The THO/TREX complex is the transcription- and export-related complex associated with spliceosomes that preferentially deal with spliced mRNAs as opposed to unspliced mRNAs. Thoc2 plays a role in RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II)-dependent transcription and is required for the stability of DNA repeats [1]. In humans, the TRE complex is comprised of the exon-junction-associated proteins Aly/REF and UAP56 together with the THO proteins THOC1 (hHpr1/p84), Thoc2 (hRlr1), THOC3 (hTex1), THOC5 (fSAP79), THOC6 (fSAP35), and THOC7 (fSAP24). Although much evidence indicates that the function of the TREX complex as an adaptor between the mRNA and components of the export machinery is conserved among eukaryotes, in Drosophila the majority of mRNAs can be exported from the nucleus independently of the THO complex [2]. ...
RNA import into mammalian mitochondria is considered essential for replication, transcription, and translation of the mitochondrial genome but the pathway(s) and factors that control this import are poorly understood. Previously, we localized polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPASE), a 3 --, 5 exoribonuclease and poly-A polymerase, in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, a location lacking resident RNAs. Here, we show a new role for PNPASE in regulating the import of nuclear-encoded RNAs into the mitochondrial matrix. PNPASE reduction impaired mitochondrial RNA processing and polycistronic transcripts accumulated. Augmented import of RNase P, 5S rRNA, and MRP RNAs depended on PNPASE expression and PNPASE-imported RNA interactions were identified. PNPASE RNA processing and import activities were separable and a mitochondrial RNA targeting signal was isolated that enabled RNA import in a PNPASE-dependent manner. Combined, these data strongly support an unanticipated role for PNPASE in mediating ...
RNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is fundamental for gene expression. The different RNA species that are produced in the nucleus are exported through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) via mobile export receptors. The majority of RNAs, such as tRNAs, rRNAs, and U snRNAs, are transported by specific export receptors, which belong to the karyopherin-beta family proteins. A feature of karyopherins is their regulation by the small GTPase Ran. However, general mRNA export is mechanistically different. Nuclear export of mRNAs is functionally coupled to different steps in gene expression processes, such as transcription, splicing, 3-end formation and even translation ...
RNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is fundamental for gene expression. The different RNA species that are produced in the nucleus are exported through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) via mobile export receptors. The majority of RNAs, such as tRNAs, rRNAs, and U snRNAs, are transported by specific export receptors, which belong to the karyopherin-beta family proteins. A feature of karyopherins is their regulation by the small GTPase Ran. However, general mRNA export is mechanistically different. Nuclear export of mRNAs is functionally coupled to different steps in gene expression processes, such as transcription, splicing, 3-end formation and even translation ...
Our results indicate that disturbed THOC1 and ALY expression are associated with tumorogenesis. Overexpression of THOC1 has previously been correlated to the grade of invasiveness in breast tumor, and also a relationship between the levels of this protein in non-small lung cancers has been suggested [12, 15]. This study shows that not only the expression of THOC1, but also that of THO/TREX complex is upregulated in breast cancer cells. Moreover, new links between the expression of THOC1 and different tumors were found. THOC1 mRNA and protein levels are up-regulated in ovarian, and lung tumors and down-regulated in those of testis and skin. Interestingly, we show that ALY, another mRNP biogenesis factor is highly detected in proliferative cells and overexpressed in a broad range of tumors. The different pattern of expression of THOC1 and ALY in tumors could indicate a different relevance for each factor in tumorogenesis. Nevertheless, since many genes are differentially expressed in cancer ...
In higher eukaryotes, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm via factors deposited near the 5 end of the transcript during splicing. The signal sequence coding region (SSCR) can support an alternative mRNA export (ALREX) pathway that does not require splicing. However …
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Component of the SAC3-THP1 complex, which functions in transcription-coupled mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. SAC3-THP1 functions in docking export-competent ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) to the nuclear entrance of the nuclear pore complex (nuclear basket), by association with components of the nuclear mRNA export machinery (MEX67-MTR2 and SUB2) in the nucleoplasm and the nucleoporin NUP1 at the nuclear basket. THP1 binds to RNA in vitro.
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In Situ Hybridization for mRNA Localization Purpose: In Situ hybridization for mRNA localization is used to identify the position of target mRNA in the cell or tissues being examined(Smith, 2001).Methods: In order for in situ hybridization for localiza...
