TY - JOUR. T1 - Two K+ channel types, muscarinic agonist-activated and inwardly rectifying, in a Cl- secretory epithelium. T2 - The Avian salt gland. AU - Richards, N. W.. AU - Lowy, R. J.. AU - Ernst, S. A.. AU - Dawson, D. C.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Pathces of membrane on cells isolated from the nasal salt gland of the domestic duck typically contained two types of K+ channel. One was a large-conductance (maxi) K+ channel which was activated by intracellular calcium and/or depolarizing membrane voltages, and the other was a smaller-conductance K+ channel which exhibited at least two conductance levels and displayed pronounced inward rectification. Barium blocked both channels, but tetraethylammonium chloride and quinidine selectively blocked the larger K+ channel. The large K+ channel did not appear to open under resting conditions but could be activated by application of the muscarinic agonist, carbachol. The smaller channels were open under resting conditions but the gating was not ...
Microsphere and morphometric techniques were used to investigate any circulatory changes that accompany secretion by the salt glands of hatchling Chelonia mydas. Salt glands were activated by a salt l
Salt marshes have several functions and adaptations to a life in an intertidal ecosystem. They need to conquer some problems to be resistant to the environment. Therefore, it is important to have some adaptations to survive. The first problem is that the plants are freshwater plants. This causes waterstress. For this reason, they have to take up water against the osmotic pressure. To overcome the negative osmotic pressure, they generate a negative hydrostatic pressure (by transpiration processes). They have thin, fleshy leaves and are sensitive to extra stress such as pollution. Anatomically, the plants are adapted through strong lignification, a well-developed epidermis and succulent leaves and stems. Evaporation can be limited by thin leaves with scale-like hairs. Physiologically, plants are adapted by accumulating salt in their tissues. In this way, normal osmosis is possible. Other plants have salt gland cells on the lower surface of the leaves and excrete the salt from its tissue. A second ...
For a discussion of the problem see Refs. 25, 35, and 74. [2] PURIFICATIONOF Na +,K+-ATPase 29 [2] Purification of N a + , K + - A T P a s e : E n z y m e Sources, Preparative Problems, and Preparation from Mammalian Kidney B y PETER L E T H J~RGENSEN Introduction Purification of Na+,K+-ATPase to homogeneity requires starting material from tissues with exceptionally large capacities for active Na ÷ transport like the outer renal medulla in mammalian kidney, 1-4 rectal glands of dogfish,5,6 eel electroplax,7,8 and salt glands of ducks in which Na+,K+-ATPase can be induced by salt treatment. 53 Sedimentation velocity analysis of mammalian kidney enzyme dissolved in C12E8 gives a molecular weight of 170,00061 and low-angle neutron scattering analysis of mammalian kidney enzyme dissolved in Brij gives a molecular weight of 310,000. 62 Radiation inactivation measurements on partly purified membrane preparations give a molecular weight for Na ÷,K+-ATPase from red blood cells of 300,00063 and ...
The following set of lectures deals with the problem of osmoregulation, in water and land, and assesses the different solutions used by vertebrate groups e.g. special osmo-regulatory systems, structure, mode of action (salt gland, rectal gland, gill epithelium, skin and bladder). The evolution of the kidney, and the structure and function of nephron are examined, as is the evolution of the nephron types for freshwater, seawater and land. The final topic in this section assesses nephron functioning in the embryo. Vertebrate reproduction is discussed, with a review of the structure of the male and female gonads and the influence of hormones. The section outlines the different types of sex determination, and the structure of the amniotic egg and the evolution of both male and female reproductive systems ...
We examined indices of salt gland function both in vivo and in vitro and the ultrastructual morphology of the salt secreting tissue of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus to determine its long-term adaptive capacity and phenotypic plasticity following chronic exposure to hypo- and hyperosmotic environmental conditions. As previously established, salt glands play a pivotal role in the maintenance of osmotic homeostasis in C. porosus living in hyperosmotic conditions. However, little was known about long-term effects of prolonged exposure to hyperosmotic environments on the maintenance of osmotic homeostasis. All haematological values measured in this study for SW-acclimated animals were within the ranges reported for wild-caught C. porosus living in water bodies of varying salinities (Grigg, 1981; Wells et al., 1991), suggesting that SW-acclimated crocodiles were able to successfully maintain osmotic homeostasis despite extended exposure to hyperosmotic conditions. Moreover, extended ...
