Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination among young children in Belgium. Design Prospective case-control study. Setting Random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals, February 2008 to June 2010. Participants 215 children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 276 age and hospital matched controls. All children were of an eligible age to have received rotavirus vaccination (that is, born after 1 October 2006 and aged ≥14 weeks). Main outcome measure Vaccination status of children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and matched controls. Results 99 children (48%) admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis and 244 (91%) controls had received at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine ( ...
Results: A similar dramatic decline (,60% compared with the median of previous seasons) occurred in the rates of cases of both CA (P , .0001) rotavirus hospitalizations and HA (P , .01) rotavirus infections in the 2007-2008 season compared with previous seasons, whereas the rates of CA and HA influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, respectively, remained stable. Improvements in hand-hygiene compliance did not correlate with a reduction in the transmission rate of rotavirus in the hospital. Both CA and HA rotavirus rates remained much lower in the 2008 -2009 than in the 2003-2007 seasons. ...
Rotavirus infection has been reported to be responsible for the majority of severe diarrhea in children under-5-years-old in Indonesia. Breast milk is considered to give protection against rotavirus infection. Increasing breastfeeding promotion programs could be an alternative target to reduce the incidence of rotavirus diarrhea. This study aims to investigate the effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on cost-effectiveness of rotavirus immunization in Indonesia, focusing on breastfeeding education and support interventions. An age-structured cohort model was developed for the 2011 Indonesia birth cohort. We compared four interventions in scenarios: (i) base-case (I 0 ) reflecting the current situation for the population of under-5-years-old, (ii) with an additional breastfeeding education intervention (I 1 ), (iii) with a support intervention on initiation and duration (I 2 )
A Retrospective, Hospital-Based Study to Determine the Incidence of Rotavirus Hospitalizations among Children Less than 5 Years of Age over a 10-Year Period(2001-2011)in Akita Prefecture, JapanA Retrospective, Hospital-Based Study to Determine the Incidence of Rotavirus Hospitalizations among Children Less than 5 Years of Age over a 10-Year Period(2001-2011)in Akita Prefecture, Japan ...
Each year rotavirus gastroenteritis results in thousands of paediatric hospitalisations and primary care visits in the Netherlands. While two vaccines against rotavirus are registered, routine immunisation of infants has not yet been implemented. Existing cost-effectiveness studies showed inconsistent results for these vaccines because of lack of consensus on the impact. We aimed to investigate which factors had a major impact on cost-effectiveness and were primarily responsible for the large differences in previously estimated cost-effectiveness ratios. Based on updated data on health outcomes and cost estimates, we re-assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine paediatric rotavirus vaccination within the National Immunization Program for the Netherlands. Two consensus meetings were organised with national and international experts in the field to achieve consensus and resolve potential controversies. It was estimated that rotavirus vaccination in the Netherlands could avert 34,214 cases of rotavirus
Rotavirus is a severe form of viral gastroenteritis that causes a stomach infection, accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, fever and dehydration. This virus is highly contagious and can easily spread to others when a child gets sick. The duration of this virus is longer, and more likely to lead to hospitalization, than other forms of gastroenteritis. Thats why the immunization program was started in 2011.. Lead author of the research study is Dr. Sarah Wilson, a medical epidemiologist at PHO and an adjunct scientist at ICES. Wilsons team looked at data from 2005-2013 that involved more than 864,000 hospitalization and emergency room records for rotavirus infections and acute gastroenteritis in Ontario, focusing on the time before the introduction of the provinces rotavirus vaccine program and comparing it to the time after the program was in place.. The researchers expected a significant drop in the numbers of infants and toddlers who needed hospitalization and emergency room care after being ...
Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling, raising the question as to whether other host factors ... read more participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown. Here we uncover and mechanistically characterize the NLR Nlrp9b that is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and restricts rotavirus infection. Our data show that, via RNA helicase Dhx9, Nlrp9b recognizes short double-stranded RNA stretches and forms inflammasome complexes with the adaptor proteins Asc and caspase-1 to promote the maturation of interleukin (Il)-18 and gasdermin D (Gsdmd)-induced pyroptosis. ...
