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SCU48699 U48699 414bp mRNA PLN 10-APR-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein S30 homolog (RPS30A) mRNA, complete cds. RPS30A; Rps30ap. SCU48700 U48700 1200bp DNA PLN 10-APR-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein S30 homolog (RPS30) gene, complete cds. RPS30A; yrpS30. SCU51431 U51431 2760bp DNA PLN 10-APR-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae PHD5 gene, complete cds. PHD5; Phd5p. YSCL8004 U53876 40340bp DNA PLN 10-APR-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII cosmid 8004. L8004.4; L8004.5; L8004.6; KIN2; Probable Serine/Threonine protein kinase (Swiss; Prot. accession number P13186); ; L8004.7; CHA4; Transcriptional activator of CHA1 (Swiss Prot.; accession number P43634). Contains a Cys(6) zinc finger.; ; L8004.9; L8004.2; L8004.10; L8004.11; SEN2; tRNA-splicing endonuclease beta-subunit; L8004.13; L8004.1. YSCL9233 U53877 23223bp DNA PLN 10-APR-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII cosmid 9233. L9233.6; L9233.7; L9233.8; L9233.5; YAP3; Aspartic proteinase 3 (Swiss Prot. ...
In the study, 300 male day-old, Ross 308 broiler chicks were used. Experiment groups were designed as follows: control; 0.1 % Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 0.2 % Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 0.4 % Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experimental diets were chemically analyzed according to the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Twelve groups were obtained, including three replicates for each experimental group. Each replicated group was comprised of 25 chicks, and thus 75 chicks were placed in each experimental group. After 42 days, broiler chickens were slaughtered. Tibiotarsi were weighed with a digital scale, and the lengths were measured with a digital caliper after the drying process. Cortical areas were measured with the ImageJ Image Processing and Analysis Program. A UTEST Model-7014 tension and compression machine and a Maxtest software were used to determine the bone strength of the tibiotarsus. The severity of the tibial dyschondroplasia lesion was evaluated as 0, +1, +2 and ...
The effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on fattening performances of growing cattle is an article from MOJ Ecology & Environmental Sciences for MedCrave Group. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the yeast on fattening performances of the growing cattle. The experiment was carried out with 179 imported 12-14 months old growing mixed breed bulls (Hereford, Angus, Brangus, and some other crossbreds) that were allocated to control and yeast group according to the breeds and body weight. Experimental diet was formulated with 19 % roughages (alfalfa and wheat straw) containing 13% crude protein. Yeast group was supplemented 40g d-1 live yeast containing 1.23×1011 CFU/g. The study lasted 62 days from May to July. Initial body weight were 393.91±4,43 for control and 395.56±4.45kg for yeast group. After test period, daily gain was similar (1465.85±26.76 vs. 1451.42±34.05g d-1, P|0.05) for the bull receiving the diet without yeast compared to the bulls receiving yeast. Similar results were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electron transport chain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria is inhibited by H2O2 at succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase level without lipid peroxidation involvement. AU - Cortés-Rojo, Christian. AU - Calderó;n-Cortés, Elizabeth. AU - Clemente-Guerrero, Mónica. AU - Manzo-Ávalos, Salvador. AU - Uribe, Salvador. AU - Boldogh, Istvan. AU - Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo. PY - 2007/11. Y1 - 2007/11. N2 - The deleterious effects of H2O2 on the electron transport chain of yeast mitochondria and on mitochondrial lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Exposure to H2O2 resulted in inhibition of the oxygen consumption in the uncoupled and phosphorylating states to 69% and 65%, respectively. The effect of H2O2 on the respiratory rate was associated with an inhibition of succinate-ubiquinone and succinate-DCIP oxidoreductase activities. Inhibitory effect of H2O2 on respiratory complexes was almost completely recovered by β-mercaptoethanol treatment. H2O2 treatment resulted in full ...
New Sequences ============= S82971 S82971 1775bp DNA PLN 10-FEB-1997 PEX13=PAS20 [Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Genomic, 1775 nt]. PEX13; Pex13p. SCRGA1 X90950 4305bp DNA PLN 07-FEB-1997 S.cerevisiae rga1 (dbm1) gene. DBM1; pheromone response; RGA1 gene; RGA1 (DBM1); Rga1p (Dbm1p). SCU17262 U17262 3051bp DNA PLN 11-FEB-1997 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pip1p (PIP1) gene, complete cds. PIP1; Pip1p. SCU17263 U17263 2251bp DNA PLN 11-FEB-1997 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pip2p (PIP2) gene, complete cds. PIP2; Pip2p. SCU17264 U17264 1842bp DNA PLN 11-FEB-1997 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pip3p (PIP3) gene, complete cds. PIP3; Pip3p. SCU85960 U85960 1720bp DNA PLN 11-FEB-1997 Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II-specific TBP associated factor Taf40p (TAF40) gene, complete cds. TAF40; RNA polymerase II specific TBP associated; factor. SCU86641 U86641 1657bp DNA PLN 08-FEB-1997 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rim9p (RIM9) gene, complete cds. RIM9; Rim9p. =========== Updated Features/Annotations ============= YSCDYS1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Magnesium as a stress-protectant for industrial strains of saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Walker, Graeme M.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - During brewery fermentations, individual yeast cells may be confronted with a variety of environmental stresses that impair yeast growth and fermentative metabolism. An understanding of the stress physiology of industrial yeasts is therefore important in order to counteract deleterious effects of stress on fermentation and, ultimately, product quality. The present study describes the influence of magnesium ions in preventing cell death caused by temperature shock and ethanol toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains employed in brewing, distilling, and wine fermentations. Results obtained show that, by increasing the extracellular availability of magnesium ions, physiological protection may be conferred on temperature- and ethanol-stressed yeast cells with respect to culture viability and growth. This practical approach is envisaged to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning and characterization of the RAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Higgins, David R.. AU - Prakash, Satya. AU - Reynolds, Paul. AU - Prakash, Louise. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - We have cloned the RAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and physically mapped it to a 4.0-kb DNA fragment from chromosome XVI. The RAD1 gene determines a transcript of 3.1 kb, and the direction of transcription was found to be leftwards, from EcoRI towards BglII (Fig. 1). Deletions of the RAD1 gene were made and were found to have no effect on viability of vegetative cells or spores, or on sporulation.. AB - We have cloned the RAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and physically mapped it to a 4.0-kb DNA fragment from chromosome XVI. The RAD1 gene determines a transcript of 3.1 kb, and the direction of transcription was found to be leftwards, from EcoRI towards BglII (Fig. 1). Deletions of the RAD1 gene were made and were found to have no effect on viability of vegetative cells or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cooperative interactions between pairs of homologous chromatids during meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Mell, Joshua Chang. AU - Komachi, Kelly. AU - Hughes, Owen. AU - Burgess, Sean. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - We report a novel instance of negative interference during Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiosis, where Cremediated recombination between pairs of allelic loxP sites is more frequent than expected. We suggest that endogenous crossover recombination mediates cooperative pairing interactions between all four chromatids of a meiotic bivalent.. AB - We report a novel instance of negative interference during Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiosis, where Cremediated recombination between pairs of allelic loxP sites is more frequent than expected. We suggest that endogenous crossover recombination mediates cooperative pairing interactions between all four chromatids of a meiotic bivalent.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=49849083414&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
In a previous attempt to identify as many as possible of the essential genes on Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome I, temperature-sensitive (Ts-) lethal mutations that had been induced by ethyl methane-sulfonate or nitrosoguanidine were analyzed. Thirty-two independently isolated mutations that mapped to chromosome I identified only three complementation groups, all of which had been known previously. In contrast, molecular analyses of segments of the chromosome have suggested the presence of numerous additional essential genes. In order to assess the degree to which problems of mutagen specificity had limited the set of genes detected using Ts- lethal mutations, we isolated a new set of such mutations after mutagenesis with UV or nitrogen mustard. Surprisingly, of 21 independently isolated mutations that mapped to chromosome I, 17 were again in the same three complementation groups as identified previously, and two of the remaining four mutations were apparently in a known gene involved in ...
