Aim 1 will elucidate the impact of variable RNA processing on bovine macrophage response to IFNG stimulation or infection with Toxoplasma or Neospora. It will also include maturation of the bioinformatics pipeline to analyze resulting sequence data.. Aim 2 will decipher the parasites response to changes in the host cell microenvironment. It will exploit dual RNA- and Ribo-seq to reveal Toxoplasma and Neospora transcriptional and translational reprogramming in naïve and IFNG-stimulated macrophages.. The proposed work will yield a comprehensive view of the role for RNA processing in the host and pathogen, as well as new information on the extent of translation of individual gene products. In addition, it will reveal the functions of the numerous recently identified short open-reading frames (sORFs) in cattle, Toxoplasma and Neospora.. Through this project, the student should acquire a solid understanding of molecular biology, immunology, and computational biology. He/she will become proficient ...
Patrick, Kristin - Texas A&M University (TAMU) Scholar profile, educations, publications, research, grants, awards, courses, concepts, and topics. My interests lie in understanding the precise spatial-temporal resolution of RNA processing events in Mtb infected macrophages during early infection, focusing on the following questions: Are gene expression changes upon Mtb infection regulated post-transcriptionally (i.e. at the level of pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA release from chromatin, or mRNA export)? Does Mtb hijack normal post-transcriptional RNA processing events in order to promote its survival in the macrophage? Are Mtb-induced changes dependent on the ESX-1 secretion system and can we implicate any specific bacterial gene products? Working alongside Dr. Robert Watson, my group will work to understand how regulation of RNA metabolism can influence early stages of Mtb pathogenesis, with the eventual goal of modulating said pathways in order to control Mtb infection.
Dr. Yi Xing is a Professor in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics at UCLA, and the director of UCLAs Bioinformatics Interdepartmental Ph.D. Program. He received his B.S. in Molecular and Cellular Biology and B.E. in Computer Science and Technology from the University of Science and Technology of China (2001). He completed his Ph.D. training in Bioinformatics with Dr. Christopher Lee at UCLA (2001-2006), and his postdoctoral training with Drs. Wing Hung Wong and Matthew Scott at the Stanford University (2006-2007). Dr. Xing has an extensive publication record in bioinformatics, genomics, and RNA biology. His research has provided fundamental insights into the function, regulation, and evolution of post-transcriptional RNA processing in mammals. Today his group combines genomic, bioinformatic, molecular, and systems approaches to elucidate the variation and dynamics of RNA regulatory networks in development and disease. Dr. Xing has received prestigious young ...
Background Sequencing-based large screening of RNA-protein and RNA-RNA interactions has enabled the mechanistic study of post-transcriptional RNA processing and sorting, including exosome-mediated RNA...
Purpose: MicroRNAs (miR), single-stranded non-protein coding gene products, regulate gene expression through post-transcriptional inhibition, and involved in essential biological processes including obesity and insulin resistance. miR-378/378*, which are encoded by PGC-1β gene and counterbalance the metabolic actions of PGC-1β. We conducted to elucidate the role of miR378 expression in human adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation.. Methods: Study 1 (clinical study): Pair samples were obtained from subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) during elective operation in 71 men and 42 women. MiRNA and adipocytokines levels were determined by qRT-PCR. Study 2 (in vitro study): We quantitated adipocytokine transcription during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells overexpressing mimics or inhibitors of miR378 and assessed post-transcriptional regulation in HEK 293 cells expressing a renilla-luciferase-adiponectin-3UTR sequence.. Results: Study 1: The mean size, median and mode of adipocytes ...
Summary. Work in my lab is focusing on understanding how microorganisms manage to rapidly adapt (and even thrive) to sudden changes in their environment. Many pathogenic species have developed very sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently scavenge essential nutrients from the host environment and even evade the immune system.. We hypothesize that this successful rapid adaptation program is underpinned by the ability of the microorganism to very rapidly remodel its gene expression profile. Obviously, transcription factors largely dictate which genes are switched on and off during adaptive responses.. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-transcriptional regulation plays a key role in this process by shaping gene expression profiles. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are believed to play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation by modulating the translation efficiency and stability of mRNA targets. However, for the vast majority their function is ...
