Root resorption is an unwanted effect of orthodontic tooth movement. Analysis of dentine proteins in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a potentially safer method of quantifying root resorption compared with conventional radiographic methods. This study aimed to identify and quantify the dentine-specific matrix protein, dentine sialoprotein (DSP), released into GCF during physiological root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement. GCF was collected using micropipettes from 50 second primary molar sites undergoing physiological root resorption in 9- to 14-year olds [coronal group (Rc) with advanced resorption (n = 33) and apical group (Ra) with minimal resorption (n = 17)] and 20 subjects aged 8-14 years with erupted mandibular second premolars (control group). In addition, GCF was collected from 20 patients undergoing treatment with fixed appliances at two time points, immediately prior to orthodontic intervention (T0) and 12 weeks following commencement of fixed appliance therapy (T1). GCF ...
External apical root resorption is a common phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. The factors relevant to root resorption can be divided into biological and mechanical, with some of them associated with an increased risk of root resorption during orthodontic treatment. As far as mechanical factors are concerned, extensive tooth movement, type of movement (eg, root torque and intrusion), and magnitude and duration of orthodontic forces have been highly correlated to root resorption. There is no consensus, nor are there other clinical studies regarding, specific evidence of how jiggling forces can affect the pattern and amount of root resorption. In this study, we investigated how the application of buccopalatal jiggling movement with light and heavy forces affected root surfaces and how the quantitative properties of resorption craters were altered, thus determining whether different buccopalatal jiggling force levels have different adverse effects on root resorption and quantified ...
Learn more about how to address invasive cervical root resorption, which is also known as extra-canal invasive root resorption, and why recognition and...
A common goal that permeates the practice of orthodontics has been the determination of the optimal force magnitude, which results in the highest rate of tooth movement with minimal iatrogenic side effects. Still, orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is an undesirable risk of orthodontic treatment. OIIRR is a biomechanical phenomenon: an association between OIIRR and biologic effects has been shown. It is known that the biologic factors are intrinsic to the patient and, until now, have not been able to be modified. Thus, it is essential to identify how the biomechanical orthodontic treatment factors influence OIIRR to minimize the risks and the severity of this phenomenon. Orthodontic tooth movement involves a series of biologic reactions after force application, which makes teeth vulnerable to root resorption. Already in the 1930s, Schwarz proposed that the optimal force for tooth movement, characterized by maximal cellular response with maintenance of the vitality ...
Root resorptions are assessed and diagnosed using different radiographical techniques. A comparison of the ability to assess resorptions on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) radiographs is, hitherto, lacking. The aims of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of 2D (periapical radiographs, PA and panoramic radiograph, PAN) and 3D (cone beam computed tomography, CBCT) radiographic techniques in measuring slanted root resorptions compared to the true resorptions, a histological gold standard, in addition to a comparison of all the radiographic techniques to each other. Radiographs (CBCT, PA, and PAN), in addition to histological sections, of extracted deciduous canines from thirty-four patients were analyzed. Linear measurements of the most and least resorbed side of the root, i.e.,
Figures 5-10: 5. Full-thickness flap divulsion. 6. Disinfection of the surgical cavity with PDT. 7. Radiographic follow-up of the right central incisor (12-month control). 8. Clinical aspect of the left lateral incisor after curettage. The presence of a bony defect surrounding the tooth and apical root resorption were observed (arrow). 9. Filling of the surgical cavity with calcium sulfate. 10. Radiographic follow-up of the left lateral incisor (12-month control. According to some authors,2,4,14 peri-radicular surgery success rates have significantly evolved over the past few decades, with the improvement of retrofilling materials, ultrasonic preparation, and the use of magnification during the endodontic procedures. Periradicular surgery also offers the opportunity to retrieve tissue for histologic and microbiologic analysis,2 contributing to the diagnosis. Nevertheless, Lieblich2 explains that in cases with an expected poor success rate, such as the presence of severe periodontal bone loss ...