ARAUJO, Roberta A.C. et al. Monitoring Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations by mtDNA restriction analysis and other molecular typing methods during spontaneous fermentation for production of the artisanal cachaça. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2007, vol.38, n.2, pp.217-223. ISSN 1517-8382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822007000200006.. An ecological study on Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations in spontaneous fermentation has been conducted in three vats of a cachaça distillery in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ninety-seven yeast isolates were collected at the beginning, the middle and at the end of the production period, and were identified by standard methods. Differentiation between the indigenous S. cerevisiae strains isolated was performed by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction analysis, RAPD-PCR, and PCR fingerprint using an intron splice primer. Analysis of the mtDNA restriction profiles revealed 12 different patterns, 11 corresponding to indigenous yeasts (I to XI) and one (XII) to a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins involved in hybrid DNA formation in vitro. AU - Heyer, W. D.. AU - Johnson, A. W.. AU - Norris, D. N.. AU - Tishkoff, D.. AU - Kolodner, R. D.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - RecA-like activities that can form hybrid DNA in vitro have been identified in a wide variety of organisms. We have previously described the strand exchange protein 1 (SEP1) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that can form hybrid DNA in vitro. Purified as an Mr 132 000 polypeptide, recent molecular and immunological studies have now shown that the native form is an Mr 175 000 polypeptide containing strand exchange activity. The gene encoding SEP1 has been cloned and sequenced. The primary sequence failed to reveal any significant sequence homology to other sequences in data base searches. In vivo SEP1 was found to be essential for normal meiosis as cells containing a homozygous insertion mutation in the SEP1 gene failed to sporulate. In order to identify additional factors ...
Understanding how new biochemical pathways evolve in a sexually reproducing population is a complex and largely unanswered question. We have successfully evolved a novel biochemical pathway in yeast using a sex based population approach.. For over 30 years, wild type Saccharomyces has been widely reported to not grow on xylose at all, but we discovered that most strains can grow, albeit at almost undetectable rates. A mass mated starting population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains was evolved under selection on Xylose Minimal Media (XMM) with forced sexual mating every ~two months for 1463 days. This produced a population that could grow on xylose as a sole carbon source. Initial studies show the xylose growth trait is quantitative and presumably governed by many genes. To investigate the evolution of the xylose phenotype, a xylose utilising strain MBG11a was isolated. MBG11a was sequenced with PacBio RSII long read sequencing at the Ramaciotti Centre for Genomics. A high quality complete ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Variation in indole-3-acetic acid production by wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. paradoxus strains from diverse ecological sources and its effect on growth. AU - Liu, Yen Yu. AU - Chen, Hung Wei. AU - Chou, Jui Yu. PY - 2016/8/1. Y1 - 2016/8/1. N2 - Phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most common naturally occurring and most thoroughly studied plant growth regulator. Microbial synthesis of IAA has long been known. Microbial IAA biosynthesis has been proposed as possibly occurring through multiple pathways, as has been proven in plants. However, the biosynthetic pathways of IAA and the ecological roles of IAA in yeast have not been widely studied. In this study, we investigated the variation in IAA production and its effect on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its closest relative Saccharomyces paradoxus yeasts from diverse ecological sources. We found that almost all Saccharomyces yeasts produced IAA when cultured in medium supplemented with the primary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A regulated MET3-GLC7 gene fusion provides evidence of a mitotic role for Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase 1. AU - Black, S. AU - Andrews, P D. AU - Sneddon, A A. AU - Stark, M J. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a single essential gene (GLC7) encoding protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Elevated expression of this gene from the GAL1 promoter is highly detrimental to the cell, causing a growth defect and aberrant bud morphology, which leads to cells exhibiting long, extended buds. By comparison, expression of GLC7 from the weaker MET3 promoter was without significant effect on either growth or morphology. However, repression of GLC7 expression from the MET3 promoter in cells where the MET3-GLC7 fusion was the sole source of PP1 resulted in a mitotic delay. Such cultures showed a massive decrease in the rate of proliferation in conjunction with a significant increase in the proportion of large, budded cells. 46-diamidino-2-phenylindole ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y12 - Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea.
Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment can be used for non-thermal inactivation of microorganisms. The aim of this paper is to investigate PEF treatment of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using three different field waveforms: square; non-oscillating exponential and oscillating exponential. The PEF system used in this paper consists of a pulsed power supply and a parallel-plane metallic electrodes treatment cell located in an air-pressurised chamber. PEF treatment of the yeast was conducted using electric field impulses with magnitudes of 67 kV/cm and 80 kV/cm. The efficacy of the PEF treatment for inactivation of the yeast cells was assessed by comparison of the PEF-treated and untreated yeast populations. Results showed that 3-log10 reduction in the yeast population can be achieved with 100 impulses using all tested waveforms. Amongst all three tested waveforms non-oscillating exponential impulses demonstrated improved PEF performance. The effect of duration of treatment and peak magnitude ...
I reveal that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtt109p promotes genome stability and resistance to DNA-damaging agents, and that it does this by functionally cooperating with the histone chaperone Asf1p to maintain normal chromatin structure. Furthermore, I show that, as for Asf1p, Rtt109p is required for histone H3 acetylation on lysine 56 (K56) in vivo. Moreover I show that Rtt109p directly catalyzes this modification in vitro in a manner that is stimulated by Asf1p. These data establish Rtt109p as a member of a new class of histone acetyltransferases and show that its actions are critical fro cell survival in the presence of DNA damage during S phase. In the second part of this thesis, I reveal that cells deleted for Saccharomyces cerevisiae ESC2 exhibit synthetic sickness when combined with deletions of many genes involved in maintaining genomic stability. Moreover, I show that esc2Δ mutant cells exhibit increased recombination frequency and increased relocalisation of recombination repair protein ...
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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF2 gene affects the expression of many diversely regulated genes and has been implicated in transcriptional activation. We report here the cloning and characterization of STH1, a gene that is homologous to SNF2. STH1 is essential for mitotic growth and is functionally distinct from SNF2. A bifunctional STH1-beta-galactosidase protein is located in the nucleus. The predicted 155,914-Da STH1 protein is 72% identical to SNF2 over 661 amino acids and 46% identical over another stretch of 66 amino acids. Both STH1 and SNF2 contain a putative nucleoside triphosphate-binding site and sequences resembling the consensus helicase motifs. The large region of homology shared by STH1 and SNF2 is conserved among other eukaryotic proteins, and STH1 and SNF2 appear to define a novel family of proteins related to helicases. ...
