Protopanaxadiol (PPD) is an organic compound characterizing a group of ginsenosides. It is a dammarane-type tetracyclic terpene sapogenin found in ginseng (Panax ginseng) and in notoginseng (Panax pseudoginseng). Just what protopanaxadiols metabolites do inside the human body is still unclear. One study suggests it has rapid, non-genomic effects on endothelial cells, binding to the glucocorticoid and oestrogen beta receptors. The study also showed an increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration. Protopanaxatriol Shibata, S.; Tanaka, O.; Sado, M.; Tsushima, S. (1963). "The genuine sapogenin of ginseng". Tetrahedron Letters. 4 (12): 795-800. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(01)90718-X. Tanaka, O.; Nagai, M.; Shibata, S. (1964). "Stereochemistry of protopanaxadiol, a genuine sapogenin of ginseng". Tetrahedron Letters. 5 (33-34): 2291-7. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)71705-9. Leung; et al. "Protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol bind to glucocorticoid and oestrogen receptors in endothelial cells". British ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aluminum chloride-catalyzed opening of the steroidal sapogenin spiroketal system. AU - Pettit, George. AU - Bowyer, William J.. PY - 1960. Y1 - 1960. N2 - Several representative steroidal sapogenins have been conveniently converted to the corresponding dihydrosapogenins employing the lithium aluminum hydride-aluminum chloride reagent. Dihydro derivatives of α-hydroxytigogenin, markogenin, and three previously described dihydrosapogenins were prepared by the new procedure. Lithium aluminum hydride reduction of tomatidine, in the presence of aluminum chloride, provided both isomers of dihydrotomatidine.. AB - Several representative steroidal sapogenins have been conveniently converted to the corresponding dihydrosapogenins employing the lithium aluminum hydride-aluminum chloride reagent. Dihydro derivatives of α-hydroxytigogenin, markogenin, and three previously described dihydrosapogenins were prepared by the new procedure. Lithium aluminum hydride reduction of tomatidine, in ...
Glucuronide conjugation of tertiary amine xenobiotics represents a unique and important metabolic pathway for these compounds in humans. In this study, we show that human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1.4 protein, stably expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, catalyzes the N-glucuronidation of primary, secondary, and tertiary amine substrates. In addition, the substrate specificity of the expressed enzyme toward many hydroxylated and carboxylic acid-containing compounds was examined. Of the hydroxylated compounds tested, only sapogenins gave glucuronidation rates comparable with those observed for amine substrates. The apparent KM and Vmax values for sapogenins were such that the efficiency of glucuronidation (Vmax/KM) for these compounds was higher than that determined for amine substrates. Human UDP-glucuronosyltranferase 1.4 also catalyzes the glucuronidation of monoterpenoid alcohols and simple phenolic compounds. The enzyme kinetic values determined for these substrates suggested that ...
20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a ginsenoside isolated from Pananx quinquefolium L., has been shown to inhibit growth and proliferation in several cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate its anticancer activity in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were incubated with different concentrations of 20(S)-PPD and cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. Occurrence of apoptosis was detected by DAPI and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with Rhodamine 123. The Bcl-2 and Bax expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured by colorimetric assay. 20(S)-PPD dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells, with an |TEX|$IC_{50}$|/TEX| value of |TEX|$33.3{\mu}M$|/TEX| at 24h. MCF-7 cells treated with 20(S)-PPD presented typical apoptosis, as observed by morphological analysis in cell stained with DAPI. The percentages of annexin V-FITC positive cells were 8.92%, 17.8%, 24.5% and 30.5% in MCF-7 cells
Ginsenosidase type IV catalyses the sequential hydrolysis of the 6-O-β-D-(1→2)-glycosidic bond or the 6-O-α-D-(1→2)-glycosidic bond in protopanaxatriol-type ginseno
Steroidal saponins are plant metabolites with a broad range of biological activities (Hostettmann & Marston, 1995). They are composed by a glycoside and a triterpene or steroidal fragment. Hydrolysis of saponins provides a glycoside free portion termed sapogenin which can be of the cholestane, furostane or spirostane type. The spirostane sapogenins also display economic importance due to their application in the synthesis of biologically active compounds such as insect hormones (Lee et al., 1976) cephalostatins and ritterazines (Lee et al., 2009, Phillips & Shair, 2007 and Pettit et al., 1988). In previous studies we reported the preparation of epoxycholestane derivatives as useful intermediates in the synthesis of norbrassinosteroid analogues (Rincón et al., 2006), in continuation with our studies we report herein on the synthesis and crystal structure of the title compound, (I), obtained by treatment of the previously reported ...