Förderung: 2011 bis 2016 We are constantly protected by our adaptive immune system. Its functioning requires precise control of gene expression in lymphocytes, since deregulation can cause autoimmune diseases (affecting ~5% of our population) as well as allergic reactions (~9-16%, with increasing incidence). Post-transcriptional control of gene expression is crucial in many immune decisions, however the determinants of specificity in this type of regulation are less well defined. The recently described Rc3h1 or Roquin protein prevents the development of autoimmune disease in mice. Rc3h1 destabilizes the mRNA of the inducible costimulator (ICOS), a co-receptor on T cells. ICOS is critical in the germinal center reaction in which T cell help selects B cells making high affinity antibodies. However, the molecular interactions of this posttranscriptional regulation and the pathways that specify such repressor/target relations are unsolved, and they are the focus of my work in this proposal. Rc3h1 ...
Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is achieved through the control of mRNA translation, mRNA stability and subcellular mRNA localization. Post-transcriptional regulation is mediated by RNA-binding proteins and regulatory RNAs that recognize specific sequences within target transcripts. We use both Drosophila and yeast to study the mechanisms that underlie post-transcriptional regulation.. Not Accepting Graduate Students ...
Active Motif offers research kits, assays and biocomputing systems that help researchers study the function, regulation and interactions between genes, proteins and metabolic pathways.
Post-transcriptional regulation of cancer traits and gene expression in a genetically defined, primary cell-derived model of breast tumorigenesis ...
Cellular microRNAs play an integral part in the post-transcriptional regulation of almost every cellular gene regulatory pathway and it therefore is not amazing that viruses have found ways to subvert this process. right now known that microRNAs (miRNAs) play key functions in the rules of almost every important cellular process in all multicellular eukaryotes3. Human being E-7010 cells encode over 1000 miRNA varieties, and these have been implicated in cellular differentiation, innate immunity, apoptosis and oncogenic transformation, as well as many other cell fate decisions3. Almost all cellular miRNAs are 1st transcribed as capped, polyadenylated main miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts that can encompass one or a cluster of ~22-nt miRNAs4. These miRNAs occupy the upper portion of an ~33-bp imperfect stem that is crowned by a large (10 nt) unstructured loop and flanked by solitary stranded RNA. This ~80-nt RNA structure is definitely identified by Rabbit polyclonal to nephrin. the nuclear ...
The specification of skeletal muscle cells, starting from totipotent stem cells, lies at the core of skeletal myogenesis. During this process, the genome of the...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Philipe Mendonca.. The rapid changes in gene expression that accompany developmental transitions, stress responses and proliferation are controlled by signal-mediated co-ordination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. The synthesis of new RNA with the capacity to encode proteins or with regulatory potential is a keystone event in these processes. Of equal importance is the regulation of RNA stability and localisation (on translating ribosomes or elsewhere in the cell). Thus the dynamics of gene expression involve the integration of transcription and post-transcriptional control by signal transduction networks. Understanding the mechanics of these processes and the contexts in which they are employed during haematopoiesis and immune challenge is a goal towards which important progress has been made in recent years. A significant aspect of the progress is the recognition of the importance of non-coding RNA in the development ...
Before the mRNA leaves the nucleus, it is given two protective "caps" that prevent the end of the strand from degrading during its journey. The 5′ cap, which is placed on the 5′ end of the mRNA, is usually composed of a methylated guanosine triphosphate molecule (GTP). The poly-A tail, which is attached to the 3′ end, is usually composed of a series of adenine nucleotides. Once the RNA is transported to the cytoplasm, the length of time that the RNA remains there can be controlled. Each RNA molecule has a defined lifespan and decays at a specific rate. This rate of decay can influence how much protein is in the cell. If the RNA decays more rapidly, translation has less time to occur, so less protein will be produced. Conversely, if RNA decays less rapidly, more protein will be produced. This rate of decay is referred to as the RNA stability. If the RNA is stable, it will be detected for longer periods of time in the cytoplasm. Binding of proteins to the RNA can influence its stability ...