The Sec18 protein (Sec18p) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been identified as a component involved in the vesicular transport of proteins through the secretory and endocytotic pathways. Sec18p is a homologue of the mammalian protein NSF which has been shown, using a number of in vitro transport assay systems and affinity purification procedures, to interact with other proteins in a multisubunit protein complex. This work represents two approaches taken with the aim of identifying proteins that interact with Sec18p in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Isolation of protein complexes was first attempted by affinity purification of a tagged version of Sec18p. The protein was C-terminally tagged with a protein A moiety from Staphylococcus aureus containing IgG binding domains. It was hoped that the affinity of protein A for IgG Sepharose could be used to isolate protein complexes that formed in vivo with the Sec18p. Although the fusion construct was shown to be active in vivo, specific ...
Yeast cells. Coloured Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This fungus, also known as Bakers or Brewers yeast, consists of single vegetative cells. Some cells can be seen dividing by budding off new cells. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ferments sugar, producing alcohol and carbon dioxide in the process. It has long been used in brewing beer, the production of wine and in baking leavened bread (carbon dioxide causes the dough to rise). Medically, dried Bakers yeast is used as a rich source of vitamin B1, riboflavin and nicotinic acid. Magnification: x125 at 6x7cm size. x200 at 4x5 - Stock Image B250/0646
Saccharomyces cerevisiae sudah sejak lama digunakan sebagai starter fermentasi pembuatan roti dan minuman beralkohol. Dalam buku ini, Saccharomyces crervisiae dimanfaatkan sebagai agensia modifikasi dalam pengolahan pangan, kemampuan S. cerevisiae dalam merombak komponen pangan, produk metabolit yang dihasilkan oleh S. cerevisiae, modifikasi terhadap perubahan sifat beberapa produk pangan oleh S. cerevisiae seperti tapioka, tempe, dan modifikasi fermentasi kakao. Pengertian dasar mengenai khamir perlu dipahami oleh mahasiswa yang khususnya mempelajari mikrobiologi pangan, mikrobiologi industri dan teknologi pangan. S.cerevisiae adalah khamir ...
Ghanegolmohammadia F, Yoshida M, Ohnuki S, Sukegawa Y, Okada H, Obara K, Kihara A, Suzuki K, Kojima T, Yachie N, Hirata D & Ohya Y Systematic analysis of Ca2+ homoeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on chemical-genetic interaction profiles Molecular Biology of the Cell ...
Wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D8) and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum S6 and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL5774) were studied using air-blast drying instead of the conventional drying methods (such as freeze and spray drying). Skim milk-a widely used protective agent-was used and in all strains, the highest viabilities following air-blast drying were obtained using 10% skim milk. Four excipients (wheat flour, nuruk, artichoke powder, and lactomil) were evaluated as protective agents for yeast strains during air-blast drying. Our results showed that 7 g lactomil was the best excipient in terms of drying time, powder form, and the survival rate of the yeast in the final product. Finally, 7 types of sugars were investigated to improve the survival rate of air-blast dried yeast cells: 10% trehalose, 10% sucrose, and 10% glucose had the highest survival rate of 97.54, 92.59, and 79.49% for S. cerevisiae D8, H. uvarum S6, and I. orientalis KMBL5774, respectively. After 3 months of
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC ® 201390D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain BY4743 (ATCC ® 201390™) Application:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC ® 201389D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain BY4742 (ATCC ® 201389™) Application:
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Spt20/Ada5 was originally identified by mutations that suppress Ty insertion alleles and by mutations that suppress the toxicity caused by Gal4-VP16 overexpression. Here we present evidence for physical associations between Spt20/Ada5 and three other Spt proteins, suggesting that they exist in a complex. A related study demonstrates that this complex also contains the histone acetyltransferase, Gcn5, and Ada2. This complex has been named SAGA (Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase). To identify functions that genetically interact with SAGA, we have screened for mutations that cause lethality in an spt20Δ/ada5Δ mutant. Our screen identified mutations in SNF2, SIN4, and GAL11. These mutations affect two known transcription complexes: Snf/Swi, which functions in nucleosome remodeling, and Srb/mediator, which is required for regulated transcription by RNA polymerase II. Systematic analysis has demonstrated that spt20Δ/ada5Δ and spt7Δ mutations cause ...
Alkylating agents induce cytotoxic DNA base-adducts. In this thesis I provide evidence to suggest that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tpa1 protein is involved in DNA alkylation repair. Little is known about Tpa1 as a repair protein beyond the initial observation from a high throughput analysis indicating that deletion of TPA1 causes methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using purified Tpa1, I demonstrate that wild type Tpa1 repairs both single and double-stranded methylated DNA and mutation of the amino acid residues involved in cofactor binding abolishes Tpa1 DNA repair activity. In this thesis I also investigate genetic interaction of Tpa1. I also demonstrate that Tpa1 could complement alkB function and rescue the MMS sensitivity of alkB deficient E.coli strain, HK82. Experimental data proves that deletion of TPA1 along with base excision repair (BER) pathway DNA glycosylase MAG1 renders the tpa1 ∆ mag1 ∆ double mutant highly susceptible to methylation-induced ...
The recently sequenced genome of the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii revealed remarkable similarities to that of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae both at the level of homology and synteny (conservation of gene order). Thus, it became possible to reinvestigate the S. cerevisiae genome in the syntenic regions leading to an improved annotation. We have identified 23 novel S. cerevisiae open reading frames (ORFs) as syntenic homologs of A. gossypii genes; for all but one, homologs are present in other eukaryotes including humans. Other comparisons identified 13 overlooked introns and suggested 69 potential sequence corrections resulting in ORF extensions or ORF fusions with improved homology to the syntenic A. gossypii homologs. Of the proposed corrections, 25 were tested and confirmed by resequencing. In addition, homologs of nearly 1,000 S. cerevisiae ORFs, presently annotated as hypothetical, were found in A. gossypii at syntenic positions and can therefore be considered as authentic genes.
Under amino acid starvation conditions, the bakers" yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates a system called "General control of amino acid biosynthesis". Gcn4p, the transcription factor of this system induces the expression of more than 50 genes involved in the different amino acid biosynthetic pathways. In this thesis it could be shown that during simultaneous limitation of amino acids and nitrogen the general control is not activated. More exactly, even a decrease of the Gcn4p activity was detected, which was traced back onto a reduction of the Gcn4 protein amount in the cell. This decrease of the intracellular concentration was caused by translational control of the GCN4 mRNA, which was able to repress even a 2-fold increase of the GCN4 transcription rate. Furthermore during nitrogen starvation conditions no correlation between the stature of eIF-2 phosphorylation and GCN4 expression was observed. For this reason an involvement of the already known mechanism of translation! al regulation of ...
1P-022 Saccharomyces cerevisiaeの糖代謝における転写制御ネットワークの予測(遺伝子工学,一般講演)1P-022 Saccharomyces cerevisiaeの糖代謝における転写制御ネットワークの予測(遺伝子工学,一般講演)AN10549378 ...
The production of bio-based chemicals, fuels, pharmaceuticals and food additives by microbial fermentation is a rapidly growing field. There is an increasing demand for efficient cell factories that enable the production of biofuels and biochemicals from renewable resources at low and competitive cost. The knowledge of genetics, physiology, biochemistry and large-scale fermentation of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, combined with the advent of genome engineering and recombinant DNA technology makes it a preferred host for many industrial bio-based applications, ranging from biofuels and bulk chemicals to nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals [1-8]. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae has the advantage of being easy to manipulate genetically with a range of established cloning and vector systems [6, 9].. Production organisms with multi-enzyme pathways often require precise control of the expression level of the associated genes [2, 5, 10]. Besides regulating promoter strength, the copy number of ...
