To explore the role of base pairing with the sRNAs on rpoS mRNA, the mRNA accumulation was examined in strains where sRNA base pairing with the rpoS mRNA was disrupted by mutation. In strains expressing DsrA* in the rpoS+ background or expressing DsrA in the rpoS* background, rpoS and rpoS* mRNA levels remained very low (Fig. 3A). This is consistent with a requirement for productive base pairing (leading to translation) of DsrA to rpoS mRNA for stabilization of the mRNA.. Cells in which pairing was restored (dsrA*-rpoS*) had elevated levels of rpoS mRNA (Fig. 3A). Surprisingly, the mRNA accumulating in the dsrA*-rpoS* strain was 0.5 kb shorter than the full-length rpoS mRNA (Fig. 3A). Northern analysis using a probe that anneals to the 5′ end of rpoS mRNA did not detect this truncated band, suggesting that the shorter RNA is missing sequences at the 5′ end upstream of the pairing region (data not shown). Some full-length rpoS mRNA can be detected in this background, and some of the truncated ...
Gene regulation is a fundamental key for bacteria to responds to environmental changes. In order to adapt to these changes bacteria have evolved and developed different strategies to facilitate tight control of genetic networks in response to diverse extracellular stimuli. The global roles of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) started to be interesting in the last years, particularly in regards to bacterial physiology, adaptation and pathogenesis. Beside translational gene regulation (activation or inhibition) through direct interaction with mRNAs, such sRNAs rely on a variety of mechanisms to control their targets, including: (i) sequestering molecules (e.g proteins) or (ii) riboswitches (sensor elements within mRNAs); and (iii) targeting invading cognate DNA, such is the case for CRISPR RNAs (i.e. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats RNAs). In the case of Streptococci, information regarding sRNAs is so far restricted to tow streptococcal species: Streptococcus
Detail záznamu - Paramutation of tobacco transgenes by small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
With the advent of new and improved high-throughput sequencing technologies in the last few years, a growing number of novel classes of small RNA, other than miRNAs or siRNA, has emerged, which appear as new actors in gene expression regulation. tRNA-derived small RNAs represent one of these novel members that are, surprisingly, among the most conserved class of small RNAs throughout evolution. They could represent the most primitive small RNA pathways from which the well-known canonical RNA silencing pathways reported in higher eukaryotes evolved. This review aims to make a compilation of the most relevant research literature in this field with the purpose of shedding light on the relation of these primitive tRNA-derived molecules with the gene silencing machinery.
The goal of this program is to develop cell targeted approaches to delivering small non-coding RNA directed transcriptional gene silencing and RNA directed Pddl...
tRFs & tiRNAs: small RNAs with distinct and varied functions tRNA is known to be an adaptor molecule to decode and translate mRNA into protein. However, recent studies have discovered tRNAs to be a major source of small non-coding RNAs, with their abundance levels often higher than microRNAs. tRNA derived fragments (tRF) and tRNA halves (tiRNA) are generated from tRNAs by precise biogenesis processes (Fig. 1), having distinct and varied functions to [1-3]:. ...
Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a hitherto unrecognised role in regulation of gene expression. To broaden knowledge on the function and evolution of these molecules, a EU project investigated various classes of regulatory ...
Integrated genomic analysis of recurrence-associated small non-coding RNAs in oesophageal cancer / H J Jang; H S Lee; B M Burt; G K Lee; K A Yoon; Y Y Park; B H Sohn; S B Kim; M S Kim; J M Lee; J Joo; S C Kim; J S Yun; K J Na; Y L Choi; Jong Lyul Park; Seon-Young Kim; Y S Lee; L Han; H Liang; D Mak; J K Burks; J I Zo; D S Sugarbaker; Y M Shim; J S Lee , 2017 ...
There is a desperate need for new means to diagnose and treat most human diseases. Extracellular small RNAs provide great promise. In particular, recent findings provide strong evidence for their utility as biomarkers. Furthermore, very recent work shows functional roles for at least a subset of the extracellular small RNAs, which provides an opportunity for their manipulation in the treatment of disease. However, as the field is so recent with only anecdotal evidence in limited systems, there remains a fundamental gap in our knowledge of how wide spread the phenomenon of functional extracellular small RNAs really is and how can its potential be fully realized. This U19 Centers long-term goal is to uncover paradigms of extracellular small RNA function in health and disease and apply those paradigms to clinically relevant settings including biomarker discovery and therapeutic intervention. Members of the Center already have a significant track record in these areas. The objective here is to ...
