insurgents and civilians in their sleep. Anger and frustration aside, the purported attacks have inspired confusion, with countless people asking themselves how a chemical agent can do such horrifying damage.. According to Agence France-Presse, sarin is a nerve agent developed by Nazi scientists in 1938. Originally derived from a pesticide, the odorless, paralyzing toxin has been used extensively by terror organization as well as genocidal regimes to kill thousands. Inhalation of about 200 milligrams results in death within minutes, leaving no time for symptoms to develop.. I - Word ...
A terrorist attack on three Tokyo subway lines during this mornings rush hour permeated trains with what the police said appeared to be a form of nerve gas, killing at least six people and injured more than 1,200. No group immediately claimed responsibility, but the police said they believed that a simultaneous guerrilla attack from several different points was responsible.
Via the Associated Press: UNITED NATIONS (AP) - The Islamic State extremist group has taken control of a vast former chemical weapons facility northwest of Baghdad, where remnants of 2,500 degraded chemical rockets filled decades ago with the deadly nerve agent sarin are stored along with other chemical warfare agents, Iraq said in a letter…
Ashish Sarin is a travel blogger on Tripoto @ashishsarin, check out Ashish Sarin s 0 followers, itineraries, reviews, wishlist, activities, profile summary and more on Tripoto.
Shiv Kumar Sarin (born 1952) is an Indian gastroenterologist, hepatologist, medical researcher and writer and a former chairman of the Board of Governors of the Medical Council of India. He is the director of Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences (ILBS), the first dedicated institution for advanced research on liver diseases and a deemed university under G. B. Pant Hospital, New Delhi. His contributions are reported behind the founding of the School of Hepatology of the Asian Pacific Association for study of Liver (APASL), which is housed at ILBS campus. He is a recipient of the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize, the highest Indian award in the science category. The Government of India awarded him the third highest civilian honour of the Padma Bhushan, in 2007, for his contributions to Indian medicine. Born on 20 August 1952, Sarin graduated in medicine (MBBS) from S.M.S.Medical college, University of Rajasthan in 1974 and obtained his post graduate degree (MD) in general medicine from Rajasthan ...
Organophosphorus nerve agents interfere with cholinergic signaling by covalently binding to the active site of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This inhibition causes an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, potentially leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and death. Current treatments include the use of antidotes that promote the release of functional AChE by an unknown reactivation mechanism. We have used diffusion trap cryocrystallography and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine and analyze prereaction conformers of the nerve agent antidote HI-6 in complex with Mus musculus AChE covalently inhibited by the nerve agent sarin. These analyses reveal previously unknown conformations of the system and suggest that the cleavage of the covalent enzyme-sarin bond is preceded by a conformational change in the sarin adduct itself. Together with data from the reactivation kinetics, this alternate conformation suggests a key interaction between Glu202 ...
Sarin, the deadly nerve agent that killed 12 people and injured 5500 others when the Aum Supreme Truth cult released it on the Tokyo subway in March 1995, was first produced by Nazi scientists in the 1930s.
VX nerve gas. Molecular model of the nerve gas VX, or ethyl S-[2-diisopropylaminoethyl]- methylphosphonothioate. It has the formula (C11.H26.N.O2.P.S). The atoms are shown as sticks and are colour-coded: carbon (magenta), hydrogen (white), oxygen (red), nitrogen (blue), phosphorus (green) and sulphur (yellow). VX is a synthetic compound used in chemical weapons. It belongs to a class of drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors, which block the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. They cause muscle spasms and death through respiratory failure. VX can be absorbed through the skin, and may remain active for weeks after deployment. - Stock Image A700/0123
Remarks: Both parallel (e.g. Stinnesbeck 1986) and convergent (e.g. Iones 1963) flanks have been described previously for this species. Thirteen of our tests are crushed, but specimens that are well preserved show little variation in test shape, and all of them have parallel flanks. Hypophylloceras (Neophylloceras) hetonaiense is similar to H. (N) ramosum but differs by having less flexuous lirae. It differs from H. (N) cottreaui (discussed below) owing to its much narrower umbilicus. Occurrence: Hypophylloceras (Neophylloceras) hetonaiense (Matsumoto) is known from the Campanian-Maastrichtian of Japan (Matsumoto 1942), California (Matsumoto 1959b), Antarctica (Spath 1953) and Alaska (Jones 1963), and the Upper Maastrichtian of Chile (Stinnesbeck 1986). Hypophylloceras (Neophylloceras) hetonaiense seems to be a cold water species ...