Article Copper oxide nanoparticles inhibit the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are increasingly used in industrial applications and consumer products and thus may pose risk to human and environment...
TY - GEN. T1 - 3-Hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol. AU - Suthers, Patrick. AU - Chelf, Paulanne. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. N2 - Researchers transformed an Escherichia coli strain so that it expresses the dhaB gene from Klebsiella pheumoniae encoding a glycerol dehydratase and a gene for an aldehyde dehydrogenase, such as ALD4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The yeast enzyme performedf better than others tested from E. coli and humans.. AB - Researchers transformed an Escherichia coli strain so that it expresses the dhaB gene from Klebsiella pheumoniae encoding a glycerol dehydratase and a gene for an aldehyde dehydrogenase, such as ALD4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The yeast enzyme performedf better than others tested from E. coli and humans.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=16244394843&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=16244394843&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:16244394843. VL - 27. SP - 3. EP - 4. JO - ...
Background Two major hurdles for successful production of second-generation bioethanol are the presence of inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic media, and the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally utilise pentoses. There are recombinant yeast strains that address both of these issues, but co-utilisation of glucose and xylose is still an issue that needs to be resolved. A non-recombinant way to increase yeast tolerance to hydrolysates is by encapsulation of the yeast. This can be explained by concentration gradients occuring in the cell pellet inside the capsule. In the current study, we hypothesised that encapsulation might also lead to improved simultaneous utilisation of hexoses and pentoses because of such sugar concentration gradients. Results In silico simulations of encapsulated yeast showed that the presence of concentration gradients of inhibitors can explain the improved inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated yeast. Simulations also showed pronounced concentration ...
Bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important and widely used cell factories for recombinant protein production. Many strategies have been applied to engineer this yeast for improving its protein production capacity, but productivity is still relatively low, and with increasing market demand, it is important to identify new gene targets, especially targets that have synergistic effects with previously identified targets. Despite improved protein production, previous studies rarely focused on processes associated with intracellular protein retention. Here we identified genetic modifications involved in the secretory and trafficking pathways, the histone deacetylase complex, and carbohydrate metabolic processes as targets for improving protein secretion in yeast. Especially modifications on the endosome-to-Golgi trafficking was found to effectively reduce protein retention besides increasing protein secretion. Through combinatorial genetic manipulations of several of the newly
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. AU - Giaever, Guri. AU - Chu, Angela M.. AU - Ni, Li. AU - Connelly, Carla. AU - Riles, Linda. AU - Véronneau, Steeve. AU - Dow, Sally. AU - Lucau-Danila, Ankuta. AU - Anderson, Keith. AU - André, Bruno. AU - Arkin, Adam P.. AU - Astromoff, Anna. AU - El Bakkoury, Mohamed. AU - Bangham, Rhonda. AU - Benito, Rocio. AU - Brachat, Sophie. AU - Campanaro, Stefano. AU - Curtiss, Matt. AU - Davis, Karen. AU - Deutschbauer, Adam. AU - Entian, Karl Dieter. AU - Flaherty, Patrick. AU - Foury, Francoise. AU - Garfinkel, David J.. AU - Gerstein, Mark. AU - Gotte, Deanna. AU - Güldener, Ulrich. AU - Hegemann, Johannes H.. AU - Hempel, Svenja. AU - Herman, Zelek. AU - Jaramillo, Daniel F.. AU - Kelly, Diane E.. AU - Kelly, Steven L.. AU - Kötter, Peter. AU - LaBonte, Darlene. AU - Lamb, David C.. AU - Lan, Ning. AU - Liang, Hong. AU - Liao, Hong. AU - Liu, Lucy. AU - Luo, Chuanyun. AU - Lussier, Marc. AU - Mao, Rong. AU - ...
Water-insoluble glucan was isolated from the bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast cells were treated with alkali and the residue then with acid. Chemical and NMR (1D and 2D) analyses showed that a linear (1→3)-β-glucan was purified that was not contaminated with other carbohydrates, proteins or phenolic compounds. The effects of the glucan on wound healing were assessed in human venous ulcers by histopathological analysis after 30 days of topical treatment. (1→3)-β-glucan enhanced ulcer healing and increased epithelial hyperplasia, as well as increased inflammatory cells, angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation. In one patient who had an ulcer that would not heal for over 15 years, glucan treatment caused a 67.8% decrease in the area of the ulcer. This is the first study to investigate the effects of (1→3)-β-glucan on venous ulcer healing in humans; our findings suggest that this glucan is a potential natural biological response modifier in wound healing.
During the production of wine and beer, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can encounter an environment that is deficient in zinc, resulting in a sluggish or a stuck ferment. It has been shown that the Zap1p-transcription factor induces the expression of a regulon in response to zinc deficiency; however, it was evident that a separate regulon was also activated during zinc deficiency in a Zap1p-independent manner. This study discovered the Msn2p and Msn4p (Msn2/4p) transcriptional activator proteins to be an additional control mechanism inducing the stress response during zinc deficiency. Promoter sequence analysis identified the stress response element (STRE) motif, recognized by Msn2/4p, and was significantly enriched in the promoters of genes induced by zinc deficiency. An investigation using genome-wide analyses revealed a distinct regulon consisting of STREcontaining genes whose zinc-responsive expression was abolished in an msn2 msn4 double mutant. An STRE-driven lacZ reporter ...
Background: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an essential role in the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Weak organic acids in lignocellulosic hydrolysate can hamper the use of this renewable resource for fuel and chemical production. Plasma-membrane remodeling has recently been found to be involved in acquiring tolerance to organic acids, but the mechanisms responsible remain largely unknown. Therefore, it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae for developing robust industrial strains. Results: We have performed a comparative analysis of lipids and fatty acids in S. cerevisiae grown in the presence of four different weak acids. The general response of the yeast to acid stress was found to be the accumulation of triacylglycerols and the degradation of steryl esters. In addition, a decrease in phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and an increase in phosphatidylinositol were observed.
Background: The bioethanol production system used in Brazil is based on the fermentation of sucrose from sugarcane feedstock by highly adapted strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bacterial contaminants present in the distillery environment often produce yeast-bacteria cellular co-aggregation particles that resemble yeast-yeast cell adhesion (flocculation). The formation of such particles is undesirable because it slows the fermentation kinetics and reduces the overall bioethanol yield. Results: In this study, we investigated the molecular physiology of one of the main S. cerevisiae strains used in Brazilian bioethanol production, PE-2, under two contrasting conditions: typical fermentation, when most yeast cells are in suspension, and co-aggregated fermentation. The transcriptional profile of PE-2 was assessed by RNA-seq during industrial scale fed-batch fermentation. Comparative analysis between the two conditions revealed transcriptional profiles that were differentiated primarily ...