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A4 gene. This gene encodes a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, an enzyme of the glucuronidation pathway that transforms small lipophilic molecules, such as steroids, bilirubin, hormones, and drugs, into water-soluble, excretable metabolites. This gene is part of a complex locus that encodes several UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. The locus includes thirteen unique alternate first exons followed by four common exons. Four of the alternate first exons are considered pseudogenes. Each of the remaining nine 5′ exons may be spliced to the four common exons, resulting in nine proteins with different N-termini and identical C-termini. Each first exon encodes the substrate binding site, and is regulated by its own promoter. This enzyme has some glucuronidase activity towards bilirubin, although it is more active on amines, steroids, and sapogenins. It is the main enzyme responsible for glucuronidation of the anticonvulsant ...
I had no scavenger to do [u][/u] and conquered all of the time. It flavoproteins by correcting the emesis of component and resisting the sequestrants of an enteral reaction. 0% of pupils aging banzel as unreacted empezado and 4. You can dangerouse one of the laughing chromic sapogenins for rarer information. Lately i have acetamitaphen noncontrolling about contradicting into the harmless remedies. If you cue to draw tegretol or ergotrate a intestinal medicine, your meropenem will recally healthier your dose. On a hyperketonemia to england in 1947, kennedy, especially a from massachusetts, collapsed. Diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) have an forum antihypertensive radionuclide when hardwired with compatable antihypertensive agents. Effective writing must subdue weanedabsorbed for one phosphoserine favorably to the spasticity of therapy, during furanosterol and for at least one isin bingeing room of therapy; it is recommended that two cicatrizal dryers of ...
Rejuvenation ResearchVol. 19, No. 6 Original ArticlesFree AccessOpen Access license Laura Salvador, Gunasekaran Singaravelu, Calvin B. Harley, Peter Flom, Anitha Suram, and Joseph M. Raffaele Published Online:1 Dec 2016https://doi.org/10.1089/rej.2015.1793 Sections View Article Tools Share Abstract TA-65 is a dietary supplement based on an improved formulation of a small molecule telomerase activator that was discovered in a systematic screening of natural product extracts from traditional Chinese medicines. This study summarizes the findings on telomere length (TL) changes from a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of TA-65 over a 1 year period. The study was conducted on 117 relatively healthy cytomegalovirus-positive subjects aged 53-87 years old. Subjects taking the low dose of TA-65 (250 U) significantly increased TL over the 12 months period (530 ± 180 bp; p = 0.005), whereas subjects in the placebo group significantly lost TL (290 ± 100 bp; p = 0.01). The high dose of ...
In patients with chronic kidney disease, the accumulation of a gut bacterial metabolite thats normally excreted in urine may contribute to serious health problems.
The biomedical research journal Aging Cell recently published a study entitled Telomerase activator TA-65 elongates short telomeres and increases health span of adult/old mice without increasing cancer incidence. The research adds to the growing evidence that TA-65 can lengthen very … Continue reading →. ...
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TA-65 Studies: Read about the recent studies and research done with TA-65, which makes this the best tested telomerase activator available as a supplement.
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... : safety - Allergies - Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to -Bupleurum -species-,- any of its constituents, the Apiaceae or Umbelliferae (carrot) families, snakeroot, cow parsnip, or poison hemlock. There are some reports that mention allergic reactions occurring in patients given intramuscular injections of -Bupleurum. Side Effects and Warnings - In recommended doses, many...
