RNA polymerase III is important for the transcription of non-protein coding RNAs which are important for protein synthesis, RNA processing and protein trafficking. In recent studies, enhanced RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription was shown to be important for cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Early studies also showed that hypoxia is a common feature in developing tumors, particularly in solid tumors. Under hypoxic conditions, protein synthesis is decreased. As RNA pol III transcribed products, tRNAs and 5S rRNA are important for translation, we were interested in whether RNA pol III transcription is affected under hypoxic conditions. Our studies determined that tRNA, but not U6 RNA gene transcription, was decreased under prolonged hypoxic conditions in cancer cells. We further examined potential change in the transcription factors that might account for the reduction of RNA pol III transcription. These studies revealed that the expression of Brf1, one of the three TFIIIB components ...
casSAR Dugability of P25441 | RPC53 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC4 - Also known as RPC4_YEAST, RPC53, RPC4. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. Essential for tRNA synthesis. The RPC53/RPC4-RPC37/RPC5 subcomplex is required for terminator recognition and reinitiation. Component of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) complex consisting of 17 subunits. Interacts with RPC37/RPC5. RPC53/RPC4, RPC37/RPC5 and RPC11/RPC10 probably form a Pol III subcomplex.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoblastoma protein disrupts interactions required for RNA polymerase III transcription. AU - Sutcliffe, Josephine E.. AU - Brown, T. R P. AU - Allison, S. J.. AU - Scott, Pamela H.. AU - White, R. J.. PY - 2000/12. Y1 - 2000/12. N2 - The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has been shown to suppress RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription in vivo (R. J. White, D. Trouche, K. Martin, S. P. Jackson, and T. Kouzarides, Nature 382:88-90, 1996). This regulation involves interaction with TFIIIB, a multisubunit factor that is required for the expression of all Pol III templates (C. G. C. Larminie, C. A. Cairns, R. Mital, K. Martin, T. Kouzarides, S. P. Jackson, and R. J. White, EMBO J. 16:2061-2071, 1997; W.-M. Chu, Z. Wang, R. G. Roeder, and C. W. Schmid, J. Biol. Chem. 272:14755-14761, 1997). However, it has not been established why RB binding to TFIIIB results in transcriptional repression. For several Pol II-transcribed genes, RB has been shown to inhibit expression by recruiting histone ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo transcription analysis utilizing chromatin immunoprecipation reveals a role for trypanosome transcription factor PBP-1 in RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription. AU - Gilinger, Gwen. AU - Luo, Hua. AU - Bellofatto, Vivian. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1642431643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=1642431643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2003.10.020. DO - 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2003.10.020. M3 - Article. C2 - 14747156. AN - SCOPUS:1642431643. VL - 134. SP - 169. EP - 173. JO - Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. JF - Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. SN - 0166-6851. IS - 1. ER - ...
Bellido F, Sowada N, Mur P, Lázaro C, Pons T, Valdés-Mas R, Pineda M, Aiza G, Iglesias S, Soto JL, Urioste M, Caldés T, Balbín M, Blay P, Rueda D, Durán M, Valencia A, Moreno V, Brunet J, Blanco I, Navarro M, Calin GA, Borck G, Puente XS, Capellá G, Valle L (2018). Association between germline mutations in BRF1, a subunit of the RNA Polymerase III Transcription Complex, and Hereditary Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology 154, 181-194 ...
In order for cells to proliferate, a certain size has to be reached, which depends primarily on the rate of translation. RNA polymerase (pol) III plays a key role in protein synthesis by catalysing the production of small, untranslated RNA molecules such as transfer (tRNA) and 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA). Indeed, recent evidence suggests that tRNAiMet production is limiting for translation and proliferation in some cell types. Therefore, the rate of pol III transcription plays a fundamental role in cellular growth and proliferation. Regulation of pol III output is mediated via a number of different mechanisms that can alter the activities of the transcription factors which are responsible for directing pol III transcription. Work presented in this thesis aimed at investigating the mechanisms behind the regulation of pol III transcription by the protein kinase CK2.. ...