Septins are a family of eukaryotic GTP-binding proteins that associate into linear rods, which, in turn, polymerize end-on-end into filaments and further assemble into other, more elaborate super-structures at discrete subcellular locations. Hence, septin-based ensembles are considered elements of the cytoskeleton. One function of these structures that has been well-documented in studies conducted in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is to serve as a scaffold that recruits regulatory proteins, which dictate the spatial and temporal control of certain aspects of the cell division cycle. In particular, septin-associated protein kinases couple cell cycle progression with cellular morphogenesis. Thus, septin-containing structures serve as signaling platforms that integrate a multitude of signals and coordinate key downstream networks required for cell cycle passage. This review summarizes what we currently understand about how the action of septin-associated protein kinases and their substrates control
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding graded levels of yeast on broiler performance, carcass characteristics and some hematological indices. One day old Hubbard broiler chicks (n=160) were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 8 broilers each. The dietary treatments contained 0% yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a negative control diet, 0% yeast + 30 ppm Oxytetracyline as a positive control, 1%, 2% and 3% yeast in the starter and finisher diets. During the experimental periods of 6 weeks, feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio values were calculated. At the end of the experimental period (6 weeks of age), some biochemical and hematological indices, carcass characteristics traits and internal organs weights were recorded. Growth performance parameters were significantly (P≤0.05) affected by experimental diets. Chicks fed either 0 or 3% yeast recorded the highest (P≤0.05) feed intake, however, the best (P≤0
ERK5 is a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase regulated in human cells by diverse mitogens and stresses but also suspected of mediating the effects of a number of oncogenes. Its expression in the slt2Delta Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant rescued several of the phenotypes caused by the lack of Slt2p (Mpk1p) cell integrity MAP kinase. ERK5 is able to provide this cell integrity MAP kinase function in yeast, as it is activated by the cell integrity signaling cascade that normally activates Slt2p and, in its active form, able to stimulate at least one key Slt2p target (Rlm1p, the major transcriptional regulator of cell wall genes). In vitro ERK5 kinase activity was abolished by Hsp90 inhibition. ERK5 activity in vivo was also lost in a strain that expresses a mutant Hsp90 chaperone. Therefore, human ERK5 expressed in yeast is an Hsp90 client, despite the widely held belief that the protein kinases of the MAP kinase class are non-Hsp90-dependent activities. Two-hybrid and protein binding studies ...
Read "The Genetic Control of Cell Growth and Development in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Disturbed Sporulation in Diploids with a Decreased Activity of the Ras/cAMP Signal Transduction Pathway, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Largescale analysis of filamentous growth in. Largescale analysis of filamentous growth in saccharomyces cerevisiae candida albicans by especially like to thank my thesis committee members, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida albicansderived. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida albicansderived mannan triggered production of tumor necrosis thing alpha by way of saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism; sign. Pali area proteins of saccharomyces cerevisiae […]. Continue reading ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcellular distribution of glutathione and its dynamic changes under oxidative stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Zechmann, Bernd. AU - Liou, Liang-Chun. AU - Koffler, Barbara E.. AU - Horvat, Lucija. AU - Tomasic, Ana. AU - Fulgosi, Hrvoje. AU - Zhang, Zhaojie. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. U2 - 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2011.00753.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2011.00753.x. M3 - Article. VL - 11. SP - 631. EP - 642. JO - FEMS yeast research. JF - FEMS yeast research. SN - 1567-1356. IS - 8. ER - ...
Amphiphysins are proteins thought to be involved in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Amphiphysins share a common BAR domain, which can sense and/or bend membranes, and this function is believed to be essential for endocytosis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the amphiphysin ortholog Rvs161 are i …
Air-liquid biofilm formation appears to be an adaptive mechanism that promotes foraging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor strains in response to nutrient starvation. The FLO11 gene plays a central role in this phenotype as its expression allows yeast cells to rise to the liquid surface. Here, we investigated the role of ammonium depletion in air-liquid biofilm formation and FLO11 expression in a S. cerevisiae flor strain. The data obtained show that increasing ammonium concentrations from 0 to 450 m m reduce air-liquid biofilm in terms of biomass and velum formation and correlate with a reduction of FLO11 expression. Rapamycin inhibition of the TOR pathway and deletion of RAS2 gene significantly reduced biofilm formation and FLO11 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that ammonium depletion is a key factor in the induction of air-liquid biofilm formation and FLO11 expression in S. cerevisiae flor strains. ...
Cell volume is an important parameter for modelling cellular processes. Temperature-induced variability of cellular size, volume, intracellular granularity, a fraction of budding cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D (in anaerobic glucose unlimited batch cultures) were measured by flow cytometry and matched with the performance of the biomass growth (maximal specific growth rate (μmax), specific rate of glucose consumption, the rate of maintenance, biomass yield on glucose). The critical diameter of single cells was 7.94 μm and it is invariant at growth temperatures above 18.5°C. Below 18.5°C, it exponentially increases up to 10.2 μm. The size of the bud linearly depends on μmax, and it is between 50% at 5°C and 90% at 31°C of the averaged single cell. The intracellular granularity (side scatter channel (SSC)-index) negatively depends on μmax. There are two temperature regions (5-31°C vs. 33-40°C) where the relationship between SSC-index and various cellular parameters ...
Effect of the msb3msb4 double mutation on the intracellular pool of purine nucleotides in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: application to the study of the biological activity of the oncogenic human protein oncTre210p ...
Algerghina, L.; Porro, D.; Martegani, E.; Ranzi, B.M., 1991: Ethanol and biomass production from whey lactose by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain
Evolution of multigene families are considered in the review on the example of the PHO gene family encoding the structure of acid phosphatases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of the...
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, disruption of the YCF1 gene increases the sensitivity of cell growth to mercury. Transformation of the resulting ycf1 null mutant with a plasmid harbouring YCF1 under the control of the GAL promoter largely restores the wild-type resistance to the metal ion. The protective effect of Ycf1p against the toxicity of mercury is especially pronounced when yeast cells are grown in rich medium or in minimal medium supplemented with glutathione. Secretory vesicles from S. cerevisiae cells overproducing Ycf1p are shown to exhibit ATP-dependent transport of bis(glutathionato)mercury. Moreover, using beta-galactosidase as a reporter protein, a relationship between mercury addition and the activity of the YCF1 promoter can be shown. Altogether, these observations indicate a defence mechanism involving an induction of the expression of Ycf1p and transport by this protein of mercury-glutathione adducts into the vacuole. Finally, possible coparticipation in mercury tolerance of other ABC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants deficient in superoxide dismutase genes (sod1∆, sod2∆and the double mutant) were subjected to H2O2 stress in the stationary phase. The highest sensitivity was observed in the sod2∆mutant, while the sod1∆sod2∆double mutant was not sensitive. sod mutants had lower catalase activity (44%) than wildtype cells, independent of H2O2 stress. Untreated cells of sod1∆sod2∆ double mutants showed increased glutathione peroxidase activity (126%), while sod1∆had lower activity (77%) than the wild type. Glutathione levels in sod1∆were increased (200-260%) after exposure to various H2O2 concentrations. In addition, the highest malondialdehyde levels could be observed without H2O2 treatment in sod1∆ (167%) and sod2∆(225%) mutants. In contrast, the level of malondialdehyde in the sod1∆sod2∆double mutant was indistinguishable from that of the wild type. These results suggest that resistance to H2O2 by sod1∆sod2∆cells depends on the ...
Phenotypic variation among individuals within populations is ubiquitous in the natural world, and a preeminent challenge in biology is understanding the contribution of genetic variation to this phenotypic variation. Despite technological advances in the development of genome-scale methods for querying molecular phenotypes, our understanding of the molecular basis of morphological and physiological variation remains rudimentary. In this dissertation, I outline computational methods I have developed and analyses I have conducted in the yeast ,italic,Saccharomyces cerevisiae,/italic, to make inferences about the relationship between DNA sequences and the molecular phenotypes to which they give rise. First, I describe a population genomics study of a class of genomic elements, intron splice sequences, in a diverse set of complete ,italic,S. cerevisiae,/italic, genomes. I obtained quantitative estimates of the strength of purifying selection acting on these sequences, and present analyses suggesting ...