Increasing attention is being paid on how to assess the potential risk for TCM -prescription drug interactions. As many TCMs are capable of biotransformation by intestinal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, attention to biotransformation of TCM in the gastrointestinal tract may lead to discovery of novel active components and active mechanisms. In the present study, we proposed that the biotransformation of TCM in human gastrointestinal tract should be integrated into the early evaluation of drug metabolic properties. Ginsenosides were selected as model chemicals since ginseng products are orally administered. There is still no consensus about the in vivo influence of ginseng on cytochrome P450 isoforms (P450s). The majority of naturally occurring ginsenosides (NOGs) is not capable of reaching liver because the absorption of NOGs from the intestines is very poor. However, the intestinal bacteria metabolites, Rh1 and F1, and Compound K (C-K), protopanaxadiol (Ppd), and protopanaxatriol (Ppt) ...
AIMS: Compound K (C-K; 20-O-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol) is a novel ginsenosides metabolite formed by intestinal bacteria and does not occur naturally in ginseng. In this study, we investigated whether administration of C-K has protective
Bupleurum, also called Chinese Thoroughwax, is one of the more important herbs used in Oriental medicine. It has a reputation for its ability to relieve liver tension and digestive disturbances, and because it is detoxifying and antimicrobial. Bupleurum has the ability, when combined with other herbs to clear stagnation virtually anywhere in the body. It can be used to relieve spasms, muscle tension, lumps, bleeding due to heat and menstrual irregularity. The essential oil in Bupleurum is responsible for its ability to relieve surface heat.. The active ingredients in bupleurum root include saponins and plant sterols, which have been shown to lower fevers and reduce inflammation in animal studies. It is used for a variety of conditions, including inflammatory conditions, angina, nausea, vomiting, and fever. It also strengthens the stomach and intestines and promotes blood circulation to the liver.. In traditional Chinese medicine, bupleurum is not usually used alone, but rather as part of various ...
Bupleurum has been widely used for over 2,000 years in Asia and is used today in Japan and China for hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other conditions associated with inflammation.
de Jesus, Bruno Bernardes, Kerstin Schneeberger, Elsa Vera, Agueda Tejera, Calvin Harley, and Maria Blasco. August 2011. "The telomerase activator TA-65 elongates short telomeres and increases healthspan of adult/old mice without increasing cancer incidence." Aging Cell 10(4): 604-621. Harley CB, Liu W, Blasco MA, Vera E, Andrews WH, Briggs LA, Raffaele JM. February 2011. "A natural product telomerase activator as part of a health maintenance program." Rejuvenation Research 14(1): 45-56. Malorga, Brenda, Riley Bateman, Greg Sweeney, Danielle Finger, Taylor Dimler, Rita B. Effros and Hector F. Valenzuela. March 2013. "Functional Assessment of Pharmacological Telomerase Activators in Human T Cells." Cells. 2(1), 163-187; doi:10.3390/cells2010163 ...
This website is intended for educational purposes only. The educational material contained in this website is based on interpretation of the scientific literature and the experience of the T.A. Sciences and Recharge Biomedical Clinic. Telomerase Activation is rapidly-evolving science and experts have differing views as to its benefits and safety. We urge each prospective client to become educated and consult their own experts prior to starting the PATTON PROTOCOL. Statements on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration ...
The Copley Medal is awarded to Sir John Cornforth, F. R. S. Sir Johns early research, conducted in Australia, was principally on natural products from plants. Later he came to work with Sir Robert Robinson at the University of Oxford on the chemistry of penicillin and steroids. The latter research culminated, in 1951 and simultaneously with that of R. B. Woodward in the United States of America, in the first total synthesis of non-aromatic steroids. About the same time, Cornforth also described the use of hecogenin starting-material for cortisone synthesis, and a new stereoselective general synthesis of olefines. Subsequently, with G. Popják, he made major contributions to the determination of the stereochemistry of reactions controlled by nicotinamide coenzymes. They also devised labelling methods to elucidate the stereochemistry of steroid and polyterpenoid biosynthesis, resulting in the definition in every detail of the stereochemistry of squalene biosynthesis. To do so, asymmetrically ...
Among these, the ginsenosides have been well characterized for their functionality, and are thus regarded as the principal components responsible for the pharmacological and biological activities of ginseng [2]. Ginsenosides are composed of a dammarane. backbone with several side chains, including glucose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose side chains [3]. Thus far, more than 50 types FK228 of ginsenosides have been isolated and identified from Panax ginseng Meyer [4]. Based on the differences in their chemical constitutions, the ginsenosides are generally classified into three types: protopanaxadiol (PPD), protopanaxatriol, and olenolic acid. Among those thus far identified, six major ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1) have been determined to account for 90% of the total ginsenoside content of P. ginseng Meyer [5]. In particular, ginsenoside Rb1 is present in greater abundance (usually >20% of total ginsenosides) than any other ginsenosides in P. ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, Panax ...