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Eukaryotic cellular mRNA is believed to be synthesized exclusively by RNA polymerase II (pol II), whereas pol I produces long rRNAs and pol III produces 5S rRNA, tRNA, and other small RNAs. To determine whether this functional differentiation is obligatory, we examined the translational potential of an artificial pol III transcript. The coding region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat gene was placed under the control of a strong pol III promoter from the adenovirus type 2 VA RNAI gene. The resultant chimera, pVA-Tat, was transcribed accurately in vivo and in vitro and gave rise to Tat protein, which transactivated a human immunodeficiency virus-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct in transfected HeLa cells. pol III-specific mutations down-regulated VA-Tat RNA production in vivo and in vitro and dramatically reduced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase transactivation. As expected for a pol III transcript, VA-Tat RNA was not detectably capped at its 5 end or ...
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Low O2 tension, or hypoxia,activates a complex transcriptional program via hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) to facilitate adaptation to low-O2 conditions. This work describes two instances of HIF activity in normal tissue development and disease progression. First, HIF is partly responsible for MYC inhibition in hypoxic human colon carcinoma cells. Hypoxic MYC down-regulation requires the E3 ubiquitin ligases FBXW7 and DDB1, as well as cytosolic cathepsins. Reduced MYC protein correlated with hypoxic inhibition of RNA polymerase III-dependent MYC target genes, suggesting that MYC suppression under hypoxia occurs independently of its binding partner MAX. MYC overexpression in hypoxic cells induced cell death in a NOXA- and PUMA-dependent manner. Therefore, MYC degradation can be an adaptive strategy to promote hypoxic cell survival. Second, murine genetic models revealed an unexpected role for HIFs in the low-O2 environment of the developing epidermis. Mice lacking HIF1α and HIF2α in the epidermis
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of eukaryotic mRNA transcription, often functioning as transacting factors akin to prototypical protein transcriptional regulators. We have shown that during the heat shock response in mouse and human cells, small non-coding RNA polymerase III transcripts associate with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and represses transcription of mRNA genes. Namely, we found that mouse B2 RNA and human Alu RNA are trans-acting transcriptional repressors of Pol II (1-3). Upon heat shock many Pol II genes are repressed, while other heat shock responsive genes are highly activated (e.g. hsp 70). While the activation of genes upon heat shock has been widely studied, the mechanism of mRNA transcriptional repression upon heat shock had been unexplained. Coincident with changes in mRNA transcription, RNA polymerase III transcription of B2 RNA and Alu RNA is upregulated in response to heat shock (4). We found in mouse cells that after heat shock, B2 RNA co ...
We have used nuclear run-on, RT-PCR, and transient-transfection analyses to characterize transcription initiation and termination of LmjF chr3. Our data suggest that, like chr1 (19), specific Pol II transcription starts upstream of the most-5′ gene of the two long polycistronic clusters. We have also identified a region where Pol III transcription starts for a tRNA gene located at the convergence of these two gene clusters. Termination of Pol II transcription on both DNA strands, as well as Pol III transcription of the tRNA, seems to occur within this region. Thus, we have now characterized the transcriptional organization of two entire chromosomes and have identified sequences involved in both Pol II and Pol III transcription initiation and termination.. Identification and characterization of the Pol II promoters that drive the expression of protein-coding genes in trypanosomatids has proven to be an elusive goal, complicated by factors such as relatively low transcriptional activity and ...