Kaori Matsumotos wiki: Kaori Matsumoto (松本 薫, Matsumoto Kaori, born 11 September 1987 in Kanazawa, Ishikawa) is a female Japanese judoka.CareerKaori Matsumoto started judo at the age of 6.[2] Her favorite techniques are Kosoto gari, Sode tsurikomi goshi and Newaza. She broke he
Two men were accidentally exposed to vapors of sarin, a cholinesterase inhibitor and extremely toxic nerve gas. Diagnosis was confirmed by depressed cholinesterase activity, and fixed extremely miotic pupils. No other signs or symptoms developed and neither man required treatment. Recovery to normal cholinesterase activity was gradual over a 90-day period. Pupillary reflexes were not detectable until 11 days after exposure; the miotic pupils dilated slowly over a 30-45 day-period. Eye pain and blurred vision did not occur; visual acuity and amplitude of accommodation were improved for several weeks. Other functions not affected significantly were intraocular pressure, visual fields, color vision, heterophorias, and vergences. ...
This page contains information on the chemical Ammonium, (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethyl-, ester with methylphosphonofluoridate including: 3 synonyms/identifiers.
US citizens, and the thousands of soldiers who took dangerous doses of radiation as part of other studies, havent been the only victims of science run amuck. Between 1964 and 1968, for example, at least a dozen covert tests of nerve and chemical agents were carried out on servicemen in the Pacific Ocean, then concealed and denied for more than 20 years. Crews were used to gauge how quickly various poisons could be detected, how rapidly they would disperse, and the effectiveness of protective gear and decontamination procedures.. Three tests used sarin, a deadly nerve gas subsequently employed by a cult to kill a dozen people in a Tokyo subway in 1995, or VX, the nerve gas that the US later accused Iraq of developing. One test used staphylococcal enterotoxin B, known as SEB, a crippling germ toxin; another used a "simulant" believed to be harmless but subsequently found to be dangerous. "We do not see things like informed consent or individual protection," noted Michael Kilpatrick, a Defense ...
Upper primary school mathematics question UPQ2 Sarin and his mother have a total age of 100. 8 years ago, his mothers age was 3 times that of Sarins age. How many years later will Sarins age be half that of his mother? Solution: 100 - 8*2 = 84 8 years ago, Sarins mother is…
Mr Sanjeev Sarin, Consultant General Surgeon, BM, FRCS, MS, FRCS (Gen Surg) at Spire Healthcare. Learn more about this consultant here.
Sarin Technologies, a world leader in supplying technological tools to the diamond industry, announced that it has acquired a 23% equity interest in
Leverging on itsurfactants technology, fibre and textile chemical technology, Microcapsule technology, Matsumoto Yushi Seiyaku Co., Ltd is set to continue creating new value using its own original technology.
Book the Hotel Buena Vista - Stay at this 3.5-star business-friendly hotel in Matsumoto. Enjoy free WiFi, 4 restaurants, and breakfast. Our guests praise the breakfast and the helpful staff in our reviews. Popular attractions Matsumoto Castle and Zenkyuin Temple are located nearby. Discover genuine guest reviews for Hotel Buena Vista along with the latest prices and availability - book now.