The Northern blot method is used to detect specific RNAs that have been separated by size and immobilized onto a membrane (Fig 1). This method can provide specific information regarding the size of a sncRNA and possible precursor structures. Thus, it represents a valuable tool in the discovery and validation of new sncRNAs. In situ hybridization (ISH) is a technology that allows detection of specific nucleic acid sequences in tissue samples at the cellular level (Nielsen, 2012; Urbanek et al., 2015). For detection of individual sncRNA, the ISH technology determines the cellular origin of expression and provides information on expression levels in different tissue compartments and cell populations. This histological expression analysis is of crucial importance for elucidating roles particularly of sncRNAs in molecular and biological processes. ...
The Northern blot method is used to detect specific RNAs that have been separated by size and immobilized onto a membrane (Fig 1). This method can provide specific information regarding the size of a sncRNA and possible precursor structures. Thus, it represents a valuable tool in the discovery and validation of new sncRNAs. In situ hybridization (ISH) is a technology that allows detection of specific nucleic acid sequences in tissue samples at the cellular level (Nielsen, 2012; Urbanek et al., 2015). For detection of individual sncRNA, the ISH technology determines the cellular origin of expression and provides information on expression levels in different tissue compartments and cell populations. This histological expression analysis is of crucial importance for elucidating roles particularly of sncRNAs in molecular and biological processes. ...
It is nowadays widely accepted that non-coding RNAs play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation of genes in all kingdoms of life. In bacteria, the largest group of RNA regulators are the small RNAs (sRNAs). Almost all sRNAs act through anti-sense base-pairing with target mRNAs, and by doing so regulate their translation and/or stability. As important modulators of gene expression, sRNAs are involved in all aspects of bacterial physiology. My studies aimed to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms behind sRNA-mediated gene regulation. We have shown that translation of the di-guanylate-cyclase YdaM, a major player in the biofilm regulatory cascade, is repressed by the sRNAs OmrA and OmrB. OmrAB require the RNA chaperone protein Hfq for efficient regulation. Interestingly, our results suggest a non-canonical mechanism for Hfq-mediated ydaM-OmrA/B base-pairing. Instead of serving as RNA interaction platform, Hfq restructures the ydaM mRNA to enable sRNA binding. We also addressed the ...
The term "small non-coding RNA" broadly refers to diverse RNA species ~15-150 nucleotides (nt) in size that fulfill biological functions without being translated into proteins. While the involvement of small RNAs in cellular housekeeping processes such as transcript splicing and protein translation has been known since the 1960s, research over the past twenty years has revealed that small RNAs play vital roles in the regulation of gene expression, via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms (Choudhuri, 2010). Of the small RNAs involved in gene regulation, the most well-studied are microRNAs (miRNAs; ~22 nt in size), which facilitate post-transcriptional gene silencing by binding specific target mRNAs via base-pair complementarity, and either blocking translation or triggering transcript degradation (Ha and Kim, 2014). Another group of small RNAs that have been well characterized are Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), which silence transposons using a miRNA-like mechanism, in ...
The term "small non-coding RNA" broadly refers to diverse RNA species ~15-150 nucleotides (nt) in size that fulfill biological functions without being translated into proteins. While the involvement of small RNAs in cellular housekeeping processes such as transcript splicing and protein translation has been known since the 1960s, research over the past twenty years has revealed that small RNAs play vital roles in the regulation of gene expression, via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms (Choudhuri, 2010). Of the small RNAs involved in gene regulation, the most well-studied are microRNAs (miRNAs; ~22 nt in size), which facilitate post-transcriptional gene silencing by binding specific target mRNAs via base-pair complementarity, and either blocking translation or triggering transcript degradation (Ha and Kim, 2014). Another group of small RNAs that have been well characterized are Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), which silence transposons using a miRNA-like mechanism, in ...
Small RNAs (sRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that play fundamental roles in the response of bacterial cells to environmental cues. We study the response of genetic networks and architectural motifs that include sRNAs, as well as the cell-to-cell variability in the expression of genes controlled by sRNAs. To do so, we use fluorescence microscopy and microfluidic techniques that allow us to measure directly the concentrations of fluorescently-tagged target proteins in individual cells as they respond to controlled stimuli, as well as single-molecule fluorescence in-situ hybridization to monitor the response at the target transcript level.. ...
