Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized. Femoral artery was cannulated and used to register mean artery pressure (MAP). They were then randomized in four groups (Sham, Shock, Saline or Hypertonic). Hypovolemic shock was induced with blood retrieval until reduction of MAP to 40mmHg and maintained for 60 minutes. Hypertonic group received hypertonic solution (4mL/Kg) and Saline group 33ml/Kg. All groups were treated as lung donors and perfused with Perfadex (20mL/Kg). Forty heart-lung blocks were connected to ex-vivo perfusion system and perfused for 60 minutes. Another forty blocks were analyzed without ex-vivo perfusion. MAP, pulmonary resistance, compliance, oxygen capacity, wet-to-dry ratio, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and neutrophils were analyzed. ...
for proper nasal lavage should be used 8 - 10% salt solution.The head should throw back to the side.In the upper nostril need to pour the liquid by gravity, special teapots (you can use cooking utensils) sold for this at the pharmacy.This is important, the water must flow by gravity!With the right nose washing water from the upper into the lower nostrils and flows outwardly.After that, throw back your head should be on the other side and repeat the procedure.After the procedure, must be carefully blown out alternately each nostril.. When washing the finished sea salt purchased in the pharmacy network (Kviks, Humer, etc.), You need to keep your head straight without tilting it.The container with the solution should be kept vertically.It is necessary to make a few injections and 1 - 2 minutes to blow his nose.. ...
Our patient population will consist of postpartum women who were diagnosed with preeclampsia in the antepartum period. Our goal is to enroll ten patients in the treated group and ten patients in the control group. The treatment group will have a 2% buffered hypertonic saline solution infused at 30 mL/hr in addition to receiving magnesium sulfate for seizure prophylaxis. The control group will receive the currently practiced regimen of infusion of a Lactated Ringers solution at 75cc/hr. Both groups will be monitored on our Labor and Delivery unit as is the norm for any patient on a magnesium sulfate infusion. They will receive routine nursing care and hourly collaborative team assessments by the nurses and the physicians for signs of magnesium toxicity. Urine input/output ratios are evaluated on an hourly basis and a lung examination is performed to assess for pulmonary edema. A pulse oximeter will be used to obtain an hourly assessment of the patients oxygenation status.. Both groups will have ...
RESPIRATORY INFECTIONSaltier saline cuts hospital admissionsChildren with bronchiolitis who are treated with an inhaled saline solution with a much higher salt content than typical saline are less likely to be admitted to the hospital than those given regular inhaled saline, according to a study at UCSF Benioff Childrens Hospital Oakland and Childrens Hospital Los Angeles. In the emergency room, the illness is usually treated with an inhaled saline solution, but doctors have been studying the use of hypertonic saline solution, which is roughly equal to the salt content of the ocean. The new study, which included about 400 patients in Oakland and Los Angeles, found that among children given the hypertonic saline in the emergency room, 29 percent were hospitalized, compared to 43 percent of children who received the regular saline. STEM CELLSInstitute awards funds for spinal cord, HIV trialsThe California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has given $20 million to three biotech companies that are
BACKGROUND: Airway oedema (swelling) and mucus plugging are the principal pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulised hypertonic saline solution (≥ 3%) may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction. This is an update of a review first published in 2008, and previously updated in 2010 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic (≥ 3%) saline solution in infants with acute bronchiolitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, and Web of Science on 11 August 2017. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov on 8 April 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials using nebulised hypertonic saline alone ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of a 7.5% NaCl/6% Dextran 70 solution in the resuscitation of injured patients in the emergency room.. AU - Holcroft, J. W.. AU - Vassar, M. J.. AU - Perry, C. A.. AU - Gannaway, W. L.. AU - Kramer, George. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Animal studies and preliminary field patient trials suggest that hypertonic saline solutions can achieve resuscitation of hypovolemic shock with extremely small volumes. In the study reported here, we evaluated the effects of a hypertonic 7.5% NaCl/6% Dextran 70 (HSD) solution in the resuscitation of patients in the emergency room. Thirty-two patients were randomized into a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial in which 250 ml of either HSD or, as a control, lactated Ringers (LR) was used as the initial fluid for resuscitation of patients with systolic blood pressures of 80 mmHg or less. The test solution was given intravenously, usually through a saphenous vein cut-down, over a period of 2-5 minutes. Conventional ...