Wang et al. applied all of the above to a cell line that harbors two mutations. Both mutations cause an inefficiency in tRNA translation, which results in defective cell respiration. Remember, tRNA is what defines the protein primary structure out of the "instructions" handed over by the mRNA. So, if theres not enough tRNA, not enough proteins are made, and that usually isnt a good thing. Though a complete recovery was not expected, as the mutant mt-tRNAs are still present, not substituted, the imported wild-type mt-tRNAs with three elements expressed (the extended stem, the RP sequence, and MRPS12 3 UTR -- see paper for details) were able to partly restore the respiratory defect caused by the mutations ...
1KOH: The crystal structure and mutational analysis of a novel RNA-binding domain found in the human Tap nuclear mRNA export factor.
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Author Summary Herpesviruses hijack cellular components to enhance viral gene expression. This is particularly important for the efficient nuclear export of herpesvirus intronless mRNAs to allow the production of viral proteins. We have previously demonstrated that Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a conserved protein, ORF57, which recruits essential cellular mRNA export proteins onto the viral intronless mRNAs to form an export competent viral ribonucleoprotein particle. Specifically, we have shown that ORF57 interacts directly with the cellular export adaptor protein, Aly, to recruit other cellular mRNA export proteins. Surprisingly however, depletion of Aly has a limited effect on both cellular and viral mRNA nuclear export levels, suggesting a degree of redundancy in the export pathways and the existence of other export adaptor proteins. Here we have identified a novel interaction between ORF57 and a second export adaptor protein, UIF. We show for the first time that the ORF57-UIF
IFN-γ induces the expression of a wide variety of genes, many of which are involved in antiviral response (23). To determine whether induction of Nup98 and Nup96 was sufficient to reverse the M protein export block, we tested whether transfection with Nup98 and Nup96 cDNA would substitute for IFN-γ and relieve the inhibition of mRNA export. Using a luciferase reporter gene assay (24), cells were co-transfected with a mixture of plasmids coding for the M protein alone, for Nup98 and Nup96 alone, or for both. M protein expression clearly inhibited luciferase expression, and this inhibition was partially relieved by Nup98 and Nup96 expression (Fig. 4C). Thus, Nup98 and Nup96 expression is capable of reversing M protein-mediated inhibition of nuclear mRNA export.. The mechanism by which increased expression of Nup98 and of Nup96 reverses M protein-mediated inhibition of mRNA export remains to be elucidated. The inhibitory region of the M protein has been mapped (12, 25) and shown to target the ...
Efficient neuronal function depends on the continued modulation of the local neuronal proteome. Local protein synthesis plays a central role in tuning the neuronal proteome at specific neuronal regions. Various aspects of translation such as the localization of translational machinery, spatial spread of the newly translated proteins, and their site of action are carried out in specialized neuronal subcompartments to result in a localized functional outcome. In this review, we focus on the various aspects of these local translation compartments such as size, biochemical and organelle composition, structural boundaries, and temporal dynamics. We also discuss the apparent absence of definitive components of translation in these local compartments and the emerging state‐of‐the‐art tools that could help dissecting these conundrums in greater detail in the future. ...
THO complex subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THOC2 gene. THO2 is part of the TREX (transcription/export) complex, which includes TEX1 (MIM 606929), HPR1 (MIM 606930), ALY (MIM 604171), and UAP56 (MIM 606390).[supplied by OMIM] GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000125676 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037475 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Strasser K, Masuda S, Mason P, Pfannstiel J, Oppizzi M, Rodriguez-Navarro S, Rondon AG, Aguilera A, Struhl K, Reed R, Hurt E (May 2002). "TREX is a conserved complex coupling transcription with messenger RNA export". Nature. 417 (6886): 304-8. doi:10.1038/nature746. PMID 11979277. "Entrez Gene: THOC2 THO complex 2". Coffey AJ, Brooksbank RA, Brandau O, et al. (1998). "Host response to EBV infection in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease results from mutations in an SH2-domain encoding gene". Nat. Genet. 20 (2): 129-35. doi:10.1038/2424. PMID 9771704. Strausberg RL, ...