Duan Z-J, Liu N, Yang S-H, Zhang J, Sun L-W, Tang J-Y, Jin Y, Du Z-Q, Xu J, Wu Q-B, Tong Z-L, Gong S-T, Qian Y, Ma J-M, Liao X-C, Widdowson M-A, Jiang B, Fang Z-Y. Hospital-Based Surveillance of Rotavirus Diarrhea in the Peoples Republic of China, August 2003-July 2007. J Infect Dis. 2009; 200(Supp 1): S167-173 ...
This program discusses the diagnosis and treatment of rotavirus infections. Information about what causes these infections and what you can do to treat rotavirus is also included.
Activation of the innate immune system with the bacterial protein flagellin could prevent and cure rotavirus infection, which is among the most common causes of severe diarrhea, says a Georgia State University research team that described the method as a novel means to prevent and treat viral infection.
Results show that S boulardii diminished the time of diarrhoea by 31.4% and shortened time with fever by 73% (table 3). Children receiving the multiple species product tended to have less time with diarrhoea and no patients vomited after the treatment was started. In previous studies that administered multiple species products similar to the one we used, other authors found a rather more pronounced effect, 30 hours [14, 19] and 30-36 hours reduction in diarrhoeal duration [20-23], in comparison with the 26 hours reduction we found. Infants hospitalized in our study were admitted with severe diarrhoea and had intense clinical manifestations in comparison to outpatients with rotavirus diarrhoea; this could explain the less intense results obtained. Although not significant, we consider relevant the trend to diminish time of diarrhoea in the group receiving the multiple probiotic products, because decreasing severity of diarrhoea may help reducing the nutritional impact of the diarrhoeal ...
Previous studies on the serological diagnosis of rotavirus infection have utilised locally produced antibodies. In this study we have compared two commercially produced assays, an ELISA (Rotazyme, Abbott) and a newly developed assay--solid phase aggregation of coupled erythrocytes (SPACE) (Wellcome Research Laboratories), with electron microscopy (EM). The SPACE test appeared less sensitive than EM. The ELISA was shown to be as sensitive as EM but more versatile. Our experience suggests that the ELISA could be successfully incorporated into the routine of any diagnostic laboratory.. ...
We have previously reported that during the course of rotavirus infection of MA104 cells, there was a progressive increase in membrane permeability to molecules of increasing size. At early times after initiation of viral protein synthesis (4 to 6 h postinfection), permeability to monovalent cations such as Na+ and K+, as well as Ca2+, increased. Later, after 8 h postinfection, molecules which are normally impermeative in an uninfected cell, such as ethidium bromide and trypan blue, entered (17, 18).. The permeability pathway for Ca2+ in infected cells was studied by using step changes of extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Studies using fluorescent indicators have shown that the initial transient increase in [Ca2+]i following the extracellular Ca2+ change reflects the influx of Ca2+ from the external compartment (31). The fast increase in [Ca2+]i in response to Ca2+addition appeared to be directly related to the influx pathway, since it varied with the driving force for Ca2+ entry. The elevation ...
Little, L M. and Shadduck, J A., "Pathogenesis of rotavirus infection in mice." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1488 ...
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced today a new license agreement aimed at helping to prevent hundreds of thousands of deaths annually from rotavirus diarrhea in children living in developing countries.
ECDC has published an Expert Opinion on rotavirus vaccination in infancy. The paper provides EU/EEA Member States with relevant scientific information on burden of rotavirus disease, vaccine effectiveness and safety, and cost-effectiveness studies to support the decision-making process on the possible introduction of routine vaccination of children against rotavirus gastroenteritis. ...
