It has proved difficult to develop crops that are resistant to salinities beyond those normally experienced by the species from which that crop has evolved. Since advances in molecular biology do not appear to have helped greatly in the development of salt-tolerant genotypes, it is reasonable to reflect on the lack of progress. There is good evidence that salt tolerance in truly tolerant species (halophytes) is a multifaceted trait. In halophytes, tolerance depends upon compartmentation and compatible solutes, regulation of transpiration, control of ion leakage through the apoplast, membrane characteristics and the ability to tolerate low K:Na in the cytoplasm. A range of traits has also been demonstrated to be important in crops. This suggests that the overall trait, of salt tolerance is determined by a number of genes: that the trait is quantitative. Genetic markers can be identified for such quantitative traits. Recently, markers have been reported for traits associated with salt tolerance, ...
Applied or Serious Gaming is the use of gameplay with another purpose than just entertainment. TNO sets up a Gaminglab to work on Gaminginnovations
Read "Potato transformation with the HvNHX3 gene and the improvement of transformant salt tolerance, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The ICT Challenge is an innovative approach whereby TNO makes it knowledge available and applicable for organisations. A problem is presented to a team of ...
Genetic variability in salt tolerance during germination of Stylosanthes humilis H.B.K. and association between salt tolerance and isozymes ...
Saveer offers Salinity/Salt Tolerance Screening Facility. Features are Salinity levels in soils can range from very slight to very severe within a few meters.
Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na|sup|+|/sup| loading and stomatal density
is the official journal of the Italian Society for Agronomy and it is published online by PAGEPress®, Pavia, Italy. All credits and honors to PKP for their OJS. Cover image by psdgraphics.com. ...
University of Idaho VIVO is a discovery tool that enables anyone to find experts, research, and associated activities at the University of Idaho.
Analyze the salt stress tolerance of soil samples by quantifying ion concentration using Aurora Biomeds TRACE Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS).
KPN, TNO and TU/e started their cooperation years ago, in the area of radio channel measurement and modeling. Specifically in urban areas mobile networks are more difficult to plan because of shadowing, over-rooftop-diffraction, reflections on rough building surfaces and in-building penetration of the radio waves. The cooperation resulted in a novel measurement system using a three-dimensional antenna array with 31 small dipoles. Combined with an advanced signal processing scheme the antenna is capable of making high-resolution measurements of radio waves coming from literally all directions. The antenna has provided a detailed analysis of coverage problems of the UMTS network close the Arena (Amsterdam) and Rotterdam Central Station.. ...
A summary is given of part of the CEC co-sponsored project MERGE (Modelling and Experimental Research into Gas Explosions). The objective of this part of the project was to provide improved Computational Fluid Dynamic explosion models with the potential for use in hazard assessments. Five organisations with substantial experience in both theoretical and experimental explosion modelling contributed to this model assessment study; British Gas, Christian Michelsen Institute, Imperial College, Telemark Technological Research and Development Centre and TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory. The theoretical and numerical basis of the models are described. Results are given of a comparison exercise of model predictions against calculations which were chosen to test the accuracy of the various physical sub-models embodied within the overall explosion model. The development phase of the study is also described in which further extensions to the models were made to provide the best achievable agreement with small- ...
Read "Functional screening of cDNA library from a salt tolerant rice genotype Pokkali identifies mannose-1-phosphate guanyl transferase gene (OsMPG1) as a key member of salinity stress response, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Green Ash is a native plant used extensively for street tree plantings across Canada and the northern US. This long lived hardwood grows to 60ft (20m) and is known for its drought and salt resistance. It is also very resistant to insects and disease. Green Ash makes a very beautiful shade tree in the yard and is a good choice for longevity and a maintenance free windbreak.. ...
Elahi, C. M. F., Seraj, Z. I., Rasul, N. M., Tarique, A. A., Das, K. C., Biswas, K., Salam, M. A., Gomosta, A. R., Tumimbang, E., Adorada, D., Gregori, G. and Bennett, J. (2004). Breeding rice for salinity tolerance using the Pokkali allele: Finding a linked DNA marker. In A. S. Islam (Ed.), In vitro culture transformation and molecular markers for crop improvement (pp. 157-170) Boca Raton, FL, United States: CRC Press. ...