繼承對種族主義的批判. 印度種姓制度以血緣世襲的方式區分人的貴賤,達利特人(賤民)最低等被視為不可接觸,至今仍存。另一邊廂,美國上幾個世紀的黑奴制度以膚色區劃奴隸階級,即使後來黑奴解放,深膚色人種仍然受著嚴重的經濟和文化歧視。. 人為地建構身份階層,對特定族群作出有違人性的區分,是鞏固權力和維持優勢地位的一貫做法。但這做法也反向操作,用來挑戰某些價值和社會規範。例如,應用於性傾向,可得出異性戀中心主義:異性戀是一種由人建構出來的階級體制,令社會裡不是異性戀的人受到排拒,剝削了同性戀的人性和尊嚴……藉由建構同性戀和被壓迫的身份,他們聚集了群眾和得到某種道德力量。在建構出假想敵後,同性戀政治份子批判異性戀中心主義的社會,製作仇恨名單(The Export of ...
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Component of the cap-binding complex (CBC), which binds co-transcriptionally to the 5 cap of pre-mRNAs and is involved in various processes such as pre-mRNA splicing, translation regulation, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, RNA-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) by microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNA export. The CBC complex is involved in mRNA export from the nucleus via its interaction with ALYREF/THOC4/ALY, leading to the recruitment of the mRNA export machinery to the 5 end of mRNA and to mRNA export in a 5 to 3 direction through the nuclear pore. The CBC complex is also involved in mediating U snRNA and intronless mRNAs export from the nucleus. The CBC complex is essential for a pioneer round of mRNA translation, before steady state translation when the CBC complex is replaced by cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E. The pioneer round of mRNA translation mediated by the CBC complex plays a central role in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), NMD only taking place in mRNAs bound to the CBC complex, but ...
Nuclear mRNA transport is often thought of in terms of translocation through the nuclear pore, but mRNA export also requires intranuclear progression of transcripts from the gene to the nuclear pore. In some genetic diseases, failed export of a mutant mRNA is critical to the phenotype, yet typically it is not well understood how nuclear export is impeded or whether mutant mRNA accumulates at a specific point within the nuclear structure. In fact, the examination of mRNA blocked at a specific step in export may help illuminate the path whereby mRNA normally transits from the gene to the nuclear pore. The analysis of human disease gene mutations that impact nuclear metabolism of the mRNA provides an avenue to study both disease pathogenesis and the interrelationship between nuclear structure and steps in mRNA biogenesis. In addition, the study of naturally occurring disease alleles in patient cells provides the advantage that the mutant mRNA is expressed in a normal structural and physiological ...
Previous work has shown that MBP mRNA microinjected into oligodendrocytes is assembled into RNA granules that are transported along the processes and localized to the myelin compartment, while control mRNAs (globin and actin) are assembled into RNA granules that remain in the perikaryon (Ainger et al., 1993). The differential distribution of these mRNAs is presumably controlled by some aspect of their structure. In this study, deletion analysis of MBP RNA was used to identify sequences or structures that are required for transport and/or localization. Digoxigenin-labeled RNAs were synthesized by in vitro transcription and microinjected into cultured oligodendrocytes. Cells were fixed and labeled by immunofluorescence with both anti-digoxigenin antibody to visualize the injected RNA and anti-MBP antibody to visualize the overall cell morphology.. The unique morphology of oligodendrocytes in primary culture makes it possible to spatially resolve three stages in the RNA sorting pathway: (a) granule ...
In zebrafish embryos, factors involved in both axis induction and primordial germ cell (PGC) development are localized to the vegetal pole of the egg. However, upon egg activation axis induction factors experience an asymmetric off-center shift whereas PGC factors undergo symmetric animally-directed movement. We examined the spatial relationship between the proposed dorsal genes wnt8a and grip2a and the PGC factor dazl at the vegetal cortex. We find that RNAs for these genes localize to different cortical depths, with the RNA for the PGC factor dazl at a deeper cortical level than those for axis-inducing factors. In addition, and in contrast to the role of microtubules in the long-range transport of dorsal determinants, we find that germ line determinant transport depends on the actin cytoskeleton. Our results support a model in which vegetal cortex differential RNA transport behavior is facilitated by RNA localization along cortical depth and differential coupling to cortical transport ...
RNA efflux from isolated nuclei can be studied either as a means of elucidating the general mechanism of nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA transport, or as part of an investigation of the processing and utilization of particular gene transcripts. The present paper describes an assessment of three methodological criticisms of RNA-efflux measurements that are made for the former reason: for such measurements, it is sufficient to show that the post-incubation supernatant RNA is similar overall to homologous cytoplasmic mRNA, rather than to nuclear RNA, that is nevertheless of intranuclear origin, and that alterations to the medium during experiments do not markedly perturb this general nuclear restriction. The results seem to justify the following conclusions. (1) Although degradation of the nuclear RNA occurs during incubation in vitro, this process does not account for the appearance of RNA in the postnuclear supernatant. The degradation can be largely prevented by the addition of serine-proteinase ...