1984.4 Toward the end of that war, the Iraqi military reportedly Nerve agents are a class of chemicals grouped together based on deployed a cocktail of chemical weapons-possibly including their common mechanism of action, which is interruption of GB, GA, and VX-against its own Kurdish population living vital nerve transmissions to various organs.1,2 Nerve agents are usually organophosphates (OP)-esters of phosphoric acid- Aum Shinrikyo, the Japanese cult/terrorist organization is also which, as a group, can range in toxicity from relatively harmless known for use of nerve agents. In 1994, the group released to lethal at certain dosages.2 Indeed, many commonly used sarin gas in a failed attempt to assassinate local judges in insecticides in the United States contain organophosphates.2 Matsumoto, Japan; that action resulted in 8 civilian deaths.8 Military nerve agents can be extremely lethal even at small The following year, Aum released sarin gas into the Tokyo doses.3 The most well-known of ...
Organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNA), such as sarin (GB), soman (GD), tabun (GA) and O-ethyl-S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), are the most toxic organic chemicals known as their highly lethal ability [1]. OPNA are easily synthesized [2,3] that have been developed and manufactured since World War II. Even after the ratification by Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in Hague in 1997 [4], OPNA still cause critical concern and have already be implemented for several terrorist activities. Large stockpiles of nerve agents might still exist in many countries for possible use or as deterrence. In the Iran-Iraq conflict during the 1980s, nerve agents were thought to be used and the hydrolysis product of GB was found in bomb craters [5]. In an act of terrorism, GB gas was deliberately released in the subways of Tokyo and Masumoto by members of the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo in 1995. Thirteen people died, and thousands more required medical care [6,7]. In recent years, there are also ...
TokyoSARIN may have more severe long-term effects on women than on men, according to a study of the victims of the infamous nerve gas attack on Tokyos und
Detecting pesticides and nerve gas in very low concentrations. An international team of researchers led by Ivo Stassen and Rob Ameloot from KU Leuven, Belgium, have made it possible.
President Obama affirmed Tuesday that there's evidence Syrians have been attacked with chemical weapons - in particular, nerve gas. But that's
President Obama affirmed Tuesday that there's evidence Syrians have been attacked with chemical weapons - in particular, nerve gas. But that's
President Obama affirmed Tuesday that there's evidence Syrians have been attacked with chemical weapons - in particular, nerve gas. But that's
3 Colours Red Nerve Gas lyrics & video : How could I let you get so attached A broken quartet plays your heartstrings Before I knew you, you had us matched Funny how fast you f...
The 1988 Iraqi attack in Kurdistan, the terrorist attack on Tokyos subway system in 1995, the Syrian regimes offensive in Damascus last August denounced by the UN inspectors: these are the most tragically well known examples of the use of sarin gas in conflict situations - the chemical weapons which have become, in recent years, the vanguard of terrorism and of war. A research project developed by the University of Pisa has developed a "shield" against such weapons, placing biotechnology at the heart of the battle against toxic substances. A team of researchers has identified this new type of antibody that is able to contrast the effects toxic agents that inhibit acetylcholinesterase [AchE], such as nerve gas and powerful pesticides. The synaptic acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that regulates the action of a neurotransmitter in humans and many animals. "The blockage of this enzyme - explains Paola Nieri, professor of Pharmacology at the University of Pisa - has grave consequences on cardiac ...
Tests on an artillery shell that blew up in Iraq on Saturday confirm that it did contain an estimated three or four liters of the deadly nerve agent sarin, Defense Dept. officials told Fox News Tuesday. The artillery shell was being used as an improvised roadside bomb, the U.S. military said Monday. The 155-mm shell exploded before it could be rendered inoperable, and two U.S. soldiers were treated for minor exposure to the nerve agent. ... New weapons caches are being found every day, experts said, including "hundreds of thousands" of rocket-propelled grenades and portable anti-aircraft weapons. "Clearly, if were gonna find one or two of these every so often used as an IED or some other way the threat is not all that high, but it does confirm suspicion that he [Saddam] did have this stuff," said Ret. U.S. Army Col. Robert Maginnis. "It is a bazaar of weapons that are available on every marketplace throughout that country," Maginnis added. "Were doing everything we can to aggressively disarm ...