The contract to carry out the study was awarded to TNO, the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research. As part of its work related to the study, TNO organised a workshop. The contract to carry out this study has recently been terminated, upon TNOs request. TNO cited the complications to quantify the direct and indirect effects of network amongst the reasons for their request to terminate the contract. At this point in time, the Commission does not plan to re-launch the study on network sharing ...
DUP-TEMIS WP2.6 Regional Aerosol. Gerrit de Leeuw, FMI/UHEL/TNO Pekka Kolmonen, FMI Robin Schoemaker, TNO. Objective. Retrieval, implementation and validation of the regional tropospheric product for aerosols. Workplan. WP 2.6 Regional aerosol Slideshow 5456135 by fritzi
Urazy amputacyjne w obrębie ręki z towarzyszącym wielopoziomowym uszkodzeniem tkanek stanowią przeciwwskazanie do replantacji. Szczególnie trudną decyzją jest dyskwalifikacja z zabiegu dotycząca kciuka. Doświadczenie mikrochirurgiczne oraz umiejętności rekonstrukcyjne pozwalają na podjęcie próby ratowania części kończyn z założenia nienadających się do uratowania. Ma to szczególnie istotne znaczenie w aspekcie poprawy jakości życia pacjentów. W pracy przedstawiono przypadek 42-letniego mężczyzny, który doznał subtotalnej amputacji ze zniszczeniem szkieletu kostnego oraz tkanek miękkich na całej długości powierzchni dłoniowej i grzbietowej kciuka prawej ręki. Pomimo przeciwwskazań podjęto próbę ratowania uszkodzonych tkanek kciuka. Napływ krwi tętniczej został odtworzony poprzez zespolenie tętnicy głównej kciuka z dystalnym naczyniem żylnym i wytworzenie w taki sposób przetoki tętniczo-żylnej. Układ kostny tymczasowo odtworzono dzięki ustabilizowaniu
Catrien Bijleveld is directeur van het NSCR sinds augustus 2014. Zij studeerde in 1986 cum laude af in Methoden en Technieken van Sociaal Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek. In 1989 promoveerde zij op de analyse van categorische tijdreeksen. Na een aanstelling als statistisch consultant bij TNO (Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek), werkte zij zeven jaar als universitair docent bij de vakgroep Methoden en Technieken bij het Departement Psychologie van de Universiteit Leiden. In 1997 werd zij programmacoördinator bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie, en was daar onder meer verantwoordelijk voor onderzoek naar strafrechtspleging, milieuhandhaving, ex-tbs-gestelden, recidive in algemene zin en vreemdelingen.. In 2002 studeerde zij cum laude af in de Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden. Vanaf 1 januari 2001 tot augustus 2014 werkte zij als senior onderzoeker bij het NSCR. Haar onderzoeksactiviteiten ...
Three quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on chromosome 1H, single QTL located on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 5H and 7H, were identified to be responsible for salinity tolerance under different environments. Waterlogging stress, daylight length and temperature showed significant effects on barley salinity tolerance. The QTL for salinity tolerance mapped on chromosomes 4H and 7H, QSlwd.YG.4H, QSlwd.YG.7H and QSlww.YG.7H were only identified in winter trials, while the QTL on chromosome 2H QSlsd.YG.2H and QSlsw.YG.2H were only detected in summer trials. Genes associated with flowering time were found to pose significant effects on the salinity QTL mapped on chromosomes 2H and 5H in summer trials. Given the fact that the QTL for salinity tolerance QSlsd.YG.1H and QSlww.YG.1H-1 reported here have never been considered in the literature, this warrants further investigation and evaluation for suitability to be used in breeding programs.. ...