Rotavirus is a highly contagious virus that causes inflammation of the intestines and stomach in many animals and in humans. Infection can cause mild to severe diarrhea and vomiting, dehydration, abdominal cramps and pain, and fever in cats. - Wag! (formerly Vetary)
An oral vaccine for diarrhea reduced hospitalizations of children with rotavirus by 70 percent in Philadelphia, saved money and prevented infections among unvaccinated children, researchers reported.. click & see. Three reports presented to a meeting of infectious disease specialists showed the benefits of the vaccine, which prevents the most common cause of severe diarrhea.. In one report, Irini Daskalaki of Drexel University College of Medicine reported that hospitals in North Philadelphia had seen a 70 percent drop in rotavirus-associated hospitalizations since rotavirus vaccinations began in 2006.. The number of babies aged 6 to 11 months admitted to the hospital with rotavirus plummeted by 94 percent, Daskalaki told a meeting of the American Society of Microbiology and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.. "The extent of the decrease in cases … is unprecedented and greater than any variation in numbers previously observed, suggesting that the vaccine played an important role," ...
This study features several methodological strengths. The model simulates clinical events and use of health services in a temporally explicit fashion that incorporates the changing effects of each individuals age, infection history, and vaccination history on infection risk and response to infection. Vaccine efficacy is adjusted to account for distributions of strains specific to India. Monthly probabilities of infection are based on hazard rates calculated from a meticulously executed birth cohort study, which captured even asymptomatic infections. Use of such complete epidemiological data in a model of rotavirus infection is important given the role of asymptomatic infections in reducing risk and severity of future infections. In addition, the study benefited from the availability of recent cost data.47. We found no previously published analyses that examined the impact of rotavirus vaccination specifically in India. A study by Podewils et al published in 2005 examined the cost effectiveness ...
studying the theme of "intestinal flu: symptoms and treatment of children," we must also be sure to talk about what are the causes of the disease in children.The virus affects the mucosal tissues of the intestine was a baby.The mechanism of its spread - fecal-oral.And this occurs, as already mentioned above, by contaminated food or water.. If its food, it is enough to touch the infected person to transmit the infection.If a baby takes from the hands of an adult contaminated food, rotavirus infection is not exactly avoid him.The same applies to water.It is important to remember that small children should be given only boiled water (in this case, rotavirus infection is minimized).. ...
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Dr. Raff responded: Generally not. Similar to other viruses which infect the GI tract, but the |a href="/topics/nausea" track_data="{
An innovative mechanism that the innate immune system uses to control viral infections has been uncovered by researchers at the University Medical Centers in Mainz and Freiburg. Central to this is the discovery that two different but related elements of the immune system can act together in concert to fight, for example, rotavirus infections.
Two oral rotavirus vaccines are available in Australia, and their efficacy and safety in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis have been extensively evaluated.33-39 Both are live attenuated vaccines administered orally to infants, but the component vaccine viruses differ. The human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline), is a live attenuated vaccine containing one strain of attenuated human rotavirus (G1P1A[8] strain). Rotarix protects against non-G1 serotypes on the basis of other shared epitopes. A pentavalent vaccine, RotaTeq (CSL Limited/Merck & Co Inc), contains five human-bovine rotavirus reassortants with the human serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and P1A[8] and the bovine serotypes G6 and P7.. In middle- and high-income countries, a course of vaccination with either Rotarix or RotaTeq prevents rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity in approximately 70% of recipients and prevents severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and rotavirus hospitalisation for 85 to 100% of recipients for up to 3 ...
Background. Rotavirus vaccines have been introduced in many low-income African countries including Malawi in 2012. Despite early evidence of vaccine impact, determining persistence of protection beyond infancy, the utility of the vaccine against specific rotavirus genotypes, and effectiveness in vulnerable subgroups is important. Methods. We compared rotavirus prevalence in diarrheal stool and hospitalization incidence before and following rotavirus vaccine introduction in Malawi. Using case-control analysis, we derived vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the second year of life and for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed and stunted children. Results. Rotavirus prevalence declined concurrent with increasing vaccine coverage, and in 2015 was 24% compared with prevaccine mean baseline in 1997-2011 of 32%. Since vaccine introduction, population rotavirus hospitalization incidence declined in infants by 54.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.8-68.8), but did not fall in older children. Comparing ...