The principle of the one-step real time RT-PCR is illustrated in Fig. 1. The whole detection procedure requires four primers: RP1, RP2, P1 and P2. RP1 contains the P1 and a 11-base sequence that is complimentary to the 3′-end of target sncRNA. RP2 contains P2 and a 11-base sequence that is same with the 5′-end of target sncRNA. The total thermocycling program includes three stages. Stage 1 is the reverse transcription process. In this stage, the RP1 hybridizes with target sncRNA, and then is extended in the presence of Reverse Transcriptase M-MLV (RNase H-) and dNTPs. Since the melting temperature (Tm) of an 11-base sequence is near 37 ℃, this stage is conducted at 37 ℃. In Stage 2, after denaturing at 95 ℃, the RP2 hybridizes with the cDNA of miRNA at 37 ℃, and both sequences are extended in the presence of hot-start Taq polymerase (HS Taq) and dNTPs at 60 ℃. Stage 3 is a conventional PCR process with the primers P1 and P2. The amplification of cDNA is monitored in the real time ...
The principle of the one-step real time RT-PCR is illustrated in Fig. 1. The whole detection procedure requires four primers: RP1, RP2, P1 and P2. RP1 contains the P1 and a 11-base sequence that is complimentary to the 3′-end of target sncRNA. RP2 contains P2 and a 11-base sequence that is same with the 5′-end of target sncRNA. The total thermocycling program includes three stages. Stage 1 is the reverse transcription process. In this stage, the RP1 hybridizes with target sncRNA, and then is extended in the presence of Reverse Transcriptase M-MLV (RNase H-) and dNTPs. Since the melting temperature (Tm) of an 11-base sequence is near 37 ℃, this stage is conducted at 37 ℃. In Stage 2, after denaturing at 95 ℃, the RP2 hybridizes with the cDNA of miRNA at 37 ℃, and both sequences are extended in the presence of hot-start Taq polymerase (HS Taq) and dNTPs at 60 ℃. Stage 3 is a conventional PCR process with the primers P1 and P2. The amplification of cDNA is monitored in the real time ...
Research into post‐transcriptional control of mRNAs by small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in the model bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica has mainly focused on sRNAs that associate with the RNA chaperone Hfq. However, the recent discovery of the protein ProQ as a common binding partner that stabilizes a distinct large class of structured sRNAs suggests that additional RNA regulons exist in these organisms. The cellular functions and molecular mechanisms of these new ProQ‐dependent sRNAs are largely unknown. Here, we report in Salmonella Typhimurium the mode‐of‐action of RaiZ, a ProQ‐dependent sRNA that is made from the 3′ end of the mRNA encoding ribosome‐inactivating protein RaiA. We show that RaiZ is a base‐pairing sRNA that represses in trans the mRNA of histone‐like protein HU‐α. RaiZ forms an RNA duplex with the ribosome‐binding site of hupA mRNA, facilitated by ProQ, to prevent 30S ribosome loading and protein synthesis of HU‐α. Similarities and ...
In molecular biology miR-181 microRNA precursor is a small non-coding RNA molecule. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are transcribed as ~70 nucleotide precursors and subsequently processed by the RNase-III type enzyme Dicer to give a ~22 nucleotide mature product. In this case the mature sequence comes from the 5 arm of the precursor. They target and modulate protein expression by inhibiting translation and / or inducing degradation of target messenger RNAs. This new class of genes has recently been shown to play a central role in malignant transformation. miRNA are downregulated in many tumors and thus appear to function as tumor suppressor genes. The mature products miR-181a, miR-181b, miR-181c or miR-181d are thought to have regulatory roles at posttranscriptional level, through complementarity to target mRNAs. miR-181 which has been predicted or experimentally confirmed in a wide number of vertebrate species as rat, zebrafish, and in the pufferfish (see below) (MIPF0000007). ...