Tooth-root resorption, also known as shortening or erosion,(TRR) is one of the adverse outcomes of dental trauma, orthodontic tooth movement and dental replantation/transplantation. Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is somewhat different from other types of TRR. The treatment protocol of teeth diagnosed with severe OIIRR or other forms of TRR always involves root canal treatment or extraction of these teeth in severe cases and prosthetic replacement. Sometimes teeth with minor TRR may stay for an extended period of time with compromised bite functions. Although several trials have been proposed to minimize or prevent TRR or OIIRR, none is capable of being used in clinical situation to treat TRR or OIIRR in humans except for Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS). However, research examining the use of LIPUS to treat OIIRR has been limited to simple orthodontic tooth tipping. In reality, tooth movement is a combination of different types of tooth movements, namely ...
The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of root resorption in relation to different magnitudes of continuous force during experimental tooth movement using nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy wire. Four force magnitudes of 0.8, 1.6, 4, and 8 g were applied to the upper first molars of 75 male Wistar rats (300-320 g, 10-week-old) for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days and compared with a control group without an orthodontic appliance. Light microscopic images of the compressed periodontal ligament (PDL) were processed by computer, and the ratio of the root resorption lacuna length to root surface length without the lacuna was analysed and statistically compared using Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison honestly significant difference test.. The experimental groups with 4 and 8 g force showed undermining bone resorption with degenerating tissue and marked root resorption, the 1.6 g group showed only root resorption, while the 0.8 g group was similar to the control. Comparison of the ratios showed that the ...
About the incidence of ARR in patients treated with aligners, there is only few reported evidence [3, 16]. Therefore, this is the first study, investigating the incidence and severity of ARR in patients with a fulfilled aligner therapy.. ARR of upper incisors during treatment with aligners in a 25-year-old patient were described in a case report [16]. Barbagallo et al. [17] investigated the effects of removable thermoplastic appliances (TA) vs. light or heavy forces with fixed appliances in premolars, which were afterwards extracted. They found that teeth, which experienced orthodontic tooth movement, had significantly more RR than the control teeth. TAs had similar RR as light (25 g) orthodontic forces [17]. But the treatment duration was only eight weeks and only sagittal movements were conducted. In the animal experimental study of Sombuntham et al. [18] clear plastic appliances were inserted but bonded to the residual dentition in rats. Their findings indicated initial superficial RR similar ...
Bexter M. Yang, DDS, MS - Root Dilacerations - Below are 2 cases of moderate to severe root dilacerations. It is thought that root dilacerations may be cause by trauma, (be it infection or physical) to the forming tooth bud - Endodontist Cupertino CA - 10251 Torre Ave Suite 100,
Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiologic Study of Tooth Root Resorption in a case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma. AU - Konouchi, Hironobu. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Article. VL - 40. SP - 129. EP - 137. JO - Dental Radiolosy. JF - Dental Radiolosy. IS - 2. ER - ...
Baby (primary) teeth look and function much like their permanent counterparts. Besides having a visible crown, they also have roots that maintain contact with the jawbone. But there are some differences, the biggest one being the normal process whereby primary tooth roots dissolve or, in dental terms, resorb. Root resorption eventually leads to the tooth coming loose to make way for the permanent tooth.. Adult tooth roots can also resorb - but its decidedly not normal. If adult root resorption isnt promptly treated, it could also lead to tooth loss - but there wont be an incoming tooth to take its place.. Although it can begin inside a tooth, adult root resorption usually begins on the outside. One type, external cervical resorption (ECR), begins around the neck-like area of the tooth not far below the gum line. Its initial signs are small pink spots where the tooth enamel has eroded; those pink cells within the space are doing the damage.. We dont fully understand the mechanism behind ECR, ...
Synonyms for apical root in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for apical root. 213 synonyms for root: stem, tuber, rhizome, radix, radicle, source, cause, heart, bottom, beginnings, base, seat, occasion, seed, foundation, origin, core.... What are synonyms for apical root?