Required for pre-mRNA splicing. Can also modulate alternative splicing in vitro. Represses the splicing of MAPT/Tau exon 10. May function as export adapter involved in mRNA nuclear export such as of histone H2A. Binds mRNA which is thought to be transferred to the NXF1-NXT1 heterodimer for export (TAP/NXF1 pathway); enhances NXF1-NXT1 RNA-binding activity. RNA-binding is semi-sequence specific.
Specific L10N bugs like typos and translation mistakes should be directly reported to the local translation team mailing list or a bug report should be filed at Bugzilla against the related language. General bugs that affect all languages like strings not marked for translation, downstream patching that breaks translations and input method issues should be filed against the related package. If you are unsure about exactly how to file the report or what other information to include, just ask on IRC and we will help you. Translation teams are free to prioritize packages they find more important to test. Please use the following format when posting results to this page: ...
Dendrin, 0.1 mg. Synaptic plasticity and memory formation involve remodeling of the postsynaptic cytoskeleton, a process that is in part based on both local translation of dendritic mRNAs and synaptic recruitment of newly synthesized proteins.
When installing Trex decking, customers should paint the top of the joists black to minimize their appearance and avoid sanding the planks. Trex also recommends that customers avoid routing balusters...
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Types of Export   The Service offers data export of three types: as general statistics link Download statistics in  section
Types of Export   The Service offers data export of three types: as general statistics link Download statistics in  section
I am thinking about building a TREX 550 FBL heli. But I am really confused about all the different versions of the kits that are out there - ESP, EFL,
The results described in this paper indicate that HIV unspliced RNA export and Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane are linked. By simply changing the RNA export element from the RRE to 4 × CTE, we can restore Gag assembly and budding in murine cells (Figures 3 and 5). To explain how a pretranslational event, RNA export, could modulate a post‐translational event, membrane trafficking, we hypothesize that HIV RNA is marked at (or by) nuclear export such that the cytosolic fate of the encoded Gag is predetermined. Based on our findings, both the RRE/Rev/Crm1 and 4 × CTE/NXF1 nuclear export pathways successfully mark unspliced gag‐pol mRNA in human cells and promote proper assembly. However, in murine cells, marking through the action of RRE/Rev/Crm1 is defective and HIV assembly is inhibited. Possibilities for the mark include the structure of the mRNA itself or proteins that comprise the mRNP; these could be added or removed as the export complex is formed, as it transits the NPC, ...
In chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs), beta-actin mRNA localizes near an actin-rich region of cytoplasm specialized for motility, the lamellipodia. This localization is mediated by isoform-specific 3-untranslated sequences (zipcodes) and can be inhibited by antizipcode oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) (Kislauskis, E.H., X.-C. Zhu, and R.H. Singer. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 127: 441-451). This inhibition of beta-actin mRNA localization resulted in the disruption of fibroblast polarity and, presumably, cell motility. To investigate the role of beta-actin mRNA in motility, we correlated time-lapse images of moving CEFs with the distribution of beta-actin mRNA in these cells. CEFs with localized beta-actin mRNA moved significantly further over the same time period than did CEFs with nonlocalized mRNA. Antizipcode ODN treatment reduced this cell translocation while control ODN treatments showed no effect. The temporal relationship of beta-actin mRNA localization to cell translocation was investigated using serum
DDX3 is a DEAD-box protein (Figure 3A). Although DDX3 has been shown to interact with RNA transport factors TAP/NXF1 and REF/Aly, it does not appear to play a role in bulk mRNA export [32-34]. It is interesting to note that Ded1 (yeast DDX3 homolog) modulates translation by controlling the conformation of eIF4F-mRNA complex [35], suggesting a role of Ded1/DDX3 in translation. The function of DDX3 in RNA export was not recognized until DDX3 was found to participate in the Rev-dependent export of unspliced and partially spliced HIV-1 RNAs [3]. Rev is co-immunoprecipitated with DDX3, but a direct interaction between the two proteins has not been experimentally demonstrated. Rather, the purified GST-CRM1 is able to pull down the in vitro translated DDX3. This direct interaction depends on the DDX3 fragment at amino acid positions 260 to 517 that does not include the NES (nuclear export signal) sequence, and is Ran-GTP independent (Figure 3A, 3C), which suggests that instead of a cargo, DDX3 acts as ...