Current bacterial RNA switches suffer from lack of versatile inputs and are difficult to engineer. Here we present versatile and modular RNA switches that are trans -encoded and based on tRNA mimicking structures (TMSs). These switches provide a high degree of freedom for reengineering and can thus …
The vast majority of currently known ProQ‐binding sRNAs are of unknown function (Smirnov et al, 2016). We have previously observed that asRNAs are enriched in the ProQ interactome, suggesting that this protein may be involved in gene expression regulation via perfect base pairing with cis‐encoded mRNA targets. Some of these asRNAs and their regulatory mechanisms have been characterized, including members of the Sib, Rdl, and IstR families of type I antitoxins, the transposon‐associated art200 and the intergenic cis‐acting SraG sRNAs (Darfeuille et al, 2007; Ellis et al, 2015; Fontaine et al, 2016; Han et al, 2010; Kawano, 2012; Mok et al, 2010). Some other ProQ‐associated sRNAs are derived from transcriptional attenuators (SraF, rimP leader) or have been proposed to function as trans‐encoded base‐pairing sRNAs (SraL) (Argaman et al, 2001; Naville & Gautheret, 2010; Nechooshtan et al, 2009; Plumbridge et al, 1985; Silva et al, 2013; Sittka et al, 2008). Recently, one of the ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Dr Nigel Bennee.. Eukaryotes - plants and animals - contain small regulatory RNA that have been referred to as the dark matter of genetics. They are akin to the dark matter in that they are abundant and in that they prevent other components of the (genetic) universe from flying apart. Many of these small RNAs are negative regulators of gene expression. They mediate anti-viral defence and they influence regulatory mechanisms in growth and development. These RNAs may also influence evolutionary mechanisms. The discovery of these small regulatory RNAs has opened up new opportunities for the treatment and diagnosis of disease in people and in animals and for improvement of crop plants. This talk is part of the Cambridge Society for the Application of Research (CSAR) series.. ...
HIV infection occurs following a series of virus-host interactions that culminate in the integration of viral DNA into the host cell genome. This process results in the generation of a pool of latently infected CD4 T cells, resistant to therapies that target replicating viruses, and constitutes a major viral reservoir. It is hoped that drugs that prevent the establishment of this pool, such as Raltegravir, may help to address this problem. Regulatory small non-coding RNAs are likely to impact on the molecular processes of the HIV life-cycle particularly through the regulation of the cellular pathways of T cell activation. With this reasoning we have performed a deep-sequencing analysis of the profile of small RNA expression in primary human naïve CD4 T cells, and upon T cell activation and HIV infection. Our preliminary data showed a differential expression of miRNAs upon cell activation, and/or HIV infection, which is modulated by Raltegravir. Our results also supported the hypothesis that ...
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of highly conserved small non-coding RNAs that play an important part in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. A substantial number of miRNAs have been proposed as biomarkers ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have been identified as key endogenous biomolecules that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The abnormal expression or function of miRNAs has been demonstrated to be closely related to the occurrence or development of various hum
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that suppress gene expression through target mRNA degradation or translation repression. Recent studies suggest that miRNA plays an important role in multiple physiological and pathological ...
Our research focuses on the characterization and modeling of post-transcriptional regulatory networks involved in the coordination of gene expression programs in vertebrates, using a combination of cell and molecular biology studies with genomics and bioinformatics approaches. We are particularly interested in regulatory events determined by small non-coding RNAs and the interaction of RNA binding proteins with mRNA untranslated sequence elements (UTRs)and how they can be targeted to influence on gene expression outputs for therapeutic applications. ...
Complete overview on regulatory RNAs Includes the basics, methods and applicative areas involving these regulatory RNAs Written by international experts
Small RNAs derived from the DIRS-1 retrotransposon (A) Distribution of cloned DIRS-1 sequences in the two cDNA libraries in sense (top) and antisense (bottom) o
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Untranslated RNAs play a multifarious role in regulation of gene expression. Almost a hundred of small regulatory RNAs have been discovered in E.coli and more than one thousand have been predicted by various computational approaches. Most known reg
Krishna S, Yim DGr, Lakshmanan V, Tirumalai V, Koh JLy, Park JEun, Cheong JKong, Low JLeng, Lim MJs, Sze SKwan et al.. 2019. Dynamic expression of tRNA-derived small RNAs define cellular states.. EMBO Rep. 20(7):e47789. ...
