Satellite RNAs Cucumber mosaic virus (an epiphytotic of lethal necrotic disease among tomato plants in France in 1972). This was unusual because of the severity and atypical nature of the symptoms associated with infections of tomato plants (See description of cucumber mosaic in prior text). Enhanced response of tomatoes to this disease were associated with host used for virus propagation; virus grown in tobacco or tomato yielded an enhanced necrotic response, those propagated in cucurbit hosts yielded a reduce necrotic response. RNA extractions of necrotic tomato plants revealed the presence of variable amounts of a small RNA species in addition to the expected three genomic and one subgenomic RNAs. This 5th RNA species was designated CARNA 5 (i.e., CMV-associated RNA 5 or CMV satRNA), a satellite RNA. When CARNA 5 is present with CMV, symptoms of the disease are enhanced in tomato plants, while in tabasco pepper the presence of CARNA 5 tends to attenuate the disease symptoms caused by CMV. ...
Satellite RNAs Cucumber mosaic virus (an epiphytotic of lethal necrotic disease among tomato plants in France in 1972). This was unusual because of the severity and atypical nature of the symptoms associated with infections of tomato plants (See description of cucumber mosaic in prior text). Enhanced response of tomatoes to this disease were associated with host used for virus propagation; virus grown in tobacco or tomato yielded an enhanced necrotic response, those propagated in cucurbit hosts yielded a reduce necrotic response. RNA extractions of necrotic tomato plants revealed the presence of variable amounts of a small RNA species in addition to the expected three genomic and one subgenomic RNAs. This 5th RNA species was designated CARNA 5 (i.e., CMV-associated RNA 5 or CMV satRNA), a satellite RNA. When CARNA 5 is present with CMV, symptoms of the disease are enhanced in tomato plants, while in tabasco pepper the presence of CARNA 5 tends to attenuate the disease symptoms caused by CMV. ...
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Detection of the three agents of groundnut rosette disease (groundnut rosette assistor virus, groundnut rosette virus and its satellite RNA) in plants and vectoraphids by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is reported. Three procedures for extraction of total RNA from groundnut were tested, of which two were found to be useful in giving RNA of sufficient quality for RT-PCR. Of these two, the total RNA extraction kit supplied by Qiagen was found to be the most versatile for extraction of all three agents from individual vector aphids (Aphis craccivora). Both groundnut rosette assistor virus and groundnut rosette virus could be detected from total RNA extracted from a single aphid that had been exposed to either green or chlorotic rosette-infected groundnut plants. They could be detected in aphids stored in 70% ethanol for up to 30 days at room temperature. However, satellite RNA could be amplified only when total RNA extracted from two or more aphids was used. Groundnut ...
Groundnut (ArachishypogaeaL.) is an economically important edible oilseed legume, grown in western Kenya. Groundnut rosette disease (GRD) is a major constraint in sub-Saharan Africa, which can cause 100% yield losses in a severe epidemic situation. Rosette is transmitted in nature by the viruliferous aphid vector, Aphis craccivoraKoch (Homoptera: Aphididae), in a polycyclic, persistent, circulative and non-propagative manner. The disease is caused by two synergistic viruses; groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV, genus Luteovirus) and groundnut rosette virus (GRV, genus Umbravirus) associated with a satellite-ribonucleic acid (Sat-RNA). The GRD viruses occur in two predominant symptom forms; chlorotic rosette and green rosette, which override the isolated occurrence of mosaic rosette symptom. There is not enough information on the occurrence, distribution and diversity of GRAV causing GRD in western Kenya. This study characterized the virus and determined its occurrence, distribution and ...
With its design, the Subviral RNA Database could be considered as a fundamental building block for the study of these related RNAs. It is freely available via a web browser at the URL: http://subviral.med.uottawa.ca.
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
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Arabis mosaic virus ATCC ® PVAS-880™ Designation: Rhubarb (Hybridoma Line AMV 4-7) [Arabis Mosaic Nepovirus Monoclonal Antiserum] Application: Plant research
To determine the structural requirements for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants D, S and Y were used in the construction and cloning of chimeric cDNAs. D and S are necrogenic and non-necrogenic prototype variants, respectively, and Y possesses the 3′ conserved necrosis-determining region but does not cause lethal tomato necrosis. Its 5′ half harbours an insertion/deletion region that results in a molecule about 30 nucleotides longer than other variants. Tomato bioassays were conducted with RNA transcripts of all six chimeric combinations of the 5′ and 3′ halves of the three satellite variants divided by a common restriction site, as well as with a mutated chimera. None of the chimeras containing the 5′ half of Y induced lethal necrosis in tomato even when their 3′ halves were that of the D variant with the conserved necrogenic element. Chimeras with the 3′ half of Y elicited only partial or restricted necrosis which was much
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Think you know remote sensing satellites? Think again. This satellite list has the top 50 satellites that silently orbit the Earth. In 30 words or less.