When thio-T was added to GVs isolated from stage V or VI oocytes staining was essentially instantaneous (Movie 1). Both the pattern and number of amyloid-positive particles detected replicated the results seen with sectioned ovary (Fig. 2B, Fig. 1). GVs contain an actin-rich meshwork and numerous non-membrane bound multi-protein complexes associated with critical cellular processes (Feric and Brangwynne, 2013; Handwerger et al., 2005; Kiseleva et al., 2004; Mao et al., 2011; Mohamad and Boden, 2010). These complexes include: nucleoli, where RNA polymerase I transcribes and processes the RNA encoded by rRNA genes; nuclear speckles, that serve as centers for mRNA processing (Spector and Lamond, 2011); histone locus bodies, that are involved in the transcription and processing of histone gene mRNA by RNA polymerase II; and pearls, that coordinate RNA polymerase III transcription (Nizami and Gall, 2012). These particles can be identified by characteristic size, morphology, and the presence of ...
Apoptosis induction by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) appearance vectors could be a competent and promising technique for cancers gene therapy. vectors beneath the path of RNA polymerase III promoters such as for example U6 and H1 could be a powerful device for anticancer therapy (9 10 shRNA was a lot more powerful than siRNA at mediating knockdown as well as the difference resulted through the less effective delivery of siRNA towards the cytosol weighed against shRNA delivery towards the nucleus (11). Furthermore shRNA was far better compared to the artificial miRNA in mediating gene silencing individually of the prospective series and experimental establishing (12). Nevertheless the usage of shRNA manifestation vectors continues to be tied to the inefficient delivery technique especially SGI-1776 (13). Currently methods which have been regarded as for gene delivery of shRNA manifestation vectors consist of cationic lipids and liposomes infections and physical strategies. Nevertheless a number of ...
Atypical tyrosine-protein kinase that plays a central role in chromatin remodeling and acts as a transcription regulator. Involved in DNA damage response by phosphorylating Tyr-142 of histone H2AX (H2AXY142ph). H2AXY142ph plays a central role in DNA repair and acts as a mark that distinguishes between apoptotic and repair responses to genotoxic stress. Essential component of the WICH complex, a chromatin remodeling complex that mobilizes nucleosomes and reconfigures irregular chromatin to a regular nucleosomal array structure. The WICH complex regulates the transcription of various genes, has a role in RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III transcription, mediates the histone H2AX phosphorylation at Tyr-142, and is involved in the maintenance of chromatin structures during DNA replication processes. [-] ...
The present invention provides a polynucleotide comprising a RNA polymerase III promoter, a region encoding a siRNA, and a transcriptional termination element comprising five consecutive thymine residues. The invention also provides for vectors, cells and non-human transgenic animal comprising the polynucleotides of the invention as well as their use in medicaments for various conditions.
A chromatin remodeling complex that mobilizes nucleosomes and reconfigures irregular chromatin to a regular nucleosomal array structure. The WICH complex regulates the transcription of various genes, has a role in RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III transcription, mediates the histone H2AX phosphorylation at Tyr-142, and is involved in the maintenance of chromatin structures during DNA replication processes. H2AXY142ph plays a central role in DNA repair and acts as a mark that distinguishes between apoptotic and repair responses to genotoxic stress ...
DNA helicase that acts as a chromatin remodeling factor and regulates transcription. Acts as a transcription repressor by remodeling chromatin structure and recruiting histone H1 to target genes. Suppresses p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis by recruiting histone H1 and preventing p53/TP53 transactivation activity. Acts as a negative regulator of Wnt signaling pathway by regulating beta-catenin (CTNNB1) activity. Negatively regulates CTNNB1-targeted gene expression by being recruited specifically to the promoter regions of several CTNNB1 responsive genes. Involved in both enhancer blocking and epigenetic remodeling at chromatin boundary via its interaction with CTCF. Acts as a suppressor of STAT3 activity by suppressing the LIF-induced STAT3 transcriptional activity. Also acts as a transcription activator via its interaction with ZNF143 by participating in efficient U6 RNA polymerase III transcription ...