The genome of the common yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been fully sequenced, and it gave the scientists who did it a nice surprise. The chose S. cerevisiae-a single-celled fungus-as the representative of the fungus kingdom to sequence because this versatile little cells life is tied to ours in many ways. This yeast makes dough rise, and therefore most baked goods - bread or cake or brioche - depend on it. It brews beer, therefore all beer with alcohol depends on happy growing conditions for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It abounds in yougurt and other dairy products. It grows quickly and well under laboratory conditions and has been a favorite object of study in the investigation of fungal sex, fungal viruses, chromosome behaviour, growth, and survival as well as spore formation. Each Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell, as was well known, is "haploid", which means it has only one copy of each of its ten chromosomes. (We human animals are diploid, which means each of us has two copies of each ...
The Pumilio family (PUF) proteins are conserved among the eukaryotes (42). They bind to specific sequences in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of target transcripts via their conserved and characteristic PUF domain and thereby inhibit the stability or translatability of these target mRNAs (32, 50). Indeed, the PUF domain appears sufficient for PUF proteins to affect their target transcripts (32, 50). Five PUF proteins, Puf1p to Puf5p, were thought to exist in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (37, 49). A sixth, Puf6p, has recently been reported (9). None are essential (9, 37, 49). One of the yeast PUF proteins, Mpt5p, also known as Htr1p (23), Puf5p (37), or Uth4p (20), promotes replicative life span (3, 20, 21), the number of generations a virgin daughter cell can undergo before becoming senescent. Mpt5p is a robust regulator of ageing, since it also affects life span in a long-lived genetic background (17).. In addition to displaying a short replicative life span, mutants ...
Gene target information for CTT1 - catalase T (Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
MOTIZUKI, M., MITSUI, K., ENDO, Y. and TSURUGI, K. (1986), Detection and partial characterization of the chromatin-associated proteases of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. European Journal of Biochemistry, 158: 345-350. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1986.tb09757.x ...
Read "Expression of the Drosophila melanogaster limk1 gene 3′-UTRs mRNA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in vivo Prp8 splicing assay(A) Schematic representation of the two-step splicing pathway (SS, splice site; BS, branch site). Brie
This unit presents detailed protocols for a range of centrifugation‐based subcellular fractionation procedures for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased stress parameter synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae after treatment with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. AU - Wonisch, Willibald. AU - Hayn, Marianne. AU - Schaur, Jörg. AU - Tatzber, Franz. AU - Kranner, Ilse. AU - Grill, Dieter. AU - Winkler, Rudolf. AU - Bilinski, Tomasz. AU - Kohlwein, Sepp-Dieter. AU - Esterbauer, Hermann. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. U2 - 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00123-3. DO - 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00123-3. M3 - Article. VL - 405. SP - 11. EP - 15. JO - FEBS letters. JF - FEBS letters. SN - 0014-5793. IS - 1. ER - ...
Cellular responses to damaged telomeres in budding yeast. Eukaryotic cells use a variety of mechanisms to protect themselves from the harmful effects of DNA damage. DNA repair enzymes recognise and remove damage, checkpoint control pathways delay cell division while repair occurs, and in some cases cell death or apoptosis is activated to ensure that damaged cells are removed from organisms. Human genetic defects in DNA-damage responses lead to diseases associated with ageing and cancer. For example, Werners syndrome, a disease associated with premature human ageing, is associated with a mutation in a gene encoding a DNA repair protein. In cancer, more than half of all human tumours contain mutations in the p53 checkpoint protein.. Our lab uses genetic, molecular and biochemical approaches to understand the interplay between DNA damage responses and telomeres in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast). The telomere is a special DNA-protein complex at the end of eukaryotic ...
Getting Better Intestinal Health through the Addition of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) Combined with Threonine in Broilers Diets
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast. It is perhaps the most useful yeast, having been instrumental to baking and brewing since ancient times. It is believed that it was originally isolated FROM chado.the skins of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark-colored fruits such as plums; it exists among the waxes of the cuticle). It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model bacterium. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation. S. cerevisiae cells are round to ovoid, 5-10 micrometres in diameter. It reproduces by a division process known as budding ...
Gene target information for PRB1 - proteinase B (Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Tub4p is a novel tubulin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that most closely resembles gamma-tubulin. We report in this manuscript that the essential Tub4p is associated with the inner and outer plaques of the yeast microtubule organizing center, the spindle pole body (SPB). These SPB substructures are involved in the attachment of the nuclear and cytoplasmic microtubules, respectively (Byers, B., and L. Goetsch. 1975. J. Bacteriol. 124:511-523). Study of a temperature sensitive tub4-1 allele revealed that TUB4 has essential functions in microtubule organization. Remarkably, SPB duplication and separation are not impaired in tub4-1 cells incubated at the nonpermissive temperature. However, SPBs from such cells contain less or misdirected nuclear microtubules. Further analysis revealed that tub4-1 cells are able to assemble a short bipolar spindle, suggesting that the defect in microtubule organization occurs after spindle formation. A role of Tub4p in microtubule organization is further suggested by ...
Addition of glucose or fructose to cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on a nonfermentable carbon source triggers within a few minutes post-translational activation of trehalase, repression of the CTT1 (catalase) and SSA3 (Hsp70) genes, and induction of the ribosomal protein genes RPL1, RPL25 and RPS33. By using appropriate sugar kinase mutants, it was shown that rapid glucose- or fructose-induced activation of trehalase requires phosphorylation of the sugar. On the other hand, partial induction of RPL1, RPL25 and RPS33 as well as partial repression of CTT1 and SSA3 were observed in the absence of sugar phosphorylation. In glucose-grown nitrogen-starved yeast cells re-addition of a nitrogen source triggers activation of trehalase in a glucose- or fructose-dependent way, but with no apparent requirement for phosphorylation of the sugar. Repression of CTT1 and SSA3 under the same conditions was also largely dependent on the presence of the sugar and also in these cases there was a strong
Author(s): Yin, Yi; Petes, Thomas D | Abstract: In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and most other eukaryotes, mitotic recombination is important for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes can result in loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In this study, LOH events induced by ultraviolet (UV) light are mapped throughout the genome to a resolution of about 1 kb using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. UV doses that have little effect on the viability of diploid cells stimulate crossovers more than 1000-fold in wild-type cells. In addition, UV stimulates recombination in G1-synchronized cells about 10-fold more efficiently than in G2-synchronized cells. Importantly, at high doses of UV, most conversion events reflect the repair of two sister chromatids that are broken at approximately the same position whereas at low doses, most conversion events reflect the repair of a single broken chromatid. Genome-wide mapping of about 380
TY - JOUR. T1 - RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. T2 - Nucleotide sequence of wild-type and mutant alleles, transcript mapping, and aspects of gene regulation. AU - Naumovski, L.. AU - Chu, G.. AU - Berg, P.. AU - Friedberg, E. C.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the RAD3 gene of S. cerevisiae. The coding region of the gene contained 2,334 base pairs that could encode a protein with a calculated molecular weight of 89,796. Analysis of RAD3 mRNA by Northern blots and by S1 nuclease mapping indicated that the transcript was approximately 2.5 kilobases and did not contain intervening sequences. Fusions between the RAD3 gene and the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli were constructed and used to demonstrate that the RAD3 gene was not inducible by DNA damage caused by UV radiation or 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide. Two UV-sensitive chromosomal mutant alleles of RAD3, rad3-1 and rad3-2, were rescued by gap repair of a centromeric plasmid, and their sequences ...
Lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to grow aerobically, ferment
Here, lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to grow aerobically, ...
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism for biochemical and genetic studies, and several very important discoveries of fundamental biological processes have been conducted using this yeast as an experimental organism. An emerging concept, which is validated by several works using this organism, relies on the biological importance of oxidant species, specially the hydroperoxides. These molecules were formed during aerobic biological process and control several intracellular mechanisms such as a range of signaling pathways, cell cycle, programmed cell death, circadian rhythm, aging, and lifespan extension. Thereby, cellular homeostasis depends on a refined control of hydroperoxides levels and low-molecular-weight molecules in combination with antioxidant enzymes playing a role in this equilibrium. This proposal is focused on the S. cerevisiae peroxiredoxins and their role in peroxide decomposition, signal transduction, circadian clocks, and aging as model enzymes for the study and
To grow, eukaryotic cells must expand by inserting glycerolipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and proteins into their plasma membrane, and maintain the proper levels and bilayer distribution. A fungal cell must coordinate growth with enlargement of its cell wall. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a plasma membrane‐localized protein kinase complex, Target of Rapamicin (TOR) complex‐2 (TORC2) (mammalian ortholog is mTORC2), serves as a sensor and masterregulator of these plasma membrane‐ and cell wall‐associated events by directly phosphorylating and thereby stimulating the activity of two types of effector protein kinases: Ypk1 (mammalian ortholog is SGK1), along with a paralog (Ypk2); and, Pkc1 (mammalian ortholog is PKN2/PRK2). Ypk1 is a central regulator of pathways and processes required for plasma membrane lipid and protein homeostasis, and requires phosphorylation on its T‐loop by eisosome‐associated protein kinase Pkh1 (mammalian ortholog is PDK1) and a paralog (Pkh2). For cell survival under
TRA1 is an essential gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that encodes a 437 kDa protein product. It is a member of a family of key signaling and regulatory molecules that contain a C-terminal phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) domain [1] and is a component of two multisubunit transcriptional regulatory complexes, the SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 complexes, which also contain the histone acetyltransferase enzymes, Gcn5 and Esa1, respectively [2-4]. Tra1 interacts directly with transcriptional activator proteins and is thought to be critical in recruitment of SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 to their target promoters [5-8].. Previously we identified mutations in the C-terminal PI3K domain of Tra1 that showed defects in transcriptional activation, sensitivity to ethanol and the cell wall destabilizing agent calcofluor white and resulted in shortened telomeres [9]. The pattern of changes neither fully mimicked those seen upon disruption of other SAGA/SLIK nor NuA4 components. For example, unlike strains with deletions of ...
Several hundred new mutations in the gene (HXK2) encoding hexokinase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, and a subset of them was mapped, resulting in a fine-structure genetic map. Among the mutations that were sequenced, 35 were independent missense mutations. The mutations were obtained by mutagenesis of cloned HXK2 DNA carried on a low-copy-number plasmid vector and screened for a number of different phenotypes in yeast strains bearing chromosomal hxk1 and hxk2 null mutations. Some of these mutants were characterized both in vivo and in vitro; they displayed a wide spectrum of residual hexokinase activities, as indicated by three assays: in vitro enzyme activity, ability to grow on glucose and fructose, and ability to repress invertase production when growing on glucose. Of those that failed to support growth on fructose, only a small minority made normal-size, stable, and inactive protein. Analysis of the amino acid changes in these mutants in light of the crystallographically ...
The angelic acid moiety represents an essential modification in many biologically active products. These products are commonly known as angelates and several studies have demonstrated their therapeutic benefits, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, their availability for use in the development of therapeutics is limited due to poor extraction yields. Chemical synthesis has been achieved but its complexity prevents application, therefore microbial production may offer a promising alternative. Here, we engineered the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce angelyl-CoA, the CoA-activated form of angelic acid. For yeast-based production of angelyl-CoA we first expressed genes recently identified in the biosynthetic cluster ssf of Streptomyces sp. SF2575 in S. cerevisiae. Exogenous feeding of propionate and heterologous expression of a propionyl-CoA synthase from Streptomyces sp. were initially employed to increase the intracellular propionyl-CoA level, resulting in
Biosprint® is an active yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae MUCL 39885) used for animal feed. Biosprint is authorized by the European Union as feed additive for piglets, cattle for fattening, dairy cows, horses and sows.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion collection was screened for impaired growth on glucose-based complex medium containing 6% ethanol. Forty-six mutants were found. Genes encoding proteins involved in vacuolar function, the cell integrity pathway, mitochondrial function, subunits of the co-chaperone complex GimC and components of the SAGA transcription factor complex were in this way found to be important for the growth of wild-type Saccharomyces yeast in the presence of ethanol. Several mutants were also sensitive to Calcofluor white (14 mutants), sorbic acid (9), increased temperature (5) and NaCl (3). The transcription factors Msn2p and Ars1p, tagged with green fluorescent protein, were translocated to the nucleus upon ethanol stress. Only one of the genes that contain STRE elements in the promoter was important under ethanol stress; this was TPS1, encoding trehalose 6-phosphate synthase. The map kinase of the cell integrity pathway, Slt2p, was phosphorylated when cells were treated with 6% ...
Background: The yeast SNF1 protein kinase and the mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase are highly conserved heterotrimeric complexes that are "metabolic master switches" involved in the switch from fermentative/anaerobic to oxidative metabolism. They are activated by cellular stresses that deplete cellular ATP, and SNF1 is essential in the response to glucose starvation. In both cases, activation requires phosphorylation at a conserved threonine residue within the activation loop of the kinase domain, but identifying the upstream kinase(s) responsible for this has been a challenging, unsolved problem. Results: Using a library of strains that express 119 yeast protein kinases as GST fusions, we identified Elm1p as the sole kinase that could activate the kinase domain of AMP-activated protein kinase in vitro. Elm1p also activated the purified SNF1 complex, and this correlated with phosphorylation of Thr210 in the activation loop. Removal of the C-terminal domain increased the Elm1p kinase ...
I use this paper in my graduate genetics course. It describes a global screen for synthetic defects involving DNA integrity, which reveals a network of 16 functional modules. The paper illustrates screens based on genetic interactions (in this case, synthetic lethality or fitness defects) and the systems biology used to evaluate the results of such a screen. It also illustrates the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system ...
Background: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides intriguing possibilities for synthetic biology and bioprocess applications, but its use is still constrained by cellular characteristics that limit the product yields. Considering the production of advanced biopharmaceuticals, a major hindrance lies in the yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as it is not equipped for efficient and large scale folding of complex proteins, such as human antibodies. Results: Following the example of professional secretory cells, we show that inducing an ER expansion in yeast by deleting the lipid-regulator gene OPI1 can improve the secretion capacity of full-length antibodies up to fourfold. Based on wild-type and ER-enlarged yeast strains, we conducted a screening of a folding factor overexpression library to identify proteins and their expression levels that enhance the secretion of antibodies. Out of six genes tested, addition of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase CPR5 provided the most beneficial effect on ...