Aquaporins and ABC transporters were the major transporters identified in our study. ABC transporters are known to transport fatty acids that are required for proper cuticle development in leaves [45]. The cuticle plays an important role in maintaining the structural integrity of salt glands. Under saline conditions, it becomes important for the salt glands to form a thick cuticular layer to prevent water loss and also diffusion of ions into neighbouring cells [6]. The observed high level of expression of ABC transporters in the salt gland-rich tissue could explain this in Avicennia salt gland cells. Aquaporins are known to regulate water movement across the membranes. During drought and salt exposure, aquaporins are known to maintain water balance in the cells [46] and have been shown to play a crucial role in salt secretion of A. officinalis [9]. Although aquaporins have been identified from the leaves of other salt secretors [41], its precise function in regulating water movement during ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemical Composition of the Rectal Gland and Volatiles Released by Female Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae). AU - El-Sayed, Ashraf M.. AU - Venkatesham, Uppala. AU - Unelius, C. Rikard. AU - Sporle, Andrew. AU - Pérez, Jeanneth. AU - Taylor, Phillip W.. AU - Suckling, David M.. PY - 2019/8. Y1 - 2019/8. N2 - The composition of the rectal gland secretion and volatiles emitted by female Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni was investigated. Esters were found to be the main compounds in the gland extracts and headspace, while amides were the minor compounds in the gland extracts and headspace. Ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradecanoate, ethyl (Z9)-hexadecenoate and ethyl palmitate were the main esters in the gland extracts, while ethyl dodecanoate and ethyl tetradecanoate were the main esters in the headspace. Four amides (N-(3-methylbutyl)acetamide), N-(2-methylbutyl)propanamide, N-(3-methylbutyl)propanamide, and N-(3-methylbutyl)-2-methylpropanamide ...
One of the most important adaptive strategies is the secretion by salt glands of excessive salt to the leaf surface to maintain K+/Na+ homeostasis in the recretohalophyte Karelinia caspia under high salt conditions. The plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SOS1) has been shown to be involved in Na+ transport and correlated with K+ nutrition in glycophytes. However, it remains unclear whether this adaptive strategy is associated with SOS1 in K. caspia. Here, we explored the possible role of KcSOS1. KcSOS1 was localized to the plasma membrane, and its expression was regulated and induced by salt. Expression of KcSOS1 in an Arabidopsis sos1 mutant restored its salt tolerance, indicating that KcSOS1 is a Na+ efflux protein. RNA interference was used to generate KcSOS1-silenced-lines (KSLs) in K. caspia that the growth was severely affected by salt. Silencing KcSOS1 disrupted the Na+ transport system, resulting in decreased Na+ secretion rates in KSLs compared to that in wild-type in the presence of ...
The name alligator comes from the Portuguese word lagarto (lat. Lacerta, t. E. A lizard) and commonly used in South America from the British and Dutch colonists, as well as in North America; The name of this animal caiman give negros Guiana and French colonists. True alligators come from Australia. They are named in honor of the Alligator River. Chinese and American alligators belong to the family of crocodiles and bear the name of a completely undeserved. Crocodiles are in the language of the salt gland. If they swallow too much salt water, excess salts are recovered through them into the environment ...
... Compare Bratwurst to Domestic goose by vitamins and minerals using the only readable nutrition comparison tool.
Sodium-potassium ATPase is an ATP-powered ion pump that establishes concentration gradients for Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane in all animal cells by pumping Na(+) from the cytoplasm and K(+) from the extracellular medium. Such gradients are used in many essential processes, notably for generating action potentials. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a member of the P-type ATPases, which include sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase, among others, and is the target of cardiac glycosides. Here we describe a crystal structure of this important ion pump, from shark rectal glands, consisting of alpha- and beta-subunits and a regulatory FXYD protein, all of which are highly homologous to human ones. The ATPase was fixed in a state analogous to E2.2K(+).P(i), in which the ATPase has a high affinity for K(+) and still binds P(i), as in the first crystal structure of pig kidney enzyme at 3.5 A resolution. Clearly visualized now at 2.4 A resolution are coordination of K(+) ...
English) Rectal gland (an evagination of the terminal portion of the intestine of Elasmobranchii. Function formerly thought to be related to digestion or excretion, but now considered to secrete high concentrations of excess sodium chloride. Found also in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae). (See also: rectal gland, intestine ...
Shop saltwater flies on Orvis.com. Explore our collection of premium saltwater flies and find the perfect patterns for every saltwater fishing scenario.
Saltwater pools actually have very positive health benefits to you. Learn how cleaning your pool with a saltwater system can help.
Use MassFishHunt, the official licensing system for Massachusetts, to buy your recreational saltwater fishing permit. You need a permit to fish in saltwater if youre 16 or older.
Find Livewell Treatment, Saltwater, 16 oz. Dual Neck model U216-SW from T-H Marine Supplies and other aerator pumps at MarineEngine.com.
Kent Marine Superbuffer dKH with fast shipping and expert advice. Saltwater To Go - Aquarium supplies for your fish tanks, reef tanks and aquariums.
Todays Deals: Save 29% on Nutrafin pH High Range 7.4 to 8.6 for Fresh and Saltwater, 125-Tests by Nutrafin. Hurry, quantities are limited.
If your looking for a new experience and you already have a saltwater tank or looking into getting one. You may see corals and think wow they are so beautiful but must be hard to take care of.
Saltwater flushes may help treat a number of conditions. Learn more about how these cleanses are done, what the risks are, and what the research says.