Salinity and drought are considered significant abiotic plant stressors with major impact on plant development that causes serious agricultural yield losses. Amongst the strategies to face this problem, the use of compounds capable of inducing abiotic stress tolerance is still little explored. Menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB), a water-soluble vitamin K3 derivative, was previously shown to prime salt stress tolerance when Arabidopsis seeds were pre-soaked with this compound. However, this method has some technical problems regarding seed storage and longevity. In order to overcome these handicaps, we assessed the effect of supplying MSB to roots to prime the response to salinity stress, analysing the effect of two NaCl concentrations (100 and 150 mM). We selected tomato plants, the most economically important horticultural crop, as our biological model. In this new system, MSB primes salt tolerance in tomato plants by improving net photosynthesis, regulating stomatal aperture and maintaining ...
I found that processes such as growth, respiration and N transformation rates were strongly negatively reduced in response to acute salt exposure. However, increased salt tolerance of the microbial community could be induced quickly, combined with a partial recovery of process rates. A strong relationship between soil salinity and community salt tolerance was also found along natural gradients of salinity. Higher community salt tolerance was reflected in shifts in the composition of the bacterial community. Fungi were less sensitive to salt exposure than bacteria, which manifested in less inhibition of fungal growth both after short-term and long-term exposure to salinity. When salinity was combined with drying of soils, the effects of the individual factors were exacerbated. Increased soil salinity also modified the microbial response to rewetting of died soil ...
INTRODUCTION Soil salinity, resulting from natural processes or from crop irrigation with saline water, occurs in many arid to semi-arid regions of the world (Lauchli and Epstein, 1990). According to Tanji (1990), 20% of cultivated land worldwide is adversely affected by high salt concentration, which inhibits plant growth and yield. In warm and dry areas salt concentration increases in the upper soil layer due to high water losses which exceed precipitation (Ebert et al., 2002). Overcoming salt stress is a main issue in these regions to ensure agricultural sustainability and crop production. Algarrrobo (Prosopis alba) is a native legume from the semi-arid regions of north- western Argentina. Locally it is called "the tree ", because of its widespread occurrence and importance in providing nutritious pods suitable for human food and wood for the furniture industry (Felker et al., 2001). Compared with other forest species, algarrrobo is ranked as a very salt tolerant tree because it can grow at ...
Vol 64: Haem oxygenase modifies salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by controlling K retention via regulation of the plasma membrane H -ATPase and by altering SOS1 transcript levels in roots.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Herein, a light-up non-thiolated aptasensor was developed for low-mass soluble amyloid-β40 oligomers (LS-Aβ40-O). Au nanoparticle (AuNP) was employed as a colorimetric probe, and the non-thiolated aptamer (Apt) was adsorbed on AuNP surfaces, acting as a binding element for LS-Aβ40-O. The aggregation of AuNPs was induced when Apt-modified AuNPs ([email protected]) were under high salt conditions. However, upon addition of LS-Aβ40-O into the [email protected] solution, the salt-tolerance of AuNPs was greatly enhanced. Further studies confirmed that the formed LS-Aβ40-O/Apt complex was attached onto AuNP surfaces via the interaction between LS-Aβ40-O and Au, which led to the electrostatic and steric stabilization of AuNPs under high salt conditions ...
Abiotic environmental stress, such as salinity and drought, is a major limitation in agricultural productivity. Plants have evolved organelle-to-nucleus signaling pathways that modify nuclear gene transcription in order to sustain or restore function in stressed organelles. In Arabidopsis thaliana, such signaling triggered by mitochondrial dysfunction is termed mitochondrial retrograde regulation (MRR) and enables plant cells to tolerate abiotic stresses such as salinity. Using transcriptomics and transgenic plants, Vanderauwera et al. showed that the transcription factor WRKY15 reduced salt tolerance in A. thaliana by inducing the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to salt stress. Transgenic plants that overexpressed WRKY15 (WRKY15OE) showed an increase in dose-dependent sensitivity to increasing NaCl concentrations compared with wild-type plants, exhibiting stunted growth, cellular degeneration, and decreased chlorophyll production. Transcriptomics in ...