The effects of vandate on mitochondrial respiration and H+ ATPase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. A 50 inhibition of oxygen uptake in isolated mitochondria was produced by 4·4 mM?V2O5. Activity of H+ ATPase in whole mitochondria was inhibited by 50 by 5·5 ?M?V2O5, in submitochondrial particles by 55 ?M?V2O5; and in the chloroform?released H+ ATPase by 0·5 mM?V2O5. Vandate was also found to relieve growth inhibition caused by the mitochondrial H+ ATPase inhibitors NN??decyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin. These results imply that vanadate could affect mitochondrial respiration by interacting with the H+ ATPase in S. cerevisiae. ...
... is the species name of yeast used for making sake. Yeast (called Kobo in Japanese) is the microorganism that is essential for the creation of fermented alcohol. Yeast does this by eating any available sugars in the mash and then converting them to alcohol and carbon dioxide. The yeast also gives of acids which convert to esters, thereby influencing the overall aroma of the sake as well. There are various strains of yeast that can impact the taste and aromas in various ways. Most brewers purchase commercially available sake yeast, however a few breweries will isolate and maintain proprietary strains of sake yeast.. ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the first eukaryote for which a genome was completely sequenced and it has been studied intensely as a model organism for decades (1). The physiology and genetics for this Crabtree positive, non-motile, unicellular yeast that reproduces by budding are well characterized (7). S. cerevisiae is used routinely in the baking industry and for alcohol fermentations. It is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and tolerant to a wide range of physiological stresses such as low pH, high ethanol and high osmotic stress (2). It has gained wide-spread use as a host for recombinant protein production (5), pentose utilization capabilities have been developed (2, 4) and yeast have potential for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) (3, 6 ...
Characterization of a glucose-repressed pyruvate kinase (Pyk2p) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is catalytically insensitive to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate ...
DNA Double-Strand-Breaks (DSBs) are exceedingly deleterious chromosomal lesions. The failure to repair can lead to mutations, which could eventually result in genomic instability (lr cancer in humans. A DSB can be repaired by gene conversion, and DS.B·induced gene conversion in MAT switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows us to elucidate the origins of break-induced mutations and to study the DNA repair mechanisms. When a site specific DSB at HO cut site within MAT locus is induced, the broken DNA can be repaired by homologous recombination as a dominant repair mechanism. For this experiment, genes that are involved in DNA synthesis and post-replication repairs were deleted in the yeast strain, Spontaneous mutation rates and mutation rates of MAT switching in mlhl A, msh6d, rev 3d and pol32d were closely observed to learn the rate by which DNA fails to repair correctly. We examined types of mutation that arose during gene conversion in order to understand the DNA repair mechanisms. We ...
Mitochondrial matrix space Mg2+ is important for many aspects of nucleotide metabolism [37, 38]. Two inner mitochondrial membrane transporters, Mrs2p and Lpe10p, are needed for group II intron splicing [16, 39]. MRS2 and LPE10 have slight sequence similarity with the bacterial Mg2+transporter CorA. Assays with a fluorescent Mg2+ indicator dye indicate that Mrs2p is part of an electrophoretic mitochondrial Mg2+ influx pathway inhibited by cobalt(III)hexaammine [30]. Mitochondrial Mg2+ levels changed with the levels of Mrs2p and Lpe10p. Mitochondrial electrophoretic Mg2+ uptake was absent in an MRS2 deletion strain. Mrs2p and Lpe10p are essential for yeast growth on nonfermentable carbon sources [38]. However they cannot substitute for each other suggesting non-redundant functions. It is possible that Mrs2p or Lpe10p is responsible for the mitochondrial Mg2+ release described in this report. However, in the previous experiments Mg2+ was taken up by energized mitochondria in an Mrs2p-dependent ...
Because they are essential to protein synthesis, aaRSs offer a promising target for the development of novel drugs. Leucyl-adenylate analogs were tested for inhibition activity against LeuRS from different sources. These analogs efficiently inhibited the E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial LeuRS enzymes with low nanomolar K Is, but had no inhibitory effects on the eukaryotic S. cerevisiae cytoplasmic LeuRS enzyme ...
The effects of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal micro-flora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 2.9 x 10(8) cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY ...
Gut Fermentation Syndrome also known as Auto-Brewery Syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in modern medicine. Very few articles have been written on the syndrome and most of them are anecdotal. This article presents a case study of a 61 years old male with a well documented case of Gut Fermentation Syndrome verified with glucose and carbohydrate challenges. Stool cultures demonstrated the causative organism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The patient was treated with antifungals and a low carbohydrate diet and the syndrome resolved. Helicobacter pylori was also found and could have been a possible confounding variable although the symptoms resolved post-treatment of the S. cerevisiae.
We investigated the relationship in Saccharomyces cerevisiae between the cell cycle start function, CDC25, and two mutants defining components of the cAMP pathway. The thermolabile adenylate cyclase mutant cyr1-2(ts) is phenotypically similar to the temperature-sensitive mutant cdc25(ts) in that both mutants, when shifted to the restrictive temperature, arrest in G1 of the cell cycle and permit the initiation of meiosis and sporulation. The mutant bcy1 [a lesion resulting in a low level of regulatory (R) subunit and a high level of active, catalytic (C) subunit of the CAMP-dependent protein kinase] suppresses the temperature-sensitive phenotype of cyr1-2(ts) and confers an asporogenous phenotype. We found that cdc25(ts) complemented cyr1-2(ts), and, unlike cyr1-2(ts), was not suppressible by bcy1, demonstrating that cyr1 and CDC25 must encode different functions. Also our results indicate that CDC25 does not encode the R subunit of the CAMP-dependent protein kinase. In addition, although the cdc25(ts)
In bread making, the carbon dioxide is the more important of the two products, with the evolving gas causing the bread to rise. There is alcohol production, but the alcohol quickly evaporates on baking. In beer and wine-making, the alcohol is the important product, although the carbon dioxide may be used in beer and champagne. The same species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used in both processes, but different strains (varieties) of the fungus are used. The bread making strain, for example, is genetically selected to produce more carbon dioxide and much less alcohol, while the opposite is true of the spirit-making strains. Thousands of years ago, naturally occurring yeasts "contaminated" some flour or drinks, and the results were pleasant for the people using the contaminated products. Eventually, people learned how to cultivate these fungi on purpose (even before they knew what they were) and to select the strains that would work best in their process using whatever materials were common in ...
Following transcription, mRNA is processed, packaged into messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particles, and transported through nuclear pores (NPCs) to the cytoplasm. At the NPC cytoplasmic face, Dbp5 mediates mRNP remodeling and mRNA export factor dissociation, releasing transcripts for translation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conserved poly(A) RNA-binding protein, Nab2, facilitates NPC targeting of transcripts and also modulates poly(A) tail length. Dbp5 removes Nab2 from mRNPs at the cytoplasmic face of the pore and, importantly, a Nab2 RNA-binding mutant suppresses the thermosensitive rat8-2 (dbp5) mutant. GFD1 is a multicopy suppressor of rat8-2 (dbp5), and Gfd1 interacts physically with both Dbp5 and the Nab2 N-terminal domain (Nab2-N). Here, we present a structural and functional analysis of the Gfd1/Nab2-N interaction. Crystallography, supported by solution NMR, shows that Gfd1 residues 126-150 form an alpha-helix when bound to Nab2-N. Engineered Nab2-N and Gfd1 mutants that inhibit ...