ORBCOMM provides machine-to-machine communication services, and the only dedicated satellite network of its kind. The company combines global satellite, cellular, and dual-mode network connectivity, web reporting apps, software and hardware. They have been providing services for the transportation, distribution, heavy equipment, oil and gas, mining, and maritime industries, as well as the government for the past 20 years.. The new satellites will undergo In-Orbit Testing to make sure that all of the communications systems are working properly over the next few months. The company hopes that they will be ready to run, providing full commercial messaging and Automatic Identification System services, within the coming 60 days.. The satellites will help improve message delivery speed, the size of messages that can be sent and received, and more expansive coverage in remote areas. They can also communicate with ships traveling throughout the worlds oceans, helping them navigate and make the safest ...
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Analysis of NBNs Satellite footprint reveals which locations will be eligible to order NBN satellite services on the new Sky Muster satellites.
Our growing space junk problem could become an orbiting spare satellite parts sale if DARPA has its way. The DoDs research arm has launched a new program, appropriately titled Phoenix, to |a href=http://www.space.com/13339-darpa-space-junk-recycling-phoenix-satellites.html|create new satellites|/a| from the decommissioned and dead satellites currently sitting idle in geosynchronous orbit some 22,000 miles above the Earth.
NSSL is ready to bring high-speed satellite broadband services to its international customer base, the operator said April 8. The international satellite c
Select any satellite orbiting the Earth and check where is located now. Check satellite passes over your location and receive alerts on your phone
Select any satellite orbiting the Earth and check where is located now. Check satellite passes over your location and receive alerts on your phone
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A United States satellite thats used to spy on other countries is being trailed by two Russian satellites, according to the commander of the U.S. Space Force.
Constellations of small satellites orbiting close to Earth may provide faster communications and be less vulnerable than traditional ones, defense officials said Thursday. Larger geosynchronous satellites are very expensive and vulnerable to attack, said Dr. Mark Lewis, director of the Defense Research and Engineering for Modernization Office. He chaired a…
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The GPS in a car can work out where it is by picking up three satellites signals. Each satellite is in a fixed position above the Earth (in geostationary orbit) and this means that the car can work out how far it from each satellite by picking up the specific satellite signal and working out how far it has travelled. It then plots where it is on a map. ...
Heres a couple Astrodynamics calculators Ive made. Hopefully it helps someone. | Astrodynamics -- Earth Satellite Transfer Orbit calculator
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You are here 主页 > ITU Publications > Radiocommunication (ITU-R) > ITU-R Reports > Space applications and meteorology > Means of calculating low-orbit satellite visibility statistics ...
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Suppose f(x) is a differentiable function with f(-1)=2 and f(2)=-1. The differentiable function g(x) is defined by the formula g(x)=f(f(x)) A. Compute g(-1) and g(2). Explain why g(x)=0 must have at least one solution A between -1 and 2. B. Compute g(-1) and g(2) in terms ... ...
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Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) and the causal agents of groundnut rosette disease are diverse examples of disease complexes involving two RNA species, one of which is related to the genomes of luteoviruses and the other to those of umbraviruses. In both complexes, these viral RNA components may be supplemented with satellite RNAs that are dependent on the umbravirus component for replication and systemic movement, and on the luteovirus component for encapsidation and vector transmission. Sequence analysis identified regions of similarity between the satellites of groundnut rosette virus (GRV) and PEMV, particularly at the 5′ and 3′ termini and around duplicate sequence repeats present in each satellite RNA. The umbravirus GRV and the umbravirus-like PEMV RNA-2 were each able to support the replication and systemic spread of homologous and heterologous satellites. The presence of the PEMV satellite in infections with GRV had no effect on symptom expression in Nicotiana spp. or in Arachis ...
Literature Cited. 1. Adams, M. J., Antoniw, J. F., Bar-Joseph, M., Brunt, A. A., Candresse, T., Foster, G. D., Martelli, G. P., Milne, R. G., and Fauquet, C. M. 2004. The new plant virus family Flexiviridae and assessment of molecular criteria for species demarcation. Arch Virol. 149:1045-1060.. 2. Ahlawat, Y. S., Pant, R. P., Lockhart, B. E. L., Srivastava, M., Chakraborty, N. K., and Varma, A. 1996. Association of a badnavirus with citrus mosaic disease in India. Plant Dis. 80:590-590.. 3. Amico, L. A., O Shea, M. T., Castello, J. D., and Hibben, C. R. 1985. Transmission of tobacco mosaic and tobacco ringspot viruses from Moraine ash in New York. Plant Dis. 69:542.. 4. Bricker, J. S., and Stutz, J. C. 2004. Phytoplasmas associated with ash decline. J. Arboric. 30:193-199.. 5. Casalicchio, G. 1965. La punteggiatura cloronecrotica de Fragsino maggiore. Monti Boschi 16:39-46.. 6. Castello, J. D., Amico, L. A., and O Shea, M. T. 1984. Detection of Tobacco mosaic and Tobacco ringspot viruses in ...