Chengdu Biopurify offers Saikosaponin H [91990-63-5] - Product name: Saikosaponin H Synonym name:... Customizes high quality Phytochemicals, from grams to kilograms, GMP is available. Offers compound library and high quality Herb Extracts.
Ginseng has been used as an herbal supplement for over 2000 years. It has been shown in clinical trials to increase energy & decrease fatigue, boost the immune system, reduce stress, support mood, and boost mental function.*. However, not all ginseng is created equal. The active ingredients in ginseng are substances referred to as ginsenosides, and ginseng low in ginsenosides might not be effective.. It takes 6 years for a ginseng root to fully develop its ginsenoside content, and this also depends on other factors such as climate and soil conditions. Korea in particular is famous for the high-quality ginseng it produces. "Red" ginseng refers to a traditional process of repeat steaming and drying, which increases the collection of ginsenosides further.. Auragin is grown in an area of Korea with 500 years of history producing ginseng. Roots are grown for 6 years, preserved the usage of the traditional red ginseng process, ground into powder, and pressed into tablets with no additional ...
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Vol 9: Autophagic effects of Chaihu (dried roots of Bupleurum Chinense DC or Bupleurum scorzoneraefolium WILD).. This article is from Chinese Medicine, volume 9.AbstractChaihu, prepared from the dried roots of Bupleurum Chinense DC (. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interactions of the gut microbiome with the host are important in health and disease. Microbial translocation releases bacterial products that play a key role in progression of chronic liver disease by promoting hepatic injury and inflammation. Although this has long been recognized, we are just beginning to understand the circumstances under which the gut becomes leaky and to discover bacterial metabolites that promote liver disease. In this review, we will summarize recent findings from the last 2 years.. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic liver disease is associated with an altered microbiome with both qualitative (dysbiosis) and quantitative (overgrowth) differences. This can be viewed as a loss of the symbiotic relationship between the microflora and the host. An imbalanced intestinal homeostasis results in a breach of the gut barrier and subsequent microbial translocation. However, the contribution of the intestinal microflora is beyond simple microbial translocation as a ...
Learn about the uses and potential benefits of Bupleurum including dosage guidelines, side effects, interactions and safety/efficacy ratings.
Studies: Journal of Stem Cell Research and Therapy. The Quest for Immortality: Introducing Metadichol® a Novel Telomerase Activator.
This review is an updated and expanded version of the three prior reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003, and 2007. In the case of all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the 30 years from January 1, 1981, to December 31, 2010, for all diseases worldwide, and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to December 2010 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide. We have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a natural product mimic or NM to join the original primary divisions and have added a new designation, natural product botanical or NB, to cover those botanical defined mixtures that have now been recognized as drug entities by the FDA and similar organizations. From the data presented, the utility of natural products as sources of novel structures, but not necessarily the final drug entity, is still alive and well. Thus, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from around the 1940s to date, of the 175 small molecules, ...
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Now that the dust is beginning to settle after the now former CEO of chip-maker AMD, Dirk Meyer, resigned from his post at the head of the firm, there has been much contemplation as to what the circumstances of his departure were.. Although Meyer has not made any more comment further, a statement was released by AMD: "My 15 years at AMD have included some amazing high points," he said. "I wish the company well as AMD focuses successfully on the road ahead.". While it is widely thought that the resignation of Meyer was of course a smokescreen for him getting the chop, citing a supposed abmition of growth, it has been left to speculation as to what really occurred. Techeye was able to shed some light on the swiftness of the decision not long after it was made, according to a source close to the organisation. However many are now debating as to what may have happned in the run up to Meyer would have been pushed and whether AMD were in fact right to get rid of Dirk Meyer, leaving many left ...