Apobec-1 protects intestine from radiation injury through posttranscriptional regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 ...
Targeted gene- and protein-specific studies report protein regulation at the levels of protein synthesis or protein degradation (15, 45); yet, few global techniques have been developed to efficiently identify multiple targets of posttranscriptional regulation. Our developed methodology uses 2 standard high-throughput approaches tethered to computational analysis to systematically identify targets of posttranscriptional regulation. Our approach has the potential to identify a plethora of novel regulatory strategies because it can be applied to other perturbations and model systems. What we have demonstrated is that matched transcript-protein level studies can be used to identify discrepancies in standard gene regulatory models (i.e., transcript is induced to make more protein). The identification of any discrepancy or unusual regulatory pattern can be challenging to comprehend but detailed study ultimately leads to a better understanding of biology. Here we focused our studies on the large ...
Interactions between RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and mRNAs are critical to post-transcriptional gene regulation. Eukaryotic genomes encode thousands of mRNAs and hundreds of RBPs. However, in contrast to interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and DNA, the interactome between RBPs and … Continue reading →. ...
Alternative splicing (AS) is a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for gene expression regulation. Splicing decisions are affected by the combinatorial behavior of different splicing factors that bind to multiple binding sites in exons and introns.
In inflammation, the post-transcriptional regulation of transiently expressed genes provides a potential therapeutic target. Tristetraprolin (TTP) is of the factors regulating decay of cytokine mRNAs. The aim of the present ...
Investigating post-transcriptional mechanisms that drive cancer behaviour and researching novel cancer therapeutics for patients with advanced malignancies.
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Functions of the PolyA Tail 1.Promotes mRNA stability - Deadenylation (shortening of the polyA tail) can trigger rapid degradation of the mRNA 2.Enhances translation - promotes recruitment by ribosomes - bound by a polyA-binding protein in the cytoplasm called PAB1 - synergistic stimulation with Cap!
View Notes - U07_F08 from BIOBM 330 at Cornell. Unit 7 1 UNIT 7 PART A: RNA STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION PART B: TRANSCRIPTION PART C: CO- AND POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION OF RNA PART D:
Cancer cells are unique in that they can persist (grow and survive) under stressful conditions, such as hypoxia, chemotherapy, and radiation. Cancer cells do this by re-programing transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes that contribute to cell growth, invasion and survival. These post-transcriptional processes include microRNA-mediated mRNA silencing, mRNA decay, mRNA surveillance and translational repression. The induction of these processes results in the formation of Processing Bodies (P-bodies), dynamic cytoplasmic granules that contain mRNAs, microRNAs, and several mRNA processing enzymes, in the cell. In our lab, we have found that P-bodies are associated with a biological process known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells. EMT promotes the polarization and motility of epithelial cells to undergo biochemical and epigenetic changes to assume a mesenchymal phenotype and often times stem-like properties.. Recent studies indicate a role for tyrosine ...
The invention features a method of identifying a nucleic acid molecule capable of post-transcriptional gene silencing by (a) affixing a plurality nucleic acid molecules onto a surface in discrete, defined locations; (b) contacting eukaryotic cells with the affixed nucleic acid molecules under appropriate conditions for entry of the nucleic acid molecules into the cells, whereby said nucleic acid molecules are introduced into the cells in the location in which they were affixed; and (c) determining the ability of the nucleic acid molecules to post-transcriptionally silence expression of a gene in the cells, wherein post-transcriptional gene silencing at a discrete, defined location identifies the nucleic acid molecules affixed at that location as being capable of post-transcriptional gene silencing.
From NCBI Gene: microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. miRNAs bind to complementary sequences in the 3 UTR of multiple target mRNAs, usually silencing the targeted mRNA. miRNAs may trigger the cleavage of their target molecules or act as translational repressors. miRNAs are thought to target approximateley 60% of all genes and are able to repress hundreds of targets each.