A 2009 review estimated that vaccination against rotavirus would prevent about 45% of deaths due to rotavirus gastroenteritis, or about 228,000 deaths annually worldwide. At US$5 per dose, the estimated cost per life saved was $3,015, $9,951 and $11,296 in low-, lower-middle-, and upper-middle-income countries, respectively.[8] Safety and efficacy trials in Africa and Asia found that the vaccines dramatically reduced severe disease among infants in developing countries, where a majority of rotavirus-related deaths occur.[9][10] A 2019 Cochrane review concluded that RV1, RV5, and Rotavac vaccines are safe and are effective at preventing diarrhea.[3] Rotavirus vaccines are licensed in more than 100 countries, and more than 80 countries have introduced routine rotavirus vaccination.[11] The incidence and severity of rotavirus infections has declined significantly in countries that have acted on the recommendation to introduce the rotavirus vaccine.[12] In Mexico, which in 2006 was among the first ...
Seasonality of rotavirus infection. We examined the seasonal patterns of disease by plotting the monthly detection of rotavirus in the studies that provided detailed data on rotavirus hospitalization by month (Figure 2). The 10 studies that were identified spanned latitudes from 10° north to 35° south. In most countries, rotavirus was detected throughout the year. The only locations where rotavirus was not detected for 2 consecutive months were Juiz de Fora and Porto Alegre in Brazil. We examined the hypothesis that the seasonality of rotaviruses was distinct in countries located in temperate versus tropical climatic zones. The five studies from cities in the tropics (between 23.5° north and south of the equator) all had winter peaks not unlike the five studies from cities in the temperate zone. As expected, the winter peaks in the northern hemisphere occurred roughly between November and February, while the peaks in the southern hemisphere occurred between May and August.. DISCUSSION. In ...
Rotavirus, the most common diarrheal pathogen in children worldwide, causes approximately one third of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and 800,000 deaths per year. Because natural infection reduces the incidence and severity of subsequent episodes, rotavirus diarrhea might be controlled through vaccination. Serotype-specific immunity may play a role in protection from disease. Tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV) (which contains a rhesus rotavirus with serotype G3 specificity and reassortant rhesus-human rotaviruses with G1, G2, and G4 specificity) provides coverage against the four common serotypes of human rotavirus. In clinical trials in industrialized countries, RRV-TV conferred 49% to 68% protection against any rotavirus diarrhea and 61% to 100% protection against severe disease. This vaccine was licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on August 31, 1998, and should be cost-effective in reducing diarrheal diseases in industrialized countries. The vaccine&
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) now recommends a rotavirus vaccine be included in the lineup of routine immunizations given to all infants.. The RotaTeq vaccine has been found to prevent approximately 75% of cases of rotavirus infection and 98% of severe cases. Another vaccine, Rotarix, also is available and is effective in preventing rotavirus infection. Your doctor will have the most current information about these vaccines.. A previous rotavirus vaccine was taken off the market in 1999 because it was linked to an increased risk for intussusception, a type of bowel obstruction, in young infants. Neither RotaTeq nor Rotarix have been found to have this increased risk.. Washing hands well and often is the best way to limit the spread of rotavirus infection. Kids who are infected should stay home from childcare groups until their diarrhea has ended. In hospitals, rotavirus outbreaks are controlled by isolating infected patients and following strict hand-washing procedures.. ...