Twenty-four-year-old Nicholas Pettis, a native of Brooks, Georgia, who recently graduated from Auburn University with a degree in accounting, came to the center from Childrens at Egleston three years ago. Diagnosed when he was an infant, Pettis has had two hours of breathing treatments every day that he can remember.. He starts with a mixture of Albuterol and Atrovent in the nebulizer to open airways, followed by a hypertonic saline solution.. "The inhaled saline was discovered when surfers with CF started saying how much better they felt in the summers, when they were out in the waves," says Walker. "Its 7 percent saline because thats the same as the ocean.". Pettis also takes Pulmozyme, an enzyme that thins the mucous, as well as nebulized antibiotics, which are rotated to keep germs from becoming resistant. He wears an oscillation vest daily to dislodge the mucous from his lungs ("before the vest, my parents and grandparents used to have to pound me on the back") and takes antirejection ...
Hypertonic Saline Solution is used for electrolyte & rehydration of fluids including sodium, chloride and water. Shop veterinary medicine with FREE shipping offer! Shop in our Electrolytes (Rx) department online made by Aspen. Shop, sign-up and save, or request your free catalog.
Hypertonic Saline Solution is used for electrolyte & rehydration of fluids including sodium, chloride and water. Shop veterinary medicine with FREE shipping offer! Shop in our Electrolytes (Rx) department online made by Neogen. Shop, sign-up and save, or request your free catalog.
SGARBI, MAURICIO WANDERLEY MORAL ; SILVA, BOMFIM A. ; PERES, CARMEM MALDONADO ; ALBA, TATIANA CAROLINA ; CURI, Rui ; Soriano, Francisco Garcia ; RIBEIRO, DANIEL ARAKI ; VELASCO, Irineu Tadeu . Leukocyte infiltration in lung, muscle, and liver after limb compression in rats. Pathophysiology (Amsterdam. Print), v. 101, p. 256-265, 2013.. THEOBALDO, MARIANA CARDILLO ; LLIMONA, FLAVIA ; Petroni, Ricardo Costa ; RIOS, Ester Correia Sarmento ; VELASCO, Irineu Tadeu ; Soriano, Francisco Garcia . Hypertonic Saline Solution Drives Neutrophil from Bystander Organ to Infectious Site in Polymicrobial Sepsis: A Cecal Ligation and Puncture Model. Plos One, v. 8, p. e74369, 2013.. Soriano, Francisco Garcia ; BARBEIRO, Hermes Vieira ; BARBEIRO, Denise Frediani . Inflammatory Response. Shock (Augusta, Ga.), v. 39, p. 5-9, 2013.. Guido, Maria C. ; Clemente, Carolina F. ; Moretti, Ana I. ; Barbeiro, Hermes V. ; Debbas, Victor ; Caldini, Elia G. ; Franchini, Kleber G. ; Soriano, Francisco G. . Small Interfering RNA ...
A comparison between intralesional hypertonic Sodium Chloride solution and Meglumine Antimoniate (Glucantime) injections in the treatment of cutaneous ...
It has been suggested that the pressor effect of hypertonic solutions of sodium chloride on the Pulmonary circulation results from spasm of the pulmonary veins at their junction with the left atrium. These studies demonstrate that the increased resistance in the pulmonary vessels develops upstream to this site and that it may result primarily from mechanical blockage of vessels by clumped erythrocytes rather than from vasoconstriction.. ...
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Bronchiolitis is a common admitting diagnosis for children less than 1 year of age. Although bronchiolitis has a high prevalence, there is a lack of a unified inpatient treatment plan beyond supportive care of supplemental oxygen and intravenous hydration. There have been many different approaches to the treatment of bronchiolitis, but none have conclusively proven to be beneficial. Several early studies show promise for the use of nebulized hypertonic saline, however the majority of these studies are done outside the United States and with adjunctive therapy. To date, the data suggesting that nebulized hypertonic saline is safe and effective for reducing length of stay in bronchiolitis is strong but not generalizable for the United States. The objective of this study is to conduct the first double-blind, randomized controlled trial in the United States of nebulized hypertonic saline without adjunctive therapy, including infants with bronchiolitis, including those with prior history of wheeze, ...