The localization of mRNA forms a key facet of the post-transcriptional control of gene expression and recent evidence suggests that it may be considerably more widespread than previously anticipated. For example, defined mRNA-containing granules can be associated with translational repression or activation. Furthermore, mRNA P-bodies (processing bodies) harbour much of the mRNA decay machinery and stress granules are thought to play a role in mRNA storage. In the present review, we explore the process of mRNA localization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, examining connections between organellar mRNA localization and the response to stress. We also review recent data suggesting that even where there is a global relocalization of mRNA, the specificity and kinetics of this process can be regulated. ...
1JN5: Structural basis for the recognition of a nucleoporin FG repeat by the NTF2-like domain of the TAP/p15 mRNA nuclear export factor.
Exports to Chile in China decreased to 694740 USD THO in February from 1263609 USD THO in January of 2017. Exports to Chile in China averaged 1078662.86 USD THO from 2014 until 2017, reaching an all time high of 1293716 USD THO in December of 2016 and a record low of 617563 USD THO in February of 2014. This page includes a chart with historical data for China Exports - Chile.
According to Statistics Netherlands, the volume of exports of goods was 6.4 percent up in September 2014 from September 2013. In the preceding month, exports grew by more than 1 percent. Higher exports of Dutch products and higher re-exports contributed to the growth.
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Unlike Opisthokonta lineages (such as yeasts and metazoans), several otherwise conserved key components of mRNA export are not found in the genomes of the Chromalveolata and Excavata lineages, including several species of parasites [11, 12]. Our bioinformatic analysis of Apicomplexa (Additional file 1: Table S1) corroborates previous work suggesting the presence of either highly divergent or unique components for mRNA export in these parasites. Figure 1b shows an overview of the few conserved components of mRNA export in the Apicomplexa, and the relevance of those findings are discussed below.. The major and specific mRNA complex (TREX) may not be conserved in the genomes of the three apicomplexan parasites we analyzed. These genomes contain only a homolog for UAP56 and lack a homolog for REF/Aly as well as for most THO complex components, with the exception of Tho2 (Additional file 1: Table S1). Similar to TREX, several homologs for components of the TREX-2 complex were not identified in these ...
R‐loops, formed by co‐transcriptional DNA-RNA hybrids and a displaced DNA single strand (ssDNA), fulfill certain positive regulatory roles but are also a source of genomic instability. One key cellular mechanism to prevent R‐loop accumulation centers on the conserved THO/TREX complex, an RNA‐binding factor involved in transcription elongation and RNA export that contributes to messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) assembly, but whose precise function is still unclear. To understand how THO restrains harmful R‐loops, we searched for new THO‐interacting factors. We found that human THO interacts with the Sin3A histone deacetylase complex to suppress co‐transcriptional R‐loops, DNA damage, and replication impairment. Functional analyses show that histone hypo‐acetylation prevents accumulation of harmful R‐loops and RNA‐mediated genomic instability. Diminished histone deacetylase activity in THO‐ and Sin3A‐depleted cell lines correlates with increased R‐loop formation, ...
The large majority of genes encoded by humans and other metazoans contain introns. In general, mRNAs containing introns give rise to a higher level of the encoded protein than do the equivalent intronless, cDNA-derived mRNAs. The mechanisms underlying this difference are complex because splicing can strongly influence not only the efficiency of mRNA 3′ end formation but also mRNA stability and even translation (Ryu and Mertz, 1989; Niwa et al., 1990; Matsumoto et al., 1998). Nevertheless, for most human genes, splicing is not essential for detectable mRNA and protein synthesis. In fact, a recent survey of 15 genes showed that the presence of an excisable intron enhanced gene expression in human cells by an average of 6.3±4.7 fold with a range of from 1.5- to over 20-fold (S. Lu and B. R. Cullen, unpublished).. The first evidence suggesting that splicing also enhances the efficiency of mRNA export came from the demonstration that several intron-containing mRNAs are exported more efficiently ...
The THO complex is involved in transcription, genome stability, and messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) formation, but its precise molecular function remains enigmatic. Under heat shock conditions, THO mutants accumulate large protein-DNA complexes that alter the chromatin density of target genes (heavy chromatin), defining a specific biochemical facet of THO function and a powerful tool of analysis. Here, we show that heavy chromatin distribution is dictated by gene boundaries and that the gene promoter is necessary and sufficient to convey THO sensitivity in these conditions. Single-molecule fluorescence insitu hybridization measurements show that heavy chromatin formation correlates with an unusually high firing pace of the promoter with more than 20 transcription events per minute. Heavy chromatin formation closely follows the modulation of promoter firing and strongly correlates with polymerase occupancy genome wide. We propose that the THO complex is required for tuning the dynamic of ...