Formulation of a live bacterial vaccine for stable room temperature storage results in loss of acid, bile and bile salt resistance
www.MOLUNA.de Prospects for Saline Agriculture [4091978] - Saline land is a resource capable of significant production. Recent advances in research in breeding for salt tolerance in wheat, biotechnology in rice, and selection and rehabilitation of salt-tolerant plants are of economic importance in arid/saline conditions.nThis book gives some practical approaches for saline agriculture and afforestation, and describes examples
We used a multiple screening process to identify genes involved in salt tolerance-specific biosynthesis and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.). We selected 8,275 ..
A former graduate student says he feels slighted by a failure to attribute his contributions to a line of research regarding the salinity tolerances of an invasive species.. 15 Comments. ...
A former graduate student says he feels slighted by a failure to attribute his contributions to a line of research regarding the salinity tolerances of an invasive species.. 15 Comments. ...
Salt stress critically affects the physiological processes and morphological structure of plants, resulting in reduced plant growth. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule that mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on plants. Large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae) usually exhibit salt-tolerant traits under natural conditions. To further clarify the salt-tolerance level of D. superbus and the regulating mechanism of exogenous SA on the growth of D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to examine the biomass, photosynthetic parameters, stomatal structure, chloroplast ultrastructure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations, and antioxidant activities of D. superbus young shoots under 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9% NaCl conditions, with and without 0.5 mM SA. D. superbus exhibited reduced growth rate, decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), increased relative electric conductivity (REC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, and poorly developed stomata
Problem statement: Water stress due to drought and salinity is probably the most significant abiotic factor limiting plant and also crop growth and development. Salinity and drought stresses are physiologically related, because both induce osmotic stress and most of the metabolic responses of the affected plants are similar to some extent. Water deficit affects the germination of seed and the growth of seedlings negatively. Temperature is an exceedingly important factor in seed germination. It directly affects whether a plant can sprout and, if so, how long it will take to emerge from the ground. Approach: The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of four alternating temperature regime, drought and salt stress on germination characteristics of Pennisetum divisum. Seeds were germinated at four alternating temperatures (10/20, 15/25, 20/35 and 25/40°C at 12 h light). Seeds were also germinated with the iso-osmotic concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) or in polyethylene glycol
THE OBJECTIVE of this research was to compare physiological response of fresh water algae |i|(Chlorella vulgaris)|/i| and marine algae (Chlorella salina) to different salinity levels. These algae were isolated and cultivated in appropriate media for a period of 8 days.,|i| C. vulgaris|/i| could survive till 0.8 molar NaCl, while the marine strain |i|(C. salina)|/i| survived up to 2 molar NaCl. Thus, the marine alga showed a wide range of salinity tolerance, whereas the fresh water alga showed a narrows range of salinity tolerance. The dry weight of C. salina was 2-folds at 1M NaCl and slightly changed at 2 M NaCl as compared to the control value. In|i| C. vulgaris|/i| dry weight was progressively decreased with increase of salinity. Hypo and hyper saline media induced significant stimulation in photosynthesis pigments, carbohydrate, protein, Na+ and K+ contents in C. salina. On the other hand, free amino acids, proline, MDA contents and antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, POD and APX) were
Salinity imposes a major constraint over the productivity of rice. A set of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), derived from a cross between the japonica type cultivar (cv.) Nipponbare (salinity sensitive) and the indica type cv. 9311 (moderately tolerant), was scored using a hydroponics system for their salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. Two of the CSSLs, which share a ~1.2 Mbp stretch of chromosome 4 derived from cv. Nipponbare, were as sensitive to the stress as cv. Nipponbare itself. Fine mapping based on an F2 population bred from a backcross between one of these CSSLs and cv. 9311 narrowed this region to 95 Kbp, within which only one gene (OsHAK1) exhibited a differential (lower) transcript abundance in cv. Nipponbare and the two CSSLs compared to in cv. 9311. The gene was up-regulated by exposure to salinity stress both in the root and the shoot, while a knockout mutant proved to be more salinity sensitive than its wild type with respect to its growth at both the ...