The participants who fulfilled the above criteria were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups. The statistician on this project used a computer-generated random numbers (Rand function, Microsoft, Excel 2011) for allocation of the sequence. This ensured even distributions of the participants in all the groups. Computer generated random numbers also randomized the right and the left sides of the maxilla for selecting the experimental side.. Sample size From previous studies, it was inferred that a mean colony forming unit (CFU) unit difference of approximately one log (standard deviation (SD) = approximately 1) would result in a clinically significant increase in S.mutans counts. Therefore the sample size of 15 participants per group, at α = 0.05, yielded a statistical power of approximately 0.80 for this study. To account for a 10-25% patient drop out and data loss due to other unavoidable circumstances, we will enroll 68 patients for this study.. Specific aim #1: Measuring the ...
Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats and courses we offer Dental Implantology, fixed orthodontics, rotary endodontics,General dentistry. and various online dental courses having best faculty of world wide repute. ...
Signaling between osteoclasts (the cells that resorb bone and teeth) and osteoblasts (the cells that form bone) regulates normal and pathological bone and root...
Although orthodontry is one of the safest possible medical procedures around, it is important for patients to know that no medical procedure is entirely risk free.
This study was performed to investigate the effect of age on the efficiency of orthodontic tooth movement based on critical literature reviews, studies on a standardized orthodontic animal model and a non-invasive clinical investigation. A systematic review was performed on the optimum force for orthodontic tooth movement. It appeared that no evidence about the optimal force level in orthodontics could be extracted from literature. Therefore, a mathematic model that was developed to describe the relation between the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the magnitude of the applied force. The results showed that the maximum rates of tooth movement in humans and in dogs are very similar. A threshold for force magnitude that would switch on tooth movement could not be defined. As there are general drawbacks in literature using rat as a model for experimental tooth movement, a newly designed experimental appliance for tooth movement in rats was proposed and evaluated. This rat model was used then ...
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ibuprofen, a conventional NSAID, and celebrex, a COX-2 specific inhibitor, on tooth movement and root resorption. Methods: 49 female wistar rats were placed into 5 groups: (1) control (no dosage), (2) high dose celebrex (80mg/kg body weight), (3) high dose ibuprofen (50 mg/kg), (4) low dose celebrex (40 mg/kg), and (5) low dose ibuprofen (25 mg/kg). Rats were anesthetized by IP injection of Phenobarbital (0.1 mg/gm body weight), and a force of 80 grams was applied to the maxillary left first molars using a nickel titanium closed-coil spring. Tissue samples analyzed by light microscopy, and areas of resorption were quantified. Results: Ibuprofen and celebrex reduced resorption compared to control. High dose celebrex caused a reduction of tooth movement. Conclusions: There is minimal advantage in using selective COX-2 inhibitors to limit resorption; however, treatment time may be lengthened ...
Looking for online definition of apical root in the Medical Dictionary? apical root explanation free. What is apical root? Meaning of apical root medical term. What does apical root mean?
INTRODUCTION: Recently, miniscrews have been used to provide anchorage during orthodontic treatment, especially for incisor intrusion. Miniscrews during incisor intrusion are commonly used in implant orthodontics. Traditionally, effective incisor intrusion has been accomplished with J-hook headgear. In this study, we compared the effect of incisor intrusion, force vector, and amount of root resorption between implant orthodontics and J-hook headgear.. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs from 8 patients in the implant group and 10 patients in the J-hook headgear group were analyzed for incisor retraction. The estimated force vector was analyzed in the horizontal and vertical directions in both groups. Root resorption was also measured on periapical radiographs.. RESULTS: In the implant group, significant reductions in overjet, overbite, maxillary incisor to palatal plane, and maxillary incisor to upper lip were observed after intrusion of the incisors. In the J-hook headgear group, ...
Incisor Root Canal prices from € 250 - Enquire for a fast quote. Free consultation. Choose from 3 Incisor Root Canal Clinics in Avezzano with 15 verified patient reviews ★ find the best one for you.
Pink spot in cervical region. Base of external cervical resorption defect feels hard (not sticky like caries). Probing causes profuse bleeding Radiographically - presents as an asymmetrical radiolucency with ragged or irregular margins in the cervical region of the ...
While traditional braces move the tooth first and allow the root to follow later, Fastbraces move the root and the tooth at the same time. Fastbraces realign the root and crown simultaneously, without resulting in root resorption. With this technology, patients report much less discomfort, and see dramatic results in about a year. In some instances, results are complete in just three months ...