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By means of DNA microarrays we aim at determining the RNA targets of yeast RBPs that associate with ribosomes and are thus prime candidates to specifically regulate mRNA translation. Our investigations have focused on two evolutionary conserved La-motif (LM) containing proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, termed Slf1p and Sro9p. These proteins had previously been shown to bind RNA homopolymers in vitro and to preferentially associate with polysomes (Sobel & Wolin, 1999). We found that the two proteins bind to a largely overlapping set of hundreds of mRNAs. In contrast to the bona fide La protein, which binds to the 3polyuridine tail of nascent RNA polymerase III transcripts, we could not find significant association of noncoding RNAs with Sro9p and Slf1p. This is in agreement with the fact that Slf1p and Sro9p are mainly cytoplasmic whereas La proteins are primarily localized in the nucleus. We are currently analyzing and comparing the RNA targets of the two proteins by various ...
By means of DNA microarrays we aim at determining the RNA targets of yeast RBPs that associate with ribosomes and are thus prime candidates to specifically regulate mRNA translation. Our investigations have focused on two evolutionary conserved La-motif (LM) containing proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, termed Slf1p and Sro9p. These proteins had previously been shown to bind RNA homopolymers in vitro and to preferentially associate with polysomes (Sobel & Wolin, 1999). We found that the two proteins bind to a largely overlapping set of hundreds of mRNAs. In contrast to the bona fide La protein, which binds to the 3polyuridine tail of nascent RNA polymerase III transcripts, we could not find significant association of noncoding RNAs with Sro9p and Slf1p. This is in agreement with the fact that Slf1p and Sro9p are mainly cytoplasmic whereas La proteins are primarily localized in the nucleus ...
Essential for RNA polymerase III to make a number of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs, including 5S RNA, tRNA, and adenovirus-associated (VA) RNA of both cellular and viral origin. Has histone acetyltransferase activity (HAT) with unique specificity for free and nucleosomal H3. May cooperate with GTF3C5 in facilitating the recruitment of TFIIIB and RNA polymerase through direct interactions with BRF1, POLR3C and POLR3F. May be localized close to the A box.
RNA polymerase III (Pol III) is a multi-subunit complex responsible for catalyzing the transcription of DNA into RNA. POLR3A (polymerase (RNA) III…
Highly conserved negative regulator of RNA polymerase III, binds to the N-terminal domain of the Rpc160p subunit of Pol III to prevent closed-complex formation, localization and activity in S. cerevisiae are regulated by phosphorylation, mediated by TORC1, protein kinase A, and Sch9p, localizes to cytoplasm during vegetative growth and translocates to the nucleus and nucleolus under stress ...
Highly conserved negative regulator of RNA polymerase III, binds to the N-terminal domain of the Rpc160p subunit of Pol III to prevent closed-complex formation, localization and activity in S. cerevisiae are regulated by phosphorylation, mediated by TORC1, protein kinase A, and Sch9p, localizes to cytoplasm during vegetative growth and translocates to the nucleus and nucleolus under stress ...
Since Dr. van den Broeks posting Is Carl Woese losing a Kigngdom, and because a number of replies posted in response, are in reference to our work, I think it would be useful to clearly define the issues. The two main tenets of the current three domain phylogenetic view are: (i) Archaebacteria (or Archaea) constitutes a monophyletic domain which is completely distinct from the rest of the bacteria. (ii) Eukaryotic nuclear genome has directly descended from an Archaebacterial ancestor. However, both of these tenets, which were initially proposed based on either 16S rRNA data or elongation factor (EF-1,EF-2) sequences are not supported by other recent well characterized phylogenies. In terms of the relationship within the prokaryotes, if one examines all available protein sequences two common patterns are observed. (a) For a number of proteins that in general are not highly conserved in all prokaryotes (e.g. EF-1 /Tu, EF-2/G, RNA polymerase II and III subunits, GroEL/Tcp-1, etc.), the ...