Recommended Readings:. Chekulaeva, M. and A. Ephrussi. 2004. "Drosophila Development: RNA Interference Ab Ovo." Current Biology 14 (11): R428-R430. Hachet, O. and A. Ephrussi. 2001. "Drosophila Y14 Shuttles to the Posterior of the Oocyte and is Required for Oskar mRNA Transport." Current Biology 11 (21): 1666-1674. Jambor, H., C. Brunel, and A. Ephrussi. 2011. "Dimerization of Oskar 3′ UTRs Promotes Hitchhiking for RNA Localization in the Drosophila Oocyte." RNA 17 (12): 2049-2057. Krauss, J., S. López de Quinto, C. Nüsslein-Volhard, and A. Ephrussi. 2009. "Myosin-V Regulates Oskar mRNA Localization in the Drosophila Oocyte." Current Biology 19 (12): 1058-1063. Vanzo, N., A. Oprins, D. Xanthakis, A. Ephrussi, and C. Rabouille. 2007. "Stimulation of Endocytosis and Actin Dynamics by Oskar Polarizes the Drosophila Oocyte." Developmental Cell 12 (4): 543-555. Vanzo, N. F. and A. Ephrussi. 2002. "Oskar Anchoring Restricts Pole Plasm Formation to the Posterior of the Drosophila Oocyte." ...
Intracellular mRNA transport and local translation play a key role in neuronal physiology. Translationally repressed mRNAs are transported as a part of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles to distant dendritic sites, but the properties of different RNP particles and mechanisms of their repression and transport remain largely unknown. Here, we describe a new class of RNP-particles, the dendritic P-body-like structures (dlPbodies), which are present in the soma and dendrites of mammalian neurons and have both similarities and differences to P-bodies of non-neuronal cells. These structures stain positively for a number of P-body and microRNP components, a microRNA-repressed mRNA and some translational repressors. They appear more heterogeneous than P-bodies of HeLa cells, and they rarely contain the exonuclease Xrn1 but are positive for rRNA. These particles show motorized movements along dendrites and relocalize to distant sites in response to synaptic activation. Furthermore, Dcp1a is stably ...
A number of studies have indicated that local translation imparts neurons with the ability to spatially restrict gene expression and to thereby alter structure and function at each of its thousands of synaptic compartments. What are the mRNAs with local translation that leads to local changes in neuronal structure and function? In this study, we undertook an unbiased identification of mRNAs present in a mechanically purified preparation of axonal, dendritic, and glial processes cultured from neonatal rat hippocampus. By mechanically separating processes from cell bodies, we were able to obtain preparations that were remarkably free from cell body contamination. The results of this analysis indicated that neuronal processes contain a rich and diverse population of mRNAs.. The small amount of RNA present in processes compared with cell bodies has plagued attempts to identify localized transcripts, because any somatic contamination inevitably overwhelms detection of process mRNAs. Separating cell ...
export LESS=-R export LESS_TERMCAP_me=$(printf \e[0m) export LESS_TERMCAP_se=$(printf \e[0m) export LESS_TERMCAP_ue=$(printf \e[0m) export LESS_TERMCAP_mb=$(printf \e[1;32m) export LESS_TERMCAP_md=$(printf \e[1;34m) export LESS_TERMCAP_us=$(printf \e[1;32m) export LESS_TERMCAP_so=$(printf \e[1;44;1m ...
Influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is a structural component that encapsulates the viral genome into the form of ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs). Efficient assembly of vRNPs is critical for the virus life cycle. The assembly route from RNA-free NP to the NP-RNA polymer in vRNPs has been suggested to require a cellular factor UAP56, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the interaction between NP and UAP56 using recombinant proteins and showed that UAP56 features two NP binding sites. In addition to the UAP56 core comprised of two RecA domains, we identified the N-terminal extension (NTE) of UAP56 as a previously unknown NP binding site. In particular, UAP56-NTE recognizes the nucleic acid binding region of NP. This corroborates our observation that binding of UAP56-NTE and RNA to NP is mutually exclusive. Collectively, our results reveal the molecular basis for how UAP56 acts on RNA-free NP, and provide new insights into NP-mediated influenza genome packaging ...