In plants, transcription is initiated from a promoter located in the IGS. There are subrepeated regions upstream and downstream of a transcription starting site that have been proposed to have regulatory function (Flavell et al., 1988; Sardana et al., 1993; Komarova et al., 2004). The primary transcript is of variable length (6-9 kb) and is processed into mature 18S, 5.8S, and 26S RNA by excision of ITS1 and ITS2 and a transcribed part of the IGS (called externally transcribed spacer [ETS]). Maturation of primary transcript, post-transcriptional modifications, and ribosome assembly occur in the nucleolus. The regulation of rRNA gene expression occurs through the suppression of whole loci (termed nucleolar dominance) and at genes within the array. Large numbers of repeats are not transcribed and are packed into transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin. Formation of rDNA heterochromatin is believed to be under epigenetic control mediated by modifications of DNA and histones. In mammals, cytosine ...
In the upcoming releases, we are expecting to provide more data for a multitude of prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways for more RNA classes. We are looking for contributors, who would like to help us with supplementing data! MODOMICS and RNApathwaysDB are two complementary resources whichpresent RNA metabolism at different levels. While MODOMICS presents RNA modification pathways on the level of nucleosides, RNApathwaysDB deals with RNA metabolism with respect to whole RNA molecules. Our ultimate goal is to integrate these databases, however at the moment the users are invited to consult both of these complementary resources, depending on their needs and interests. ...
LSM2102 - Molecular Biology. This module teaches the structure, organization and function of genes and genomes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (e.g.: DNA topology, hierarchy of packaging of DNA in chromosomes and relationship to gene activity and genome dynamics). The functional roles of DNA regulatory ciselements and transcription factors involved in gene expression will be examined extensively. The molecular events of transcription; post-transcriptional modifications and RNA processing; temporal and spatial gene expression, control and regulation, signals of gene expression will be dealt with in detail. The cause and/or effect of dysfunction of gene expression and diseases will be discussed.
RNA Biology. Post-transcriptional processes play a crucial role in controlling gene expression in all organisms. Our research is aimed at elucidating the mechanisms by which such control is imposed. To identify and characterize the proteins, RNA elements, and molecular mechanisms that govern these key regulatory processes, we employ a comprehensive approach combining biochemical, molecular biological, and genetic methods. We are particularly interested in understanding how gene expression in bacterial and mammalian cells is regulated by mRNA degradation.. Detailed Research Summary ...
Peer-reviewed articles. 1: Lopatniuk M, Myronovskyi M, Nottebrock A, Busche T, Kalinowski J, Ostash B, Fedorenko V, Luzhetskyy A. Effect of "ribosome engineering" on the transcription level and production of S. albus indigenous secondary metabolites. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Sep;103(17):7097-7110. doi: 10.1007/s00253-019-10005-y.. 2: Koshla O, Yushchuk O, Ostash I, Dacyuk Y, Myronovskyi M, Jäger G, Süssmuth RD, Luzhetskyy A, Byström A, Kirsebom LA, Ostash B. Gene miaA for post-transcriptional modification of tRNA(XXA) is important for morphological and metabolic differentiation in Streptomyces. Mol Microbiol. 2019 Jul;112(1):249-265. doi: 10.1111/mmi.14266.. 3: Yushchuk O, Horbal L, Ostash B, Marinelli F, Wohlleben W, Stegmann E, Fedorenko V. Regulation of teicoplanin biosynthesis: refining the roles of tei cluster-situated regulatory genes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 May;103(10):4089-4102. doi: 10.1007/s00253-019-09789-w.. 4: Kuzhyk Y, Lopatniuk M, Luzhetskyy A, Fedorenko V, ...
The central dogma states that DNA is transcribed to generate RNA and that the mRNA components are then translated to generate proteins; a simple statement that completely belies the complexities of gene expression. Post-transcriptional regulation alone has many points of control, including changes in the stability, translatability or susceptibility to degradation of RNA species, where both cis- and trans-acting elements will play a role in the outcome. The present review concentrates on just one aspect of this complicated process, which ultimately regulates the protein production in cells, or more specifically what governs RNA catabolism in a particular subcompartment of human cells: the mitochondrion. ...