Currently although we can use net_version RPC call to get the current network ID, theres no RPC for querying the chain ID. This makes it impossible to determine the current actual blockchain using the RPC. An ETH/ETC client can accidentally connect to an ETC/ETH RPC endpoint without knowing it unless it tries to sign a transaction or it fetch a transaction that is known to have signed with a chain ID. This has since caused trouble for application developers, such as MetaMask, to add multi-chain support. The same RPC endpoint is also about to be merged for ETCs go-ethereum: ethereumproject/go-ethereum#336
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製藥大廠Cytokinetics最近宣布,公司開發的用於治療肌萎縮性脊髓側索硬化症(ALS)新藥tirasemtiv,在臨床 III 期研究中未能達到目標而宣告失敗。受這一結果影響,公司宣布將暫停該藥物的研發,公司股價應聲下跌 33%。 Cytoki...
canSAR Expression of P46678 | BDP1 | Transcription factor TFIIIB component B - Also known as TFC5_YEAST, BDP1, TFC5. General activator of RNA polymerase III transcription. TFIIIB comprises the TATA-binding protein (TBP), the B-related factor (BRF) and the B component (BDP1). Interacts with TFC4.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential phosphorylation of RNA polymerase III and the initiation factor TFIIIB in saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Lee, Jaehoon. AU - Moir, Robyn D.. AU - Willis, Ian M.. PY - 2015/5/13. Y1 - 2015/5/13. N2 - The production of ribosomes and tRNAs for protein synthesis has a high energetic cost and is under tight transcriptional control to ensure that the level of RNA synthesis is balanced with nutrient availability and the prevailing environmental conditions. In the RNA polymerase (pol) III system in yeast, nutrients and stress affect transcription through a bifurcated signaling pathway in which protein kinase A (PKA) and TORC1 activity directly or indirectly, through downstream kinases, alter the phosphorylation state and function of the Maf1 repressor and Rpc53, a TFIIF-like subunit of the polymerase. However, numerous lines of evidence suggest greater complexity in the regulatory network including the phosphoregulation of other pol III components. To address this issue, we ...
RNA polymerase III promoters have been widely used to express short hairpin-RNA (shRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and small guide RNA (sgRNA) in gene functional analysis in a variety of organisms including Schistosoma mansoni. However, no endogenous RNA polymerase III promoters have been identified in Schistosoma japonicum. The lack of appropriate promoters in S. japonicum has hindered its gene functional analysis. Identification of functional promoters in S. japonicum is therefore in urgent need. Via sequence alignment, a 347 bp sequence upstream from the coding region of S. japonicum U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) was identified, cloned, and named as S. japonicum U6 (sjU6) promoter. A sgRNA sequence named as sgRNA970 was designed, and its Cas9 nuclease guiding activity was confirmed by in vitro cleavage assay. The sjU6 promoter was ligated with sgRNA970 coding sequence by overlap PCR to generate a sjU6-sgRNA970 expression cassette. The expression cassette was inserted into a lentiviral plasmid to construct the
Human transcription factor IIIC (hTFIIIC) is a multisubunit complex that mediates transcription of class III genes through direct recognition of promoters (for tRNA and virus-associated RNA genes) or promoter-TFIIIA complexes (for the 5S RNA gene) and subsequent recruitment of TFIIIB and RNA polymerase III. We describe the cognate cDNA cloning and characterization of two subunits (hTFIIIC63 and hTFIIIC102) that are present within a DNA-binding subcomplex (TFIIIC2) of TFIIIC and are related in structure and function to two yeast TFIIIC subunits (yTFIIIC95 and yTFIIIC131) previously shown to interact, respectively, with the promoter (A box) and with a subunit of yeast TFIIIB. hTFIIIC63 and hTFIIIC102 show parallel in vitro interactions with the homologous human TFIIIB and RNA polymerase III components, as well as additional interactions that may facilitate both TFIIIB and RNA polymerase III recruitment. These include novel interactions of hTFIIIC63 with hTFIIIC102, with hTFIIIB90, and with hRPC62, ...