Knowledge of rotavirus epidemiology is necessary to make informed decisions about vaccine introduction and to evaluate vaccine impact. During April 2010-March 2012, rotavirus surveillance was conducted among 9,745 children <5 years of age in 14 hospitals/health centers in Niger, where rotavirus vaccine has not been introduced. Study participants had acute watery diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration, and 20% of the children were enrolled in a nutrition program. Of the 9,745 children, 30.6% were rotavirus positive. Genotyping of a subset of positive samples showed a variety of genotypes during the first year, although G2P[4] predominated. G12 genotypes, including G12P[8], which has emerged as a predominant strain in western Africa, represented >80% of isolates during the second year. Hospitalization and death rates and severe dehydration among rotavirus case-patients did not differ during the 2 years. The emergence of G12P[8] warrants close attention to the characteristics of
January 2014, Volume 33 - Supplement 1. Rotavirus Disease Burden in Africa. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children under 5 years of age worldwide and is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity. Africa has one of the greatest burdens of rotavirus disease globally with over half of all rotavirus deaths occurring in African children. Two live, oral, attenuated rotavirus vaccines are licensed and available for use. These vaccines are starting to be introduced in countries throughout Africa and are poised to have a substantial impact across the continent. This supplement highlights data on rotavirus disease burden in Africa prior to rotavirus vaccine introduction. As the vaccines are rolled out across Africa, these studies, coupled with ongoing sentinel surveillance, will provide important data against which the impact of rotavirus vaccine can be measure. ...
Objective: To determine the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of complete and partial vaccination with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in the prevention of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations and emergency department visits during
Rotavirus is a contagious disease caused by any one of three strains of rotavirus. Children who get infected may have severe diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and stomach pain. They can become severely dehydrated (loss of body fluids) and need to be hospitalized and can even die.. Infants and young children are most likely to get rotavirus; however, older children and adults can also get the disease. Among U.S. children, those at highest risk of getting the disease include those in child care centers or other settings with many young children. The most severe rotavirus disease occurs in unvaccinated children between 3-35 months old. Older adults and adults with certain risk factors are also at higher risk of getting rotavirus disease.. Rotavirus is easily spread. The virus is in the feces of infected people, and it can be spread by hands, diapers, toys, changing tables, or doorknobs that have a small amount of feces on them. Rotavirus can live on objects for several days unless it is killed ...
Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in 4 Regions in Brazil: A Hospital-Based Surveillance Study. Munford, Veridiana; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; de Souza, Eloisa Correa; Cardoso, Debora Morais; Cardoso, Divina das Dores de Paula; Borges, Ana Maria Tavares; da Costa, Paulo Sergio Sucasas; Melgaço, Irene Angela Melo; Rosa, Humberto; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Moreira Jr.,, Edson Duarte; Santana, Ciria; El Khoury, Antoine; Ikedo, Fabio; Rácz, Maria Lucia // Journal of Infectious Diseases;11/2/2009, Vol. 200 Issue S1, pS106 Background. Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Knowledge of rotavirus genotypes is important for vaccination strategies. Methods. During 2005-2006, rotavirus surveillance studies were conducted in São Paulo, Salvador, Goiânia, and Porto Alegre, Brazil. Stool samples... ...
As with many other viruses, the initial cell attachment of rotaviruses, which are the major causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis, is mediated by interactions with specific cellular glycans. The distally located VP8* domain of the rotavirus spike protein VP4 (ref. 5) mediates such interactions. The existing paradigm is that sialidase-sensitive animal rotavirus strains bind to glycans with terminal sialic acid (Sia), whereas sialidase-insensitive human rotavirus strains bind to glycans with internal Sia such as GM1 (ref. 3). Although the involvement of Sia in the animal strains is firmly supported by crystallographic studies, it is not yet known how VP8* of human rotaviruses interacts with Sia and whether their cell attachment necessarily involves sialoglycans. Here we show that VP8* of a human rotavirus strain specifically recognizes A-type histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) using a glycan array screen comprised of 511 glycans, and that virus infectivity in HT-29 cells is abrogated by ...
This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, summarizes a study that assessed vaccine effectiveness of RotaTeq (RV5; 3 doses) and Rotarix (RV1; 2 doses) at reducing rotavirus acute gastroenteritis inpatient and emergency department (ED) visits in US children. Results showed that RV5 and RV1 were 84 percent and 70 percent effective, respectively, against rotavirus-associated ED visits and hospitalizations combined. Therefore, both RV5 and RV1 significantly protected against medically attended rotavirus gastroenteritis in this assessment. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free access to journal articles.). Author: Payne DC, Boom JA, Staat MA, et al. Published: 2013 ...