I have 4 male Pekin ducks. They were the last four ducklings at Tractor supply about 6 months ago. They have a nice little life in my backyard with my...
Osmotic responses of slices of dogfish rectal gland to hypotonic (urea-free) and hypertonic media were studied. Transfer of tissue from isotonic (890 mosM) to hypotonic (550 mosM) saline produced an...
saltwater sponges manufacturers saltwater sponges suppliers Directory - Browse saltwater sponges products,Choose Quality saltwater sponges manufacturers, suppliers, factory at B2BAGE
How a saltwater pool works. Learn about saltwater chlorine generators, and what the benefits of a saltwater pool vs a chlorine pool are.
Expression of TMEM16A in various nasal glands of TMEM16A-/- and TMEM16A+/+ littermate mice.Expression of TMEM16A and aquaporin 5 in the Bowmans gland (BG), n
Saltwater Fish Species Identification Mr. Robinson Today We Will Describe saltwater fish habitats Differentiate between saltwater fish species Identify locations for ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 4fe884-NjNkY
Parasites can quickly become a major problem in the saltwater aquarium if you do not address the issue immediately. One method of treating saltwater parasites you may not be familiar with is freshwater.
Right now I have a freshwater, 25 gallon tank, can I convert this to a saltwater aquarium? If so, what does it take? What do I need for a saltwater tank...sorry for the basic question, didnt
Get helpful information on saltwater fish species. Learn best ways to catch saltwater fish, where to go, what equipment to use to increase catch rate.
The 101 Best Saltwater Fishes Saltwater, Welcome to our friendly aquarium forum. We are happy to talk fish, answer your questions and help solve your problems. Join today. Its free!
Saltwater Invertebrates - Crabs, Shrimp, Snails, Anemones and more for saltwater community and reef aquariums at the lowest prices online.
Saltwater Invertebrates - Crabs, Shrimp, Snails, Anemones and more for saltwater community and reef aquariums at the lowest prices online.
En välvandrad stig. A Well trodden path. Korp Raven Utsikt över älvdalen. Looking out over the river valley. Japp, det är stigen. Yeah, th ...
An Ars Technica article brings up putting plastic, d20s in salt water, and seeing if you get a variety of sides facing up (probably balanced), or if its consistently the same side or few sides (not balanced). The idea with salt water is so that any dice that would
Drowning in freshwater is different from drowning in saltwater. More people drown in freshwater because of the chemistry. Here's how it works.
Shop fly fishing reels on Orvis.com. Our fresh and saltwater fly reels perform at the highest standards and are ready to tackle any species.
Easily and accurately measure ammonia level in your freshwater or saltwater aquarium. Includes 130 tests, 2 liquid dropper bottles, 2 colour charts, glass test tube and easy to read instructions.
Buy the API Filstar XP2 Canister Filter w/ FREE API Saltwater Master Test Kit for your aquarium and read product reviews, watch videos and see detailed specs at MarineDepot.com.
Find, compare and select motor sport activities for kids in Saltwater River (7186). Read reviews of kids activities and events. ActiveActivities - Australias leading online marketplace for kids activities.
Find Saltwater Breeze Gentle Foaming Hand Soap at Bath And Body Works. Gently wash away dirt and germs, leaving your hands feeling clean, soft and lightly scented.
I have two male Pekin ducks that belong to my neighbor. They seem to have fallen in love with my car. [IMG] They are circling it constantly looking at...
Reverse Polarity Salt Water Chlorinators. Enjoy the convenience of automated pool chlorination and the feel of a naturally clean and sparkling pool, with the renowned reliability and ultimate simplicity of the ChloroMatic®.. Available in low maintenance (reverse polarity) models and monopolarity models.. ...
Some people advocate the use of salt water cleanses or purges as a way to clean the body of toxins, contaminants and other unwanted material. Your body...
... I think a combination of both is good. The - Page 8 - Psychology, Special Needs, Health
My white flap was backwards the circle should be facing out towards the pool and when the water is flowing it should face up and touch the top toward the plug. The circle is the raised bit on one side and on the other side you have the lip on the edge. the lip is supposed to catch the water so that it lifts the white thing up as high as it will go so the sensor will detect it ...
Whether you want to paddle or swim, the sea offers a cleansing and curative promise for your soul...her tides and shifting moods invite us to consider our own ebb & flow, of energy, of joy...she rages and crashes on the shore, but soon her rising tide laps gently to whisper over the sand and stones...her…
It is suspected that JavaScript is disabled or not available and we recommend to use a browser where this is supported. Other options are discussed on the $smwgBrowseByApi settings page ...
Online sales of swimming pool equipment, including pool pumps, saltwater chlorinators, pool & spa chemicals, pool cleaners, filter cartridges, pump baskets, pump lids, skimmer baskets, spare parts and more.
TERM DEFINITION Spa Boy Spa Boy is an advanced salt water maintenance system designed to data log pH and ORP readings and self manage the ORP level within