Part of the beta sliding clamp loading complex, which hydrolyzes ATP to load the beta clamp onto primed DNA to form the DNA replication pre-initiation complex (PubMed:2040637). DNA polymerase III is a complex, multichain enzyme responsible for most of the replicative synthesis in bacteria. This DNA polymerase also exhibits 3-5 exonuclease activity. The gamma complex (gamma(3),delta,delta) is thought to load beta dimers onto DNA by binding ATP which alters the complexs conformation so it can bind beta sliding clamp dimers and open them at one interface. Primed DNA is recognized, ATP is hydrolyzed releasing the gamma complex and closing the beta sliding clamp ring around the primed DNA (PubMed:9927437).
Basal transcription from the human RNA polymerase III U6 promoter depends on a TATA box that recruits the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and a proximal sequence element that recruits the small nuclear RNA (snRNA)-activating protein complex (SNAPc). TBP consists of a conserved carboxyl-terminal domain that performs all known functions of the protein and a nonconserved amino-terminal region of unknown function. Here, the amino-terminal region is shown to down-regulate binding of TBP to the U6 TATA box, mediate cooperative binding with SNAPc to the U6 promoter, and enhance U6 transcription.. ...
What is the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic RNA Polymerase? Prokaryotic RNA polymerase produces polycistronic mRNA. Eukaryotic RNA polymerase...
Complete information for BRF2 gene (Protein Coding), BRF2, RNA Polymerase III Transcription Initiation Factor Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Results According to our data a- RNA Pol III antibodies were present in 19/126 patients with SSc (15%), including the a-RNA Pol III 11 were present in 16 and a-RNA Pol III 155 in 14. In this group of 13 (68,4%) pts had no other marker to SSc antibodies as a anticentromere, anti-topoisomerase I. Moreover, in our study group, a-RNA Pol III antibodies were more common in patients with dcSSc (p=0,049), compare to lcSSc. We also showed a significant positive association with a-RNA Pol III antibodies and occurrence of malignancy (p=0,007), SRC (p=0,001) and decreased DLCO (p=0,007). There was no relationship between the presence of a-RNA Pol III and other organ involvement, digital ulcerations or calcinosis. ...
Most prokaryotes and archaeans use the same RNA polymerase to transcribe mRNA and functional non-coding RNAs (e.g. ribosomal RNAs or transfer RNAs). Whereas eukaryotes (organisms in which the genetic material is contained within a nucleus) use specialized RNAPs, each responsible for transcribing different classes of RNA. RNA polymerase II (abbreviated RNAP II or RNA Pol II), is the enzyme responsible for transcribing the vast majority of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes. It is also responsible for transcribing the majority of genes encoding short nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and micro RNAs (miRNAs). As such, RNAP II is the most well-studied and well understood of the eukaryotic RNAPs. Genes transcribed by RNAP II are referred to as "type II genes" and comprise the vast majority of genes present in eukaryotic genomes. RNA polymerase I (RNAP I or RNA Pol I) transcribes most of the ribosomal RNAs in a eukaryotic cell. RNA polymerase III (RNAP III or RNA pol III) transcribes the tRNA precursors, as well ...
Abstract:RNA chain elongation through assembled transcription complexes was uneven but relatively rapid: at 20°C with 1 mM NTPs, the fastest RNA chains elongated at an average rate of 29 nucleotides (nt)/second, and the median RNA chains elongated at 21 to 22 nt/second on average. An average RNA chain elongation rate of 21 to 22 nt/second at 1 mM NTPs could be derived for the median RNA chain from Figure 2(d), as already mentioned, and an extrapolated value of 7.2 nt/second at 100µM NTPs from Figure 2(c). [Investigators] have found that RNA chain elongation by Pol III is also uneven. The yeast Pol III in vitro system has a relatively high rate of chain elongation: at 20°C, with 1 mM NTPs, the fastest chains elongate at 29 nt/seconds and the median elongation rate is 21 to 22 nt/seconds ...