Plasmid DS-SPcas from Dr. George Churchs lab contains the inserts Cas9 and tracrRNA precursor and is published in Nat Methods. 2013 Sep 29. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.2681. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid DS-SPcasN- from Dr. George Churchs lab contains the inserts Cas9, nuclease-null and tracrRNA precursor and is published in Nat Methods. 2013 Sep 29. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.2681. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
The Gram-negative pathogen Vibrio cholerae uses variety of regulatory molecules to modulate expression of virulence factors. One important regulatory element of microorganisms is small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), which control various cell functions such as expression of cell membrane proteins, mRNA decay and riboswitches. In this thesis studies, we demonstrated the roles of the sRNAs VrrA in regulation of outer membrane protein expression, biofilm formation and expression of ribosome binding proteins. In addition, we showed that VrrB, a newly discovered sRNA, played a role in amino acid dependent starvation survival of V. cholerae and might functioned as a riboswitch.. VrrA, a 140-nt sRNAs in V. cholerae, was controlled by the alternative sigma factor σE. The outer membrane protein, OmpT is known to be regulated by environmental signals such as pH and temperature via the ToxR regulon and carbon source signals via the cAMP-CRP complex. Our studies provide new insight into the regulation of OmpT by ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs of 22 nt that regulate the gene manifestation by foundation pairing with target mRNAs, leading to mRNA cleavage or translational repression. target ubiquitously indicated genes than tissue-specifically indicated genes. These results support the current suggestion that miRNAs are likely to be mainly involved in embryo development and keeping of tissue identity. Intro MicroRNAs (miRNAs), encoded in the chromosomal DNA and transcribed as longer stemCloop precursors, termed pri-miRNAs, are non-coding small (21C23 nt) RNAs that regulate the manifestation of target mRNAs [examined in (1C4)]. Upon transcription, pri-miRNA is definitely converted to mature miRNA duplex through sequential processing by RNase III family of endonucleases Drosha and Dicer (3,4). One strand of the processed duplex is integrated into a silencing complex and guided to target sequences by foundation pairing [examined in (5,6)]. This results in the cleavage of target mRNAs or ...
1. OlsenSJMacKinnonLCGouldingJSBeanNHSlutskerL 2000 Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks-United States, 1993-1997. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 49 1 62. 2. SchmidtHHenselM 2004 Pathogenicity islands in bacterial pathogenesis. Clin Microbiol Rev 17 14 56. 3. GalanJEWolf-WatzH 2006 Protein delivery into eukaryotic cells by type III secretion machines. Nature 444 567 573. 4. AbrahamsGLHenselM 2006 Manipulating cellular transport and immune responses: dynamic interactions between intracellular Salmonella enterica and its host cells. Cell Microbiol 8 728 737. 5. GalanJE 2001 Salmonella interactions with host cells: type III secretion at work. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 17 53 86. 6. WatermanSRHoldenDW 2003 Functions and effectors of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system. Cell Microbiol 5 501 511. 7. HueckCJ 1998 Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62 379 433. 8. EllermeierJRSlauchJM 2007 Adaptation to the host ...
In Escherichia coli, approximately 100 regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified experimentally and many more have been predicted by various methods. To provide a comprehensive overview of sRNAs, we analysed the low-molecular-weight RNAs (| 200 nt) of E. coli with deep sequencing, because the regulatory RNAs in bacteria are usually 50-200 nt in length. We discovered 229 novel candidate sRNAs (≥ 50 nt) with computational or experimental evidence of transcription initiation. Among them, the expression of seven intergenic sRNAs and three cis-antisense sRNAs was detected by northern blot analysis. Interestingly, five novel sRNAs are expressed from prophage regions and we note that these sRNAs have several specific characteristics. Furthermore, we conducted an evolutionary conservation analysis of the candidate sRNAs and summarised the data among closely related bacterial strains. This comprehensive screen for E. coli sRNAs using a deep sequencing approach has shown that many as-yet-undiscovered
Our knowledge in the role of small non-coding RNA molecules in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and disease in the cardiovascular system is steadily growing. Among this group of RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs) fulfill important functions in cellular behavior of endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages by influencing the protein output levels of a high variety of genes with crucial outcomes in the atherosclerotic setting. For example, miR- 155 can intensify early stages of atherosclerosis by increasing inflammatory activation and inefficient lipid handling in macrophages. However, miRNAs display also important atheroprotective roles as demonstrated for the complementary strands of miR-126, which form a dual system sustaining the endothelial proliferative reserve and promoting endothelial regeneration to counteract atherogenic effects of disturbed flow and hyperlipidemia.. Excitingly, miRNA functions are not restricted to the producing cells but can be transferred to ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a fundamental role in controlling a variety of biological functions. Emerging evidence has shown that common genetic polymorphisms in miRNAs may be associated with the development of liver cancer; however, several individually published studies showed inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the association between functional polymorphisms in miRNAs and susceptibility to liver cancer.