Morita, M., Sato, T., Nomura, M., Sakamoto, Y., Inoue, Y., Tanaka, R., Ito, S., Kurosawa, K., Yamaguchi, K., Sugiura, Y., Takizaki, H., Yamashita, Y., Katakura, R., Sato, I., Kawai, M., Okada, Y., Watanabe, H., Kondoh, G., Matsumoto, S., Kishimoto, A. および12人, Obata, M., Matsumoto, M., Fukuhara, T., Motohashi, H., Suematsu, M., Komatsu, M., Nakayama, K. I., Watanabe, T., Soga, T., Shima, H., Maemondo, M. & Tanuma, N., 3 12 2018, : : Cancer Cell. 33, 3, p. 355-367.e7. 研究成果: ジャーナルへの寄稿 › 記事 ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Bryan Matsumoto, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where Hiroshi Matsumoto is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Theres been a quite a lot of interest in this little natural product already, as its known to be a potent and selective reversible inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase (AChE), with an impressive Ki of 23 nM. Apparently, recent studies have established that this property makes the compound a possible counter to organophosphate chemical weapons, such as the nerve gases sarin and VX, which work by covalently modifying AChE (I, for one, am so glad I wasnt in that clinical trial). Theres also some evidence it may be useful in slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the problem is (as usual) the difficulty of getting useful amounts of the darn thing for further studies - in this case the compound comes from a painfully slow growing chinese herb, with an isolation yield of just 0.011%. If my readership is what I anticipate then I expect youre all thinking, "that sounds like a job for total synthesis!", and youd be right. The best asymmetric synthesis of (-)-huperzine ...
Labs experts helping evaluate security at US chem plants. Back to top Back to Lab News home page.. By Chris Burroughs. With anthrax making its deadly appearance on the East Coast, one question keeps emerging in the minds of many Americans. How can we protect our buildings from chemical and biological attacks?. A Sandia team led by Richard Griffith (9117) has developed modeling and simulation tools for assessing the threat and vulnerability of buildings to such assaults. This includes looking at how chemical and biological agents move and deposit inside a building, developing and assessing mitigation strategies, guiding the use of detection methods, and examining the effectiveness of cleanup and decontamination efforts. Richard began working on the project following the 1995 sarin gas release in Tokyos subway system, where it became apparent that chemical and biological attacks by terrorists could be a trend of the future. Over the last few years a large team of Sandians, scattered across ...
Researchers may have found a way to protect us against otherwise deadly chemical attacks, such as the subway sarin incident in Tokyo that left thirteen people dead and thousands more injured or with temporary vision problems. The method is based on a new and improved version of a detoxifying enzyme produced naturally by our livers.
The purpose of this information map is to convey the timeline of the attack, as well as to pinpoint some of the major problems that occurred in the course of the various emergency responses ...
I will also take this opportunity to respond to another report by Dan Kaszeta, which raised doubts as to whether the number of rockets used in the attack is sufficient to cause the number of casualties reported. The calculations are based on several incorrect assumptions, but most importantly it uses data tables that assume an attack on prepared troops who wear gas masks within 15 seconds ("Based on... 15 second masking time"). This was obviously not the case in Zamalka, where sarin was inhaled by victims for a 50-100 times longer period. The longer exposure time is more than enough to account for the gap in Dans report, making 5-12 rockets of 60 kg sarin a sufficient explanation for the number of casualties reported ...
EDUCATING YOUNG STUDENTS ABOUT VIETNAM WAR HISTORY FROM 1963-1973.TEACHING HOW INFORMATION ON THE INDO CHINA WAR BECAME SO FULL OF LIES.
UN human rights investigator Carla del Ponte said on Sunday that evidence has emerged indicating that chemical weapons have been used by Syrian rebels.