Root resorption (RR) is defined as the loss of dental hard tissues because of clastic activity inside or outside of tooth the root. In the permanent dentition, RR is a pathologic event; if untreated, it might result in the ...
If Truth is Your Enemy, Then You Have a Major Marketing Problem! ~ Prof. William Proffit Interesting news this week, where dentistrytoday.com reported that OrthoAccel Technologies - the company manufacturing and marketing Acceledent; its product that the company claims speeds up orthodontic tooth movement by up to %50 - has been found to be pushing out misleading…
Summary of KRT79 expression in human tissue. Cytoplasmic expression mainly in hair external root sheath, also expressed in squamous epithelial cells.
A COMPARISON OF ROOT RESORPTION BETWEEN INVISALIGN TREATMENT AND CONTEMPORARY ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT by Brandon Fowler ________________________________________________________________ A Thesis Presented to the FACULTY OF THE USC GRADUATE SCHOOL UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree MASTER OF SCIENCE (CRANIOFACIAL BIOLOGY) May 2010 Copyright 2010 Brandon Fowler ii DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to my beautiful wife, Melissa. Without her patience, love, support, and laughter, I would not be who I am today. I could not have accomplished what I have so far without you and I look forward to the future because I have my best friend on my team. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Dr. Kurt Stormberg: Thank you for allowing me to come down to your office numerous times in order to gather all the needed records for my data collection. Thanks also to you and your staff for being so welcoming to me. This research would have not been possible without your generosity ...
Dental Traumatology 2003; 19: 175±182 Copyright # Blackwell Munksgaard 2003 Printed in Denmark. All rights reserved DENTAL TRAUMATOLOGY ISSN 1600±4469 Root resorption ^ diagnosis, classification and treatment
This article reviews the clinical behavior, histologic features, differential diagnosis, and treatment of a benign osteoblastoma. Benign osteoblastoma is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all primary bone tumors. Only 15% of osteoblastomas occur in the skull and jaw bones. The most common clinical presentation is a painful or tender swelling. A case is presented of a 21-year-old female who had noted discomfort for approximately 2 years, and the pain was not relieved by any analgesic. The choice of treatment was local excision and curettage. In this case, root resorption of the adjacent tooth, which is not a characteristic behavior of osteoblastoma, is seen ...
Biology of Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Current Concepts and Applications in Orthodontic Practice Springer | Dentistry | Jun 19 2016 | ISBN-10: 3319266071 | 164
Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement are considered regional reactions. However, how systemic immune responses are involved in this regional reaction remains unclear. In this study, we explored the systemic effects of orthodontic force by focusing on the mononuclear phagocyte system. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the percentage of inflammatory monocytes, in peripheral blood and in the monocyte reservoir spleen, decreased on days 1 and 3 and then recovered on day 7 after force application. Along with the systemic decrease of inflammatory monocyte percentage, the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts increased in the compression side of the periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. Systemic transfusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled inflammatory monocytes showed recruitment of these monocytes to the orthodontic force compression side of periodontal tissues. These monocytes were ...
Recently, inflammation has been recognised as an important co-requisite to orthodontic tooth movement. When such a reaction is initiated, the process of up-regulation of certain adhesion molecules may occur, resulting in the extravasation of leukocytes. This may stimulate progenitor/precursor pathways and signals that regulate the biological responses resulting in tooth movement. We propose that up-regulation of leukocyte adhesion molecules occurs in response to orthodontic forces, resulting in circulating monocyte attraction, extravasation and differentiation into osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone resorption that results in orthodontic tooth movement. To investigate this hypothesis, it is necessary to determine whether periodontal ligament (PDL) endothelium responds to inflammatory stimuli as other organs do. We studied the normal distribution of endothelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1 within PDL vessels, and then the following exposure to an inflammatory endotoxin. The rat PDL blood vessels
Tooth resorption (TR) is one of the more common oral abnormalities seen in cats. In the past, tooth resorption was referred to as feline oral resorptive lesions, odontoclastic resorptions, cavities, caries, cervical neck lesions, external or internal root resorptions, and cervical line erosions. Although the premolars of the lower jaw are most commonly affected, lesions can be found on any tooth. Approximately half of cats older than three years of age will have at least one tooth affected ...