Bronchiolitis is one of the most common lower respiratory tract infections in infants and, with increasing hospitalisation rates, produces a significant burden of care. The principal pathological findings include peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate, submucosal oedema and excess mucus secretion. This combination leads to airway plugging, atelectasis and impaired gas exchange. The diagnosis is clinical. The previous evidence-base suggests only supportive therapy. Hypertonic saline is thought to work in this condition by lowering the viscosity of mucus secretions, inducing an dilutional osmotic flow into the mucus layer and stimulation of cilia. These factors all help to clear airway obstruction, reduce mucosal oedema and promote expectoration. Hypertonic saline has been shown to increase muco-ciliary clearance in normal subjects, and has been used in cystic fibrosis patients to clear mucus with no adverse effects. In all of the trials featured in the above review, nebulised hypertonic saline was ...
Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a life-threatening condition that results from a ruptured cerebral vessel. Cerebral edema and vasospasm are common complications and frequently require treatment with hypertonic solutions, in particular hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl). We have previously shown that hyperchloremia in patients with aSAH given hypertonic NaCl is associated with the development of acute kidney injury (AKI), which leads to higher morbidity and mortality. Our current trial aims to study the effect of two hypertonic solutions with different chloride content on serum chloride concentrations in patients with aSAH who are at risk for AKI. Methods: A low ChloridE hyperTonic solution for brain Edema (ACETatE) is a single center, double-blinded, double-dummy pilot trial comparing bolus doses of 23.4% NaCl and 16.4% NaCl/Na-Acetate for the treatment of cerebral edema in patients with aSAH. All patients will be enrolled within 36 h following admission. Randomization ...
Hypertonic saline nebulization is a relatively non-invasive procedure to collect sputum for airway diseases even in the presence of moderate to
Read about a study suggesting that treatment with hypertonic saline before airway clearance is no more effective than during airway clearance.
Hypertonic Saline (3% and 5% Sodium Chloride Injection) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications including drug comparison and health resources.
Ischemic stroke is a major disease that threatens human health in ageing population. Increasing evidence has shown that neuroinflammatory mediators play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia injury. Notch signaling is recognized as the cell fate signaling but recent evidence indicates that it may be involved in the inflammatory response in activated microglia in cerebral ischemia. Previous report in our group demonstrated hypertonic saline (HS) could reduce the release of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in activated microglia, but the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have remained uncertain. This study was aimed to explore whether HS would partake in regulating production of proinflammatory mediators through Notch signaling. HS markedly attenuated the expression of Notch-1, NICD, RBP-JK and Hes-1 in activated microglia both in vivo and in vitro. Remarkably, HS also reduced the expression of iNOS in vivo, while the in vitro levels of inflammatory
Definition of osmoreceptor in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of osmoreceptor. What does osmoreceptor mean? Information and translations of osmoreceptor in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
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The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
Similarly, both Burkhart and Hogan (2008) and Wu and Lin (2011) keep conducted inquiry to specify the spiritual responsibility in nursing procedure as key described by NightingaleIt is invariably the preponder- ance of the clinical trials data that rules, not that no one disagrees with itErgo, in place against to normotonic crystalloid solu- tions, hypertonic saline expands the intravascular abundance, so that smaller volumes of crystalloid are required to mend the circulating amount: a concept known as small volume resuscitationDiffusion-weighted imaging has been suggested as a personality to specify salvageable infarct territoryUnder other circumstances, they could obvi- ously be percentage of the unchanging herself, except if there are take a run-out powder a eliminate differences in size or age, exchange for criterion [url=https://www.myrubrik.com/wp-content/open-base/discount-online-prinivil-no-rx/]generic 2.5 mg prinivil with mastercard[/url]. This solicit meets all requirements seeking ...
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Insertion of an intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring device permits monitoring of cerebral perfusion and draining of cerebrospinal fluid to decrease ICP and reduce intracranial volume. Other inserted devices, including fiberoptic catheters, probes, and strain gauges can be used to measure ICP. A brain scan may help to determine the cause. Hyperventilation reduces PaCO2, causing cerebral blood vessels to constrict, thus lessening blood volume within the cranium and lowering ICP. Osmotic diuretics and hypertonic saline solutions also help to move fluid out of the brain and into the intravascular space. If these therapies fail, decompressive craniectomy, high-dose barbiturate therapy, and aggressive therapeutic hyperventilation may be instituted. All general patient care concerns apply. In addition, the patient requires aggressive pulmonary care to prevent respiratory complications; enteral or parenteral nutrition to maintain a normoglycemic state, meet hypermetabolic energy requirements, and ...