MicroRNA (miRNA) is small non-coding RNA with approximate 22 nt in length. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs play significant roles in pathogen-host interactions. Brucella organisms are...
Waters et al (2017) build on previous work from the Tollervey group who originally developed cross‐linking, ligation, and sequencing of hybrids (CLASH) to discover new snoRNA-rRNA interactions on snoRNA‐related yeast proteins (Kudla et al, 2011). An earlier attempt to apply this proximity ligation method to Hfq in enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) yielded few RNA hybrids (Tree et al, 2014); however, encouraged by the observation that RNase E recognizes the short seed helix formed between an sRNA and its target (Bandyra et al, 2012), the authors now focused on ligation to RNase E, which much elevated the proportion of RNA hybrids (Waters et al, 2017). Since these hybrids are significantly enriched in pairs of known sRNA seed regions and co‐regulated targets, they likely represent bona fide sRNA-mRNA interactions. What recruits RNase E to these many duplexes cannot be directly concluded from the data. However, plenty of coincidences with Hfq sites suggest a model whereby RNase E is recruited ...
This course will explore the versatility of non-genic DNA elements and non-coding RNAs across a spectrum of cellular processes, in humans and model organisms, and their implication in physiology and disease. Internationally recognized experts will present their latest findings related to the identification and functional characterization of the non-coding genome and discuss novel concepts in genome regulation and evolution, with a strong emphasis on experimental and computational tools. Thematic sessions will include long and small non-coding RNAs, transposable elements, structural DNA repeats and non-coding regulatory elements. This course will offer to young students and research fellows the opportunity to broaden their knowledge and discuss their work with an international scientific community in a warm and stimulating environment at the Institut Curie in Paris.. Application deadline: November 15, 2020. ...
Small, stable RNAs clipped from mature protein-coding RNAs can regulate gene expression. Researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) announced today the discovery of a new class of small RNAs. At the same time, they reported that their discovery suggests the presence of a strikingly novel biochemical pathway for RNA processing in which these and possibly other small RNAs are produced. The research, which is part of a multinational project called ENCODE, also provided information concerning the biological function of the new short RNA class.. The teams findings, which appeared online January 25th, ahead of print, in the journal Nature, significantly improve our understanding of how functional information is stored in the genome. The work at CSHL was spearheaded by Professors Thomas Gingeras, Ph.D., a leader of ENCODE, and Gregory Hannon, Ph.D., a world-renowned expert in small RNAs.. "These results are a good illustration of why the ENCODE project was established," says Dr. Gingeras. ...
The RNA chaperone Hfq is a key player in small RNA (sRNA)-mediated regulation of target mRNAs in many bacteria. The absence of this protein causes pleiotropic phenotypes such as impaired stress regulation and, occasionally, loss of virulence. Hfq promotes rapid sRNA-target mRNA base pairing to allow for fast, adaptive responses. For this to happen, sRNAs and/or mRNAs must be bound by Hfq. However, when the intra- or extracellular environment changes, so does the intracellular RNA pool, and this, in turn, requires a correspondingly rapid change in the pool of Hfq-bound RNAs. Biochemical studies have suggested tight binding of Hfq to many RNAs, indicating very slow dissociation rates. In contrast, the changing pool of binding-competent RNAs must compete for access to this helper protein in a minute time frame (known response time for regulation). How rapid exchange of RNAs on Hfq in vivo can be reconciled with biochemically stable and very slowly dissociating Hfq-RNA complexes is the topic of this ...
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of highly conserved small non-coding RNAs that play an important part in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. A substantial number of miRNAs have been proposed as biomarkers ...
Small non-coding RNAs, are quickly becoming cornerstones in disease diagnosis and therapy, including microRNAs (miRNA) being discovered as potent biomarkers for a number of tumors. A paper published in Molecules this month looks into the possibility of miRNAs becoming a sensitive, reliable and non-i
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate critical cell processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation by modulating gene expression. MiRNAs deregulation has been
Having just returned from an EMBO organised conference on non-coding RNA (ncRNA), I am bursting with facts about non-coding RNA which may be of interest (or not) to some of you. ncRNAs are RNAs that have been transcribed from the genome but do not get translated into protein. There is a burgeoning interest in them mainly…
Non-coding RNA is a type of RNA that does not have amino acid codes for specific proteins. The main function of non-coding RNA...