Orthodontic tooth movement is brought about by prolonged application of force on the attachment apparatus. This results in cellular and extracellular changes within the periodontium. As shown in numerous studies, tooth movement is achieved after the
Trial had herbicide damage and severe root rot in 2000.. *Days to Head from Planting Date Planting Date: April 25, 2000. Harvest Date: July 27, 2000. 0=No lodging, 9=Completely flat. ...
Seeking better options for orofacial healthcare, MRUFD is well positioned to engage the biomarker arena having spear-headed the establishment of Proteomics & Metabolomics Victoria (read more about PMV). Medical applications of biomarkers are well established and receive widespread use (e.g. monitoring of proteins released from damaged cardiac muscle after a heart attack, PSA test for prostate cancer). However, many of these tests are prone to error as they rely on single biomarkers. Proteomics/metabolomics technology can reveal groups of useful biomarkers, opening the door to more powerful multiplex tests.. Two biomarker projects of interest to MRUFD involve real-time monitoring of tooth and bone movement (as in orthodontics and distraction osteogenesis of jaws) and of dental development. Orthodontists usually move teeth slowly to minimise risks of damaging the tooth roots. This problem of root resorption can lead to loss of teeth and is only detectable at advanced stages using X rays. ...
Diabetes mellitus (DM) may adversely affect periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). The aim of this review is to systematically analyze and review animal studies investigating the effect of DM on periodontal tissues during OTM. An electronic search was conducted via PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CONTROL) using the keywords
UNLABELLED The use of implants as anchorage for orthodontic forces seems to be a good alternative in partially edentulous patients needing orthodontic treatment. This study is aimed at assessing the performance and behavior of microtextured surface endosseous implants obtained by means of a double acid etching against orthodontic forces, as well as their adequacy to be used first as anchorage and later as fixtures for the definitive prosthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 93 double acid-etched surface parallel wall implants (Osseotite(R) Implants, Implant Innovations Inc., Palm Beach, Florida, USA) were inserted in 38 partially edentulous patients prior to orthodontic treatment This was carried out by following two-stage surgery protocols in the maxilla as well as in the mandible. After a healing period of six months for the maxilla and four months for the mandible, the implants were used as anchorage for sliding, compression and traction orthodontic forces between 100 to 200 g by means of Ni-TI
Solid tumors are composed of heterogeneous cell populations that interact in complex networks. As is the case in developing organs, tumor cells interact with and in turn are regulated by these components in the microenvironment. Metastatic tumor cells also recreate complex cellular microenvironments at metastatic sites. More than 120 years ago, Paget proposed the seed and soil hypothesis of tumor metastasis (40). Reframed in a modern context, the seeds are the CSCs and the soil is the rich microenvironment, which is composed of diverse cell types that interact with tumor cells via cytokine networks. These networks regulate CSCs and their progeny, which form the tumor bulk. Elucidation of these pathways may provide new targets for therapeutic development. Examples of such pathways include the cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 and their receptors IL-6R and CXCR1. Blockade of these cytokine pathways reduced breast CSCs in preclinical models (33). Clinical trials using IL-6-blocking antibodies have been ...
Principal Investigator:MATSUMOTO Mitsunari, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1991, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:小児・社会系歯学
Differences among plant species in morphology and patterns of growth are assumed to influence their ability to acquire resources and, consequently, their competitive ability. Despite the acknowledged importance of below-ground resources for plant growth, our knowledge of species differences in root morphology of non-agricultural plants is limited. Comparisons of root morphology, growth rate and topology of seedlings of 12 herbaceous plant species that occur in early to mid-successional fields revealed significant differences among species that were largely related to life history. Annuals grew faster and produced longer and more branched roots than did biennials and perennials. Only among the annuals was there a positive correlation between seed mass and root growth. The grasses allocated proportionately more biomass to roots than the dicots, but did not differ in root length or branching pattern. As seedlings, all 12 species exhibited a herringbone topology; although after 10 d there were ...