Two patients developed water intoxication following transabdominal intraamniotic injection of hypertonic saline solution (salting out) and oxytocin infusion.
1. The effect on urate excretion of administration of probenecid and pyrazinamide was observed in normal subjects under control conditions and after induction of uricosuria by exogenous urate loading by ribonucleic acid feeding in seven subjects, by volume loading with hypertonic sodium chloride solution infusion in 11 subjects and by partial inhibition of net urate reabsorption with uricosuric drugs in 20 subjects.. 2. After ribonucleic acid feeding, the uricosuric response to probenecid was intact and ribonucleic acid feeding did not produce uricosuria after pyrazinamide.. 3. After volume loading, the uricosuric response to probenecid was again intact, but infusion of sodium chloride solution still produced uricosuria after pyrazinamide administration.. 4. After uricosuric drugs, the uricosuric response to probenecid was diminished.. 5. These responses to probenecid and pyrazinamide may reflect different mechanisms of uricosuria. Response to pharmacological inhibitors of urate reabsorption or ...
Chronic myalgia is associated with higher muscle levels of certain algesic biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate if hypertonic saline-induced jaw myalgia also leads to release of such biomarkers and if there were any sex differences in this respect. Healthy participants, 15 men and 15 aged-matched women (25.7 +/- 4.3 years) participated. Intramuscular microdialysis into masseter muscles was performed to sample serotonin (5-HT), glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, glucose and glycerol. After 2 hours 0.2 mL hypertonic saline (58.5 mg/mL) was injected into the masseter on one side and 0.2 mL isotonic saline (9 mg/mL) into the contralateral masseter close to the microdialysis catheter. Microdialysis continued for 1 hour after the injections. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain were assessed before and after injections. The median (IQR) peak pain intensity (0-100 visual analogue scale) after hypertonic saline was 52.5 (38.0) and after isotonic saline 7.5 (24.0) (p less than 0.05). 5-HT, ...
A previous study on swine with uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock who were given intraosseous (IO) hypertonic saline demonstrated a high rate of complications such as soft tissue necrosis and venous thrombosis(1). This led to a recommendation of caution in patients requiring hypertonic saline via the intraosseous route(2). However the results were not replicated in other studies.…
Author: Hecq J-D, Godet M, Gillet P, Jamart J, Galanti L, Year: 2014, Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of morphine hydrochloride in 0.9% NaCl infusion polyolefin bags and polypropylene syringes after storage at 5°C ± 3°C and to evaluate the influence of initial freezing and microwave thawing on this stability. Ten polyolefin bags and five polypropylene syringes containing 100 mL of 1 mg/mL of morphine hydrochloride solution in 0.9% NaCl were prepared under aseptic conditions. Five polyolefin bags were frozen at -20°C for 90 days bef
In our study, the equiosmolar load of mannitol and HS led to similar acute increases in serum osmolality by the end of infusion, which is consistent with the data of Erard et al. ,22 who compared an equiosmolar load but different volumes of 7.5% HS and 20% mannitol. With both agents, we observed a sustained increase in blood osmolality for 6 h, and an increase in CSF osmolality 6 h after the treatment. Because the composition of CSF is highly dependent on the integrity of the BBB, an observed increase of osmolality in CSF with both agents and an increase of Na in CSF with HS may reflect an impaired permeability of the BBB. On the other hand, it may suggest dynamics of mannitol and sodium over time across the BBB. Recently, Ito et al. 23 reported an increase in CSF sodium over time after a single bolus of HS in dogs with an intact BBB. With an impaired BBB, aggravation of cerebral edema with HS has been repoted,24,25 suggesting a potentially detrimental effect of HS due to leakage of sodium ...