Rotavirus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/rotavirus/index.html. Updated August 12, 2016. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus. Healthy Children-American Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/vaccine-preventable-diseases/Pages/Rotavirus.aspx. Updated February 12, 2016. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus gastroenteritis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114180/Rotavirus-gastroenteritis. Updated November 16, 2017. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus vaccine access and delivery. PATH website. Available at: http://sites.path.org/rotavirusvaccine. Published February 23, 2017. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus vaccine live. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T356344/Rotavirus-Vaccine-Live. Updated December 6, 2017. Accessed December 21, 2017.. 12/14/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polypeptide specificity of antiviral serum antibodies in children naturally infected with human rotavirus. AU - Brussow, H.. AU - Offit, P. A.. AU - Gerna, G.. AU - Bruttin, A.. AU - Sidoti, J.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Reassortants between serotype 3 SA11 and serotype 6 NCDV rotaviruses were used to determine the relative amounts of serum-neutralizing antibody to VP4 and VP7 of serotype 3 SA11 rotavirus in children after natural rotavirus exposure. Sera from Ecuadorian children of a population-based study and sera from children of a hospital-based study in Germany (excluding diarrhea patients) demonstrated high titers of VP7-specific but only low titers of VP4-specific antibodies. In contrast, paired sera from German children hospitalized with a symptomatic primary rotavirus gastroenteritis demonstrated a titer increase to VP4 more frequently than to VP7 protein by neutralization test and immunoblotting. For these rotavirus patients, we provided, previously, direct evidence ...
tab] [tab_item title="About Rotovirus"] Rotavirus is a contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines). Symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. Infants and young children are most likely to get rotavirus disease. They can become severely dehydrated and need to be hospitalized and can even die. Rotavirus was the leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children in the United States before rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2006. Prior to the vaccine, almost all U.S. children were infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Globally, rotavirus is still the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children. In 2008, rotavirus caused an estimated 453,000 deaths worldwide in children younger than 5 years of age.. [/tab_item] [tab_item title="Information for Patients ...
Each year, rotavirus kills more than 200,000 children and hospitalizes millions more. Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrheal hospitalizations and deaths among children worldwide. Development of a rotavirus vaccine has been a global health priority for many years, and with two vaccines currently on the market and several more under development, the promise of prevention is now becoming reality in several parts of the world.. Sabin is working on numerous fronts to address the burden of rotavirus and facilitate the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine across the globe. In 2011, Sabin, in partnership with the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, launched the ROTA Council, a rotavirus advocacy initiative, to call attention to this disease and its impact. The ROTA Council, which is comprised of a team of technical experts from around the world, works to provide the scientific and technical evidence that policymakers need to accelerate the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. Its ...
To the Editor We read with interest the Research Letter of Perrett et al on the association of rotavirus vaccination with the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children in Australia. Comparing the observed or model-based incidence of T1D before and after the introduction of the oral rotavirus vaccination to the Australian National Immunisation Program in 2007, Perrett et al provided evidence t...
by revere, cross-posted at Effect Measure. Earaches, respiratory infections and diarrhea are the bane of existence for young parents. All are potentially the result of contagious agents. The most common agent for diarrhea in infants and children is rotavirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, that CDC estimates causes 400,000 doctor visits, 200,000 emergency room visits and 55.000 to 70,000 hospitalizations each year in the under 5 year old age group. Infection produces significant immunity, and while there are seven different serotypes (A through G), 90% of infections are serotype A. In addition to diarrhea, rotavirus infections cause nausea, vomiting and fever, often with dehydration that can be fatal to an infant. By the time a child turns five, he or she is likely to have had a rotavirus infection. So this virus causes a lot of sickness and even more dollars. A recent estimate is that each hospitalization costs about $3600.. If rotavirus infection could be prevented by a vaccine it would have a ...