GO Process. tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation onclick="removeFacet(GO Process/tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation)"> GO Process tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation ...
Switzerland The Gene Regulation Workshop is a one day meeting in Lausanne featuring internationally recognized scientists that work on molecular mechanisms controlling transcriptional and post-transcriptional responses in gene expression to cell-type specific, developmental or environmental cues ...
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
RNA modification must be performed in order to form the various proteins needed for eukaryotes to function. RNA modification generates mature RNA. Through RNA modification, a eukaryotic cell can use fewer variations in base pairs of the genetic code (DNA and RNA) while creating proteins with diverse functions. One of the most common methods employed by eukaryotes is to use spliceosomes to cleave out introns (intervening sequences/ non coding proteins) of the pre-RNA, leaving only exons (expressed sequences/coding proteins). Cutting out the intron segments allows for the possibility of exon to rearrangement. Spicing all exons together is called mature mRNA.. Whats the advantage of spitting genes? Exons are segments that coding proteins and give proteins specific functions. This leads to the concept of exon shuffling. Exons shuffling is the rearrangement of the exons in the mRNA. These mRNA will come up with different types of proteins with different functions, binding sites, and catalytic sites. ...
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification, the most abundant internal methylation of eukaryotic RNA transcripts, is critically implicated in RNA processing. As the largest known component in the m6A methyltransferase complex, KIAA1429 plays a vital role in m6A methylation. However, its function and mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poorly defined. Quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to measure the expression of KIAA1429 in HCC. The effects of KIAA1429 on the malignant phenotypes of hepatoma cells were examined in vitro and in vivo. MeRIP-seq, RIP-seq and RNA-seq were performed to identify the target genes of KIAA1429. KIAA1429 was considerably upregulated in HCC tissues. High expression of KIAA1429 was associated with poor prognosis among HCC patients. Silencing KIAA1429 suppressed cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. GATA3 was identified as the direct downstream target of KIAA1429-mediated m6A modification. KIAA1429 induced m6A methylation
Over the last few years microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key mediators of post-transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Due to RNase activity, Drosha cleaves the 5′ and 3′ arms of the pri-miRNA hairpin [7], while DGCR8 is necessary for the interaction with the pri-miRNA for the site-specific cleavage [8]. Thus, Drosha cleaves 11 base pairs away from the single-/double-stranded RNAs at the level of the hairpin stem base [8]. The cleavage occurs co-transcriptionally [7,8,9,10] and generates a product with 2 nucleotides with 3′ overhang thats specifically identified by Exportin-5, which transports the pre-miRNAs in to the cytoplasm with a Ran-GTP-dependent system [4,11]. On the other hand, miRNAs may be generated by splicing and debranching of brief hairpin introns [12,13] known as MiRtrons, or by digesting of little nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and endogenous brief hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) utilizing a microprocessor complicated independent path ...
Autoimmune regulator (Aire) is a transcriptional regulator of peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Aire also played a role as an upstream posttranscriptional controller in these cells and that variation in its expression might be associated with changes in the interactions between miRNAs and the mRNAs encoding PTAs. We demonstrated that downregulation of Aire in vivo in the thymuses of BALB/c mice imbalanced the large-scale expression of these two RNA species and consequently their interactions. The expression profiles of a large set of mTEC miRNAs and mRNAs isolated from the thymuses of mice subjected (or not) to small-interfering (siRNA)-induced Aire gene knockdown revealed that 87 miRNAs and 4,558 mRNAs were differentially expressed. The reconstruction of the miRNA-mRNA interaction networks demonstrated that interactions between these RNAs were under Aire influence and therefore changed when
Launched in 1998, this FASEB Science Research Conference (SRC) highlights current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and enzymatic activities mediating RNA turnover in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and in viral pathways. ...