A crucial prerequisite for plant growth and survival is the maintenance of potassium uptake, especially when high sodium surrounds the root zone. The Arabidopsis HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER1 (HKT1), and its homologs in other salt-sensitive dicots, contributes to salinity tolerance by removing Na+ from the transpiration stream. However, TsHKT1;2, one of three HKT1 copies in Thellungiella salsuginea, a halophytic Arabidopsis relative, acts as a K+ transporter in the presence of Na+ in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Amino-acid sequence comparisons indicated differences between TsHKT1;2 and most other published HKT1 sequences with respect to an Asp residue (D207) in the second pore-loop domain. Two additional T. salsuginea and most other HKT1 sequences contain Asn (n) in this position. Wild-type TsHKT1;2 and altered AtHKT1 (AtHKT1N-D) complemented K+-uptake deficiency of yeast cells. Mutant hkt1-1 plants complemented with both AtHKT1N-D and TsHKT1;2 showed higher tolerance to salt stress than ...
Salinity is one of the major factors limiting crop production in an arid environment. Despite its global importance soybean production suffer the problems of salinity stress causing damages at plant development. So it is implacable to either search for salinity enhancement of soybean plants. Therefore, in the current study we try to clarify the mechanism that might be involved in the ameliorating effects of osmo-protectants such as proline and glycine betaine as well as, compost application on soybean plants grown under salinity stress. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Graduate School of Biosphere Science Laboratory of Hiroshima University, Japan in 2011. The experiment was designed as a spilt-split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments could be summarized as follows; (i) salinity concentrations (0 and 15 mM), (ii) compost treatments (0 and 24 t ha-1) and (iii) the exogenous, proline and glycine betaine concentrations (0 mM
In order to study and compare the phosphate transporter gene codon usage and its respond to the traits like salt tolerance, day length, Pollination and temperature in different plants, 100 isoform from 10 plants are extracted from NCBI website and then analyzed with Gene Infinity and Minitab 16 software. The result shows that the highest codon usage similarity (81.95%) was for wheat and oryza (annual, self-polinated and Psychrophilic) from Poaceae family. The result for poaceae family shows that the highest mean abundance was for codons that have U or G at the end. In this study Cucurbita maxima (salt tolerance, annual and cross pollinated) have the lowest codon usage similarity (70.37%) in compare with other plants in this study. The highest difference between families was for Fabaceae (77.64%) but they are divided in one group at the cluster. So the results show that the families that have lowest distance have the highest codon usage similarity in terms of salt tolerance, day length, Pollination and
Emmer wheat as the progenitor of common wheat, holds the genetic potentiality for improvement of wheat yield, quality and stress tolerance such as drought and salt. To comprehensively evaluate the salt tolerance of emmer wheat, a total of 30 traits including growth, physiology and photosynthesis related as well as K+ and Na+ content of 30 wild emmer and 14 durum wheat accessions were systematically investigated and compared between normal and saline conditions. Salt tolerance index (STI) based on multiple regression analysis of these traits was calculated and five wild emmer accessions showed high salt tolerance, which could be used as valuable resource for wheat salt tolerance improvement. Furthermore, wild emmer genotypes showed wider trait performance variation compared to durum wheat, indicating the higher genetic diversity in wild emmer wheat. Then, shoot Na+ content, shoot K+/Na+ ratio, root length and root surface area were identified as suitable indexes for salt tolerance evaluation. Na+
When Aster tripolium is grown at high salinity, stomatal closure is induced by the presence of sodium ions in the apoplast surrounding the guard cells. The occurrence of this system in Aster tripolium and not in the closely related glycophyte Aster amellus suggests that it could be an important factor in the network of physiological attributes required for salt tolerance. Gas exchange and growth parameters were measured in Aster tripolium plants grown at different levels of salinity. A simple mechanistic model was constructed to test whether the Na-sensing feature of the guard cells was a realistic component of salinity tolerance. The model captured very well the behaviour of plants in terms of salt uptake and reduction of growth with increasing salinity. There was moderate variance between measured and modelled rates of decrease of conductance with increasing levels of salinity. No evidence was found to refute our hypothesis that stomatal closure in response to sodium plays an important role in ...