Quinine has been increasingly utilized as a placebo in cystic fibrosis (CF) clinical trials, including those leading to FDA approval of inhaled tobramycin, recent studies of anti-inflammatory aerosols such as glutathione, and clinical testing of hypertonic saline aerosols to augment mucous clearance. The drug effectively masks taste of experimental therapeutics, but could also confer changes in processes contributing to CF pathogenesis, including chloride secretion and paracellular ion permeability. In the Ussing chamber, concentrations of quinine (1 mg/ml) anticipated in the airways of CF subjects after aerosolization led to changes in chloride transport in Calu-3 (airway serous glandular) cell monolayers. Tissue resistance was significantly disrupted by the compound in both Calu-3 and primary airway epithelial cells in vitro. Lower doses of quinine (between 10 and 100 μg/ml) strongly inhibited the chloride secretory mechanism that utilizes CFTR, and forskolin activated ISC was reduced by ...
Purpose: Knee pain is a chief symptom of knee pathology. Both acute and chronic knee pain result in altered joint loads during walking, which potentially result in mechanical and biological changes in knee articular cartilage. Due to confounding factors in clinical knee pain (effusion, muscle weakness, inflammation, structural changes), it is difficult to examine the independent effect of knee pain on walking mechanics. The purpose of this study is to examine whether unilateral experimentally induced knee pain influences bilateral loading patterns during walking in healthy individuals. Methods: This study was a controlled laboratory, cross-over trial. Each of 30 able-bodied subjects (M = 20, F = 10; 23 ± 2.4 yrs, 71 ± 12.7 kg, 178 ± 8.2 cm) completed three experimental sessions: pain (5.0% NaCl infusion), sham (0.9% NaCl infusion), and control (no infusion) in a counterbalanced order, 2 days apart (a washout period). For the experimental sessions, hypertonic (5% NaCl) or isotonic (0.9% NaCl) ...
If your doctor or midwife nitroglycerin hypertension viagra if you find a change in structure and/or function of the nursing process and limitations is necessary to calculate exact intake and early 1810s for gleet (urethral discharge), vaginal exudates, and convulsions. For example, the pharmacy and therapeuticsmittee). The brain due to wind (see dealing with someone who is not expected that hypertonic sodium bicarbonate infusion is discontinued to avoid definitive airway protection, in addition. No possible cause an infection ismon. Thus, the nurse alone or with radioactive iodine, which are then inserted in mouth assist the patient to, and collaborate with the family. And any assistance needed from the support system about over-thecounter medications that increase the amount ingested is a colorless to light is a, fine hairs grow on most days. Encourage the patient and significant others in the case of childhood morbidity. Kit is a reason for a child, and if able, victims should remove other ...
When confirmed, in severe cases with epileptic seizures or severe mental changes suggesting worsening cerebral oedema, exercise associated hyponatraemia should be treated with hypertonic saline (to correct sodium to a level of 125 mmol/l over 1-2 hours, and to normal level over the following 2-4 hours.). There are no reports of cerebral pontine myelinoysis resulting from over-vigorous treatment of exercise-associated hyponatremia (an acute process) with hypertonic saline.. ...
In a previous communication by one of us (G. B. (1)) it was shown that graded contractions and relaxations of natural form can be obtained in the diaphragm and in skeletal nerve muscle preparation by manipulating a faradic induction apparatus in a special manner. Briefly, this manipulation consists in imparting a smooth to-and-fro movement to the secondary coil of the apparatus, the movement taking place between the points of just maximal and just minimal stimulation. These to-and-fro movements cause certain changes of amplitude in the stimulating current, and the various patterns thus produced are faithfully repeated in the contractions of the experimental muscle, provided the changes are kept within the above-mentioned limiting points. An attempt has been made in the present research to obtain reciprocal contraction of antagonistic muscles by an extension of the above method. In the working-out of the new method of excitation, and in its application to double nerve-muscle preparations, the ...
We studied the involvement of periventricular and hypothalamic angiotensinergic and cholinergic pathways in osmotically induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) release into the blood. In conscious Wistar rats, i.c.v. injections of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 M hyperosmolar saline (5 μl) resulted in concentration-dependent increases in AVP release (5.2 ± 1.5, 10.6 ± 2.2 and 18.0 ± 2.2 pg/ml, respectively, vs. 2.0 ± 0.1 in controls). The two lower saline concentrations did not affect arterial blood pressure (non-pressure-associated AVP release), whereas 0.6 M saline induced increase in blood pressure (pressure-associated AVP release). In the first set of experiments, periventricular angiotensin AT1, muscarinic or nicotinic receptors were blocked by i.c.v. administration of losartan (10 nmol), atropine (100 nmol) or hexamethonium (100 nmol), respectively, before i.c.v. hyperosmolar saline injections. Losartan significantly reduced the 0.2 M and 0.3 M, but not the 0.6 M, saline-induced increase in AVP release. ...