The two rotavirus vaccines on the market are not cost-effective for routine immunisation, a Health Protection Agency analysis reveals.. Researchers concluded the vaccines would have to become extremely competitively priced before they would be suitable for the UK childhood schedule.. The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation recently decided to set up a sub-group to examine rotavirus vaccination, but the new study suggests they are unlikely to recommend it until prices come down.. Researchers found that a programme using Rotateq, at £25 a dose, would cost £79,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained, and using Rotatrix at £35 a dose would cost £61,000 per QALY.. The NICE outer threshold for cost-effectiveness is £30,000 per QALY.. Dr Mark Jit, an author on the study and health economist at the HPA, said: Our analysis indicates routine rotavirus vaccination can have a substantial impact on the short-term morbidity burden. However, it would only be cost effective in the UK if ...
GPs in England and Wales begin vaccinating infants against rotavirus from today, as another of the changes to this years routine immunisation schedule gets underway.
We have determined the nucleotide sequence of genes 6 and 10 of porcine rotavirus YM. When the amino acid sequences of VP6 and NS28, the protein products of genes 6 and 10 respectively, were compared with other published sequences it was evident that the proteins of human rotavirus Wa have the highest degree of identity with rotavirus YM. This is in contrast with the observation that when other proteins of these two strains have been compared they have been found to be among the most distantly related pairs of rotavirus strains. This observation is in accordance with the proposed receptor-ligand interaction between NS28 and VP6 during virus morphogenesis, and suggests a specificity in the interaction between these two proteins. In addition, when rotavirus YM VP6, which belongs to subgroup I, was compared with the VP6 proteins of rotavirus strains having different subgroup specificities, it was found to be more closely related to subgroup II rather than subgroup I proteins. This finding allowed us to
This protocol posting deals with objectives and outcome measures of the primary phase at one month post-Dose 2. This Post Marketing Surveillance (PMS) will collect safety data on the use of human rotavirus vaccine in at least 3000 evaluable infants in Korea. This study involves male or female infants from the age of 6 weeks at the time of the first vaccination. The vaccination course must be completed by the age of 24 weeks ...
rotavirus; gastro; gastroenteritis; ; Rotavirus infections are the most common causes of infectious diarrhoea (gastroenteritis) in young children worldwide. In Australia the number of young children getting rotavirus infections is now less than several years ago because the immunisation of babies is very effective. Immunisation (given by mouth) is available free to babies up to 6 months old. It is given with other vaccines at 6 weeks and 4 months.. ...
Jennifer E. Cortes, M www.edmdrx.com .D., Aaron T. Curns, M.P.H., Jacqueline Electronic. Tate, Ph.D., Margaret M. Cortese, M.D., Manish M. Patel, M.D., Fangjun Zhou, Ph.D., and Umesh D. Parashar, M.B., B.S., M.P.H.: Rotavirus Vaccine and HEALTHCARE Utilization for Diarrhea in U.S. Children Before February 2006, when routine vaccination of infants in the usa with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was recommended, rotavirus diarrhea caused around 400,000 visits to physicians offices, 200,000 emergency department visits, 55,000 hospitalizations, and 20 to 60 deaths yearly among children under 5 years of age in the United States, for an annual total medical cost of around $300 million.1,2 RV5 is administered in children in three dosages orally, one each provided at 2, 4, and six months old.3,4 In trials, use of RV5 reduced the incidence of rotavirus-related hospitalizations or emergency department visits by more than 90 percent and outpatient visits by 84 percent.5,6 Severe rotavirus disease has ...
In the United States, rotavirus infection outbreaks are common during the winter and spring months. Outbreaks are particularly problematic in childcare centers and childrens hospitals because the infection spreads so easily.. Rotavirus symptoms can last from 3-8 days and include fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and frequent, watery diarrhea. A cough and runny nose may also occur. Some rotavirus infections cause few or no symptoms at all, especially in adults.. The diarrhea from a rotavirus infection can be so severe that it quickly leads to dehydration, especially in infants and young children. If dehydration is severe, intravenous (IV) fluids given in the hospital can bring the bodys fluid and salt levels back to normal.. ...