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been proven as a revolutionary genome engineering tool. In most cases, single guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting sites have been designed as GN19NGG or GGN18NGG, because of restriction of the initiation nucleotide for RNA Pol III promoters. Here, we demonstrate that the U6 promoter from a lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori, effectively expressed the sgRNA initiated with any nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine or cytosine), which further expands the CRISPR targeting space. A detailed expansion index in the genome was analysed when N20NGG was set as the CRISPR targeting site instead of GN19NGG, and revealed a significant increase of suitable targets, with the highest increase occurring on the Z sex chromosome ...
CD34 Class III antibody [581] (PE) (CD34 molecule) for FACS. Anti-CD34 Class III mAb (GTX43098) is tested in Human, Cynomolgus monkey samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
PRX III antibody [C2C3], C-term (peroxiredoxin 3) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-PRX III pAb (GTX111887) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Avhandlingar om BLEKINGE TEKNISKA HöGSKOLA.. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
Avhandlingar om NATURVETENSKAP FYSIK. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
140 ° செல்சியசு வெப்பநிலையில் தங்கம் புரோமினுடன் வினைபுரிந்து தங்கம் (III) சேர்மத்தை உருவாக்குகிறது. ஆனால் அயோடினுடன் மிக மெதுவாக வினைபுரிந்து ஒற்றை அயோடைடை உருவாக்குகிறது. தங்கம் நேரடியாக கந்தகத்துடன் வினைபுரிவதில்லை. ஆனால் குளோரோ ஆரிக் அமிலத்தின் வழியாக அல்லது நீர்த்த தங்கம்(III) குளோரைடு வழியாக ஐதரசன் சல்பைடு வாயுவை செலுத்தினால் தங்கம்(III) சல்பைடு உருவாகிறது. அறை ...
目前胃癌的细胞毒药物治疗已进入一个平台期。随着分子生物学研究的深入开展,胃癌的诊断及治疗进入了分子水平。大量的基础和临床研究正在探索胃癌的分子靶点包括:人表皮生长因子受体2、人表皮生长因子受体1、哺乳动物雷帕霉素靶蛋白、血管内皮生长因子、血管内皮生长因子2、纤维母细胞生长因子受体2、肝细胞生长因子受体以及聚腺苷酸二磷酸核糖转移酶等。目前,仅有人表皮生长因子受体2的靶向药物曲妥珠单抗及血管内皮生长因子受体2靶向药物ramucirumab被III期临床研究证实在晚期胃癌中有显著疗效,针对上述靶点的其他药物需进一步研究和开发。
ID G3PKD3_GASAC Unreviewed; 705 AA. AC G3PKD3; DT 16-NOV-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-NOV-2011, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 38. DE SubName: Full=BRF1, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor b {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063}; OS Gasterosteus aculeatus (Three-spined stickleback). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Actinopterygii; Neopterygii; Teleostei; Neoteleostei; Acanthomorphata; OC Eupercaria; Perciformes; Cottioidei; Gasterosteales; Gasterosteidae; OC Gasterosteus. OX NCBI_TaxID=69293 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007635}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RA Lindblad-Toh K., Mauceli E., Grabherr M., Chang J.L., Lander E.S.; RL Submitted (JAN-2006) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. RN [2] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGACP00000018063} RP IDENTIFICATION. RG Ensembl; RL Submitted (SEP-2011) to ...
The hepatitis B virus X gene encodes a transcription activator which stimulates the synthesis of RNAs from a variety of class II and III promoter elements. In this report, we present a mutational analysis which genetically demonstrates that the X gene actually encodes two, and possibly three, related polypeptides from a single mRNA using alternate translation initiation from any of three in-frame AUG codons. Genetic analysis shows that translation initiates at the 5 proximal AUG of X mRNA and produces a full-length 17-kDa X protein but in addition also likely initiates at either of two conserved, in-frame AUG codons, producing two amino-terminally truncated X proteins presumably of 8 and 6.6 kDa. Expression of mRNAs capable of encoding only one of each X protein all individually transactivate class III (RNA polymerase III)-transcribed promoters. However, class II (RNA polymerase II)-transcribed promoters displayed various requirements for the different X proteins. Expression of two X proteins, ...