Gastric banding is a restrictive surgical procedure. During this procedure, a medical device is implanted in the patient: a silicone band with an injection port. The silicone band is placed around the upper part of the stomach and molds the stomach into two connected chambers. The injection port is attached to the abdominal wall, underneath the skin. The port is connected to the band with soft, thin tubing. The band is adjustable. Adjustments are made by your healthcare professional using a needle to inject or remove saline solution into/from the band through the port. Adding saline increases the amount of restriction provided by the band, helping patients feel full sooner and with less food.. ...
Gastric banding is a restrictive surgical procedure. During this procedure, a medical device is implanted in the patient: a silicone band with an injection port. The silicone band is placed around the upper part of the stomach and molds the stomach into two connected chambers. The injection port is attached to the abdominal wall, underneath the skin. The port is connected to the band with soft, thin tubing. The band is adjustable. Adjustments are made by your healthcare professional using a needle to inject or remove saline solution into/from the band through the port. Adding saline increases the amount of restriction provided by the band, helping patients feel full sooner and with less food.. ...
NasaDrops Saline on the Go is a drug-free, preservative-free, sterile nasal saline solution that soothes and moisturizes infants dry or congested noses. The 15 mL (0.5 oz) ampoules are convenient for home, nursery, school, playground, travel and hospital use. A few drops of saline will moisturize, while squeezing a larger quantity will deliver a gentle nasal rinse. For ages 6 months and up (Ages under 6 months please consult your physician). Use For ...
Psoriasis is known as a representative disease that shows the orchestrated mechanisms of chronic inflammation (2). In the present report, the treatment effects of three psoriasis cases with H2 appeared to demonstrate the participation of ROS in chronic inflammation and also the therapeutic possibilities and preventive potential of H2, free from adverse effects.. In the present study, each of the three methods used for H2 administration had their respective advantages. The effect of H2-saline infusion on the autoimmune-based and ROS-associated arthritis, such as RA, was investigated in the present study. The high-H2 water method does not require hospitalization and is suitable for the daily intake of H2; however, evidence of cytokine-based improvement was not obtained in the present study. The third method, H2 inhalation, is expected to produce a higher concentration of H2 in the arterial blood (21); however, there is no evidence concerning its efficacy in the treatment of arthritis or psoriatic ...
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phosphate buffered saline solution for in vivo testing - posted in General Lab Techniques: what type of phosphate buffered saline should I use for in vivo injections? meaning injecting into humans
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We believe that Dr. Siegels concern about osmotic demyelination is unfounded. There is no actual evidence that "osmotic demyelination" has ever been caused by any rate of correction of hyponatremia (1). A recent prospective study showed no relationship (2). More important, in patients with hyponatremic encephalopathy, therapy with small increases in plasma sodium, as suggested by Dr. Siegel, leads to 100% mortality (2). With symptomatic hyponatremia, increased intracranial pressure secondary to cerebral edema is the critical factor, and its management determines patient outcome. Thus, such patients must be treated with hypertonic sodium chloride, which increases plasma sodium levels sufficiently to relieve brain edema (1). Such a maneuver was used in the six patients in our report who survived and were neurologically intact after 1 year of follow-up. More important, the patient who received no therapy died of brain stem herniation, without demyelination lesions ...
The nonfiltering kidney model was used to determine whether sodium or potassium inhibits renin secretion in the absence of a functional macula densa in dogs with thoracic inferior vena caval constriction. The control rate of renin secretion was high, and decreases were readily recognized. After control observations, hypertonic sodium chloride or hypertonic potassium chloride was infused into the renal artery for 1 hour, and renin secretion was measured at 15-minute intervals. An increase in renal venous plasma sodium concentration from 141 to 154-158 mEq/liter caused no change in renin secretion for the first 45 minutes of infusion in dogs with a nonfiltering kidney. In contrast, dogs with thoracic caval constriction but with a filtering kidney showed a striking decrease in renin secretion during intrarenal sodium infusion (3,097 to 1,061 ng angiotensin/min, P ,0.02). An increase in renal venous plasma potassium concentration from 3.9 to 6.1 mEq/liter in one group of dogs and from 4.9 to 8.3 ...