To ensure reproductive success, flowering time is sophisticatedly regulated by developmental processes that integrate various external and internal factors in plant. Recent studies showed that post-transcriptional control also plays important roles in flowering time regulation (Bezerra et al., 2004; Doyle et al., 2005; Kuhn et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2007b). In our study, AtBRNs regulate the flowering time through the post-transcriptional control of SOC1 activity. The atbrn1/atbrn2-3 double mutant flowered early under LD and SD conditions, and under SD conditions after vernalization treatment (Fig. 2a), and the early-flowering phenotype was associated with increased expression of AP1, LFY, and FT. Although these integrators have overlapping functions, SOC1 definitely regulates LFY expression (Lee & Lee, 2010). Consistently, the LFY transcript showed the highest rate of increase in these integrators. SOC1 RNA, which is not regulated by AtBRNs, could activate LFY expression in atbrn1/atbrn2-3. ...
miRNAs are important posttranscriptional regulators that are ∼18 to 24 nucleotides long. These short, noncoding RNAs bind to the 3′ untranslated regions of their target messenger RNAs (mRNA) and repress their expression. On the basis of bioinformatics and cloning studies, researchers have estimated that miRNAs may regulate 30% of all human genes. Furthermore, one miRNA may target hundreds to thousands mRNAs (5). Dysregulation of miRNAs has been detected in CRCs (7) and premalignant colonic lesions with the use of high-throughput platforms (8). In addition, investigators have identified different patterns of serum miRNAs in patients with CRCs compared with healthy controls, thus suggesting their potential role not only in the prognostic setting but also in diagnostic and screening contexts (8). Differences in miRNA abundance observed in CRCs may be attributable directly to differential expression of the primary transcripts; however, other factors may play a role in these profiles (5). First, ...
Utility of Potent Anti-viral MicroRNAs in Emerging Infectious Diseases. By Zhabiz Golkar, Donald G. Pace and Omar Bagasra. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. miRNA provides intracellular immune defense when the body is faced with challenges from transgenes, viruses, transposons, and aberrant mRNAs. miRNA molecules trigger gene silencing in eukaryotic cells. To date, more than 3,000 different human miRNAs (hsa-miRs) have been identified, and it is generally agreed that cellular gene regulation is significantly impacted by the presence of miRNAs. A single miRNA has the complex capacity to target multiple genes simultaneously. In a viral infection context, miRNAs have been connected with the interplay between host and pathogen, and occupy a major role in the host-parasite interaction and pathogenesis. While numerous viral miRNAs from DNA viruses have been identified, characterization of functional ...
Decoding of the Ile AUA codon in prokaryotes. A) Post-transcriptional modification of C34 with either lysine or agmatine switches the amino acid and codon speci
tRNAs are heavily decorated posttranscriptionally with numerous chemical modifications, which are essential for shaping up, fine tuning, and regulating all aspects of tRNA functioning. These chemical modifications are dynamically regulated and catalyzed by tRNA modification enzymes[1]. Mutations or dysregulation of tRNA modifiers have been associated with diseases. The emerging importance of tRNA modifications in diseases calls for additional work[2, 3]. How tRNA modifications are regulated by tRNA modification enzymes is in need to be studied ...
siRNAs were first discovered by David Baulcombes group in Norwich, England, as part of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants, and published their findings in Science in a paper titled "A species of small antisense RNA in posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants". Shortly thereafter, in 2001, synthetic siRNAs were then shown to be able to induce RNAi in mammalian cells by Thomas Tuschl and colleagues in a paper published in Nature. This discovery led to a surge in interest in harnessing RNAi for biomedical research and drug development. ...
Author SummaryTransposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences capable of moving from one chromosomal region to another. A considerable fraction of higher eukaryote genomes is comprised of TEs, as exemplified in human (over 40% of the genome) and maize (over 50% of the genome). There is now a growing body of evidence to suggest that TEs can be functionally important and not just
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of highly conserved small non-coding RNAs that play an important part in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. A substantial number of miRNAs have been proposed as biomarkers ...