Soil salinity affects large areas of cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield globally. The Na+ toxicity of many crop plants is correlated with overaccumulation of Na+ in the shoot. We have previously suggested that the engineering of Na+ exclusion from the shoot could be achieved through an alteration of plasma membrane Na+ transport processes in the root, if these alterations were cell type specific. Here, it is shown that expression of the Na+ transporter HKT1;1 in the mature root stele of Arabidopsis thaliana decreases Na+ accumulation in the shoot by 37 to 64%. The expression of HKT1;1 specifically in the mature root stele is achieved using an enhancer trap expression system for specific and strong overexpression. The effect in the shoot is caused by the increased influx, mediated by HKT1;1, of Na+ into stelar root cells, which is demonstrated in planta and leads to a reduction of root-to-shoot transfer of Na+. Plants with reduced shoot Na+ also have increased salinity ...
soil salinity, Libya, wheat production, salt tolerance, crops, seed germination ; Salt-tolerant crops ; Plants -- Effect of salts on ; Triticum aestivum L ; Germination ; Seedlings
The Oryza sativa L. F8 population derived from a cross between salt tolerance cv. Ahlemi Tarom and salt sensitive cv. Neda was used in the study. Germinated seeds floated on water for 3 d, and after were transferred to float on Yoshidas nutrient solution for 11 d. two weeks after sowing, the seedling was transferred to nutrient solution containing 51.19 mM NaCl (electrical conductivity 6 dSm-1) for 7 d, then NaCl concentration was increased to 163.8 mM (12 dSm-1) for further 7 d. After this period, the traits were measured. The linkage map was performed using F8 populations, 40 SSR markers, 16 ISSR markers (76 alleles), 2 IRAP markers (7 alleles) and iPBS marker (3 alleles). The map length was 1419 cM with an average distance of 13.07 cM between the 2 adjacent markers. The QTL analysis showed that a total of 73 QTLs were identified that controlled 20 traits under normal and stress conditions. Among the QTLs, qCHLN-8, qSLN-8, qWLN-3, qWLN-9, qLAN-3, qLAN-8 and qLAN-9, qRFWN-1, qRFWN-3b and qRFWN-8, qFBN
Closely spaced drip tape emitters can enhance salt management for seed germination, leach salts in permanent crops, dilute soil salinity for salt-sensitive crops and manipulate the wetting pattern - all with less cost and more efficiency than widely spaced emitters. Read the full article…. ...
Buy or Rent Integrated Management of Salt Affected Soils in Agriculture: Incorporation of Soil Salinity Control Methods as an eTextbook and get instant access.
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A new intramolecular mechanism is proposed for the hydrolysis of phorate. 31P NMR was used to study the formation of P-containing products of phorate hydrolysis in situ. When hydrolysis was followed by 31P NMR, a dominant P-containing product was found and was identified to be diethyl dithiophosphate using methylation and GC-MS. Combining the data from phorate hydrolysis at three different temperatures, thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The contributions of various possible pathways to phorate hydrolysis are discussed ...
Resuits are presented from HNF and RDX ciystallisation experiments and the effect thereof on the properties of these materials. Control of the crystallisation process for HNF will improve the particle shape, the stability and the processability. Other parameters, like sensitivity, are much better reproducible and the control over the particle size will be unproved. For RDX especially the processability and the sensitivity to shock are iinproved when the particles are spherodised or treated in another•way. Photographs of the crystals are presented as well as the properties of the various batches. ...
Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop production especially in arid and semi-arid regions. It is reported that about 7 % of the total earths land and 20 % of the total arable
Salt stress activates PLD activity after prolonged incubation. Leaf cuts of rice were pre-labeled O/N with 32Pi and then subjected to 500 mM NaCl for 0, 4, 8