Certain crosses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) result in temperature-dependent hybrid weakness associated with a severe root phenotype. This is controlled by the interaction of the root- and shoot-expressed semidominant alleles dosage-dependent lethal 1 (DL1) and DL2, which communicate via long-distance signaling. Previously, apparent reciprocal effects on root growth and the restoration of normal root growth by exogenous sucrose led to the hypothesis that the dosage-dependent lethal (DL) system may control root-shoot carbon partitioning. Here, recombinant inbred lines were used to map the DL loci and physiological and biochemical analysis, including metabolite profiling, was used to gain new insights into the signaling interaction and the root phenotype. It is shown that the DL system does not control root-shoot carbon partitioning and that roots are unlikely to die from carbon starvation. Instead, root death likely occurs by defense-related programmed cell death, as indicated by salicylic ...
Trauma can cause loss of teeth in a variety of ways. Teeth can be knocked out from trauma, such as a child falling off her bicycle and onto her face. Frequently however, trauma can affect the teeth in ways that do not manifest until months or years later. Root fracture may not be apparent until some time later when infection develops. Sometimes, after teeth have been traumatized, they can be treated and appear to be doing well until many years later when root resorption becomes apparent. This occurs when the body turns against itself and causes cells to eat away at the root surface, often allowing bone to grow into the defect that has been created.. Trauma of a more pernicious order can also affect the dentition. Significant defects of the jaw bone, in addition to teeth, can occur as a result of trauma. This may be following surgery to remove a tumor from the mouth and/or jaws, or secondary to external trauma such as an automobile accident, other forms of blunt trauma or ballistic wounds. ...
The human periodontium and dental pulp cavity are closely connected by their proximity and by the presence of apical and lateral radicular foramina, which permit the passage of pathogens between these two distinct anatomical areas. The interrelationship of these structures influences each other during health, function and disease. Although there are many factors that contribute to the development and progression of endodontic and periodontal diseases, the primary cause of both diseases is the presence of bacterial infections with complex microbial flora. Etiologic factors such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses as well as other various contributing factors such as trauma, root resorptions, perforations, and dental malformations also play an important role in the development and progression of such lesions. Although disease transmission from the pulp to the periodontal tissue is possible, the influence of periodontal disease on pulpal status remains controversial. The differential diagnosis of ...
on a patient with previous periodontal disease. The gingival margin no longer covers the cementoenamel junction, and there is severe root exposure. Interproximally, the interdental papillae no longer fill the interdental embrasures. Recession may result in tooth sensitivity and alterations in speech (phonetics ...
Orthodontically Driven Corticotomy PDF by Federico Brugnami, Alfonso Caiazzo The first book of its kind, Orthodontically Driven Corticotomy describes how to
Free, official information about 2011 (and also 2012-2015) ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 353.2, including coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion.
Diagnosis Code 353.2 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, ICD-10 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Radiks anterior dan posterior bergabung menjadi satu berkas di foramen intervertebral dan disebut saraf spinal. Berkas serabut sensorik dari radiks posterior disebut dermatome. Pada permukaan thorax dan abdomen, dermatome itu selapis demi selapis sesuai dengan urutan radiks posterior pada segmen-segmen medulla spinalis C3-C4 dan T3-T12. Tetapi pada permukaan lengan dan tungkai, kawasan dermatome tumpang tindih oleh karena berkas saraf spinal tidak langsung menuju ekstremitas melainkan menyusun plexus dan fasikulus terkebih dahulu baru kemudian menuju lengan dan tungkai. Karena itulah penataan lamelar dermatome C5-T2 dan L2-S3 menjadi agak kabur ...
Summary: Continuous tensile strain from the device changed the cell morphology and increased the expression of inflammatory and osteogenic gene. These effects were similar to those in the PDL during orthodontic tooth movement. ...
root - MedHelps root Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for root. Find root information, treatments for root and root symptoms.
After some troughing I found the original canal, which was very narrow to begin with, but which became very wide at midroot level. There was profound bleeding upon entering this part . It felt like a resorption defect