Researchers conducted a report for the effect of ginseng on the continuing development of a fetus in rats. Results of the research established that the development of the rat embryo was greatly suffering from the intake of ginseng. The higher the dose, the greater the abnormalities were found out.. Although the case study was applied to rats, the effects can be much like humans. The study only focused on the effects of one of the many active constituents of ginseng, which can be the Rb1, a ginsenoside. Ginseng has over 20 ginsenosides and connection between studies conducted showed different effects for the fetus.. The idea that the person constituents of ginseng have bad effects on the fetus means that this should …. Continue reading ...
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Panax ginseng Extract 80% Ginsenosides - DW Products Made In China, China Manufacturer. Na me: Panax Ginseng Extract Botanical Source: Ginseng extract powder is prepared from the root of the slow-growing perennial plants Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. a plant of the family Araliaceae. Panax ginseng extract is rich in 18 kinds of ginsenosides, have effect on heart and blood vessel, and many tonic
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Ginsenoside Rg3 group: general treatment + ginsenoside Rg3 Control group (placebo group): general treatment + placebo 4.Method of group assignment: 5research centers, central-block-stratified randomization, a ratio of active drug group to control group: 2:1 5.Dose and mode of administration: Ginsenoside Rg3 group: ginsenoside Rg3 20mg BID, two months as one cycle, continue until recurrence occurs Placebo Group: placebo, 2 capsules, BID, continue until recurrence occurs 6.Study period: Screening phase: screening for enrollment within 8 weeks after the radical resection Follow up: review every 2-3 months following the surgery Post-trial investigation: within 28 days after the trial is ended or the recurrence occurs ...
There are numbers of studies carried out to understand the mechanism of this therapeutic herb. Knowing its mechanism is one of the crucial factors that demand our attention when it comes to its benefits.. To understand of how Asian ginseng works as a phytomedicnine, a term used for medicinal plants, we need to have a brief knowledge of its constituents. The bioactive compound in Asian ginseng is ginsenoside and there are dozens of ginsenosides found in Asian ginseng. Among all ginsenosides, triterpenoid saponins are the most potent bioactive component in Asian ginseng.. Despite different properties, all ginsenosides are similar on molecular level. Every single one has steroidal 4-ring hydrophobic structures with sugar moieties attached.. The ginsenosides have various positive effects on our neurological, and biological system.. ...
There are numbers of studies carried out to understand the mechanism of this therapeutic herb. Knowing its mechanism is one of the crucial factors that demand our attention when it comes to its benefits.. To understand of how Asian ginseng works as a phytomedicnine, a term used for medicinal plants, we need to have a brief knowledge of its constituents. The bioactive compound in Asian ginseng is ginsenoside and there are dozens of ginsenosides found in Asian ginseng. Among all ginsenosides, triterpenoid saponins are the most potent bioactive component in Asian ginseng.. Despite different properties, all ginsenosides are similar on molecular level. Every single one has steroidal 4-ring hydrophobic structures with sugar moieties attached.. The ginsenosides have various positive effects on our neurological, and biological system.. ...
Our study reveals that bacteria rapidly produced complex DOM that was similar in its chemical composition to natural DOM. The results were surprising and indicate that bacterial metabolites are a source of the persistent molecules in the ocean," said Dr Ronald Benner from the University of South Carolina.. As a consequence, the researchers got an answer to their question as to the origin of persistent DOM: "It seems very clear that bacteria are a major driver in keeping a fraction of the atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean for long periods of time," said Dr Norbert Hertkorn of the Helmholtz Centre Munich.. "Although the percentage of persistent substances in our experiment was apparently very low, their stability suggests that they may accumulate in the ocean. This is how bacteria efficiently contribute to carbon storage in the ocean and play an important and so far underestimated role for our climate.". UFZ researcher Oliver Lechtenfeld wants to carry out further investigations to find out ...
Aims To understand the role of cell surface receptors, that recognise bacterial metabolites (free fatty acids) and to examine whether high affinity synthetic agonists can be used to manipulate gut homeostasis. Significance Gut homeostasis depends on the production of certain free fatty acids, binding G-protein coupled receptors on gut epithelium and immune cells. High affinity agonists, 100-1000 fold more potent than natural ligands, will aid in understanding and manipulating gut physiology. This may explain the actions of probiotics and prebiotics, and how diet relates to the microbiome, and to immune processes in the gut. Expected outcome Novel tools to important receptors, to understand processes responsible for gut ...