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Our study supports a previous conjecture that primary RdDM is required to initiate 24‐nt secondary siRNA formation. This requirement was initially suggested by the absence of secondary siRNAs in nrpe1 and drd1 mutants, which still produce primary siRNAs and the overlapping nascent RNA but lack primary RdDM (Kanno et al, 2008). The nascent RNA stably accumulates in the absence of primary RdDM in non‐silenced plants but, in that instance, is presumably a Pol II transcript (Figure 6) because it is still made in an nrpd1 mutant. The key function of primary RdDM appears to be in attracting the secondary siRNA‐generating machinery, which includes Pol IV and RDR2. The contribution may be direct if primary RdDM provides a template that is preferentially recognized by Pol IV, which has been proposed to transcribe methylated DNA (Herr et al, 2005; Onodera et al, 2005). In this model, Pol IV would transcribe the nascent RNA from the methylated template (Figure 6). An indirect contribution of primary ...
The Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi can survive intracellular freezing. Genetic studies indicate the culture strain (now designated as Panagrolaimus sp. DAW1) is a different species to the P. davidi of field origin. This paper reports further attempts both to isolate DAW1 from Antarctic soils and to culture P. davidi itself. Sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene of 151 individuals indicates that DAW1 is rare in the field, but characterising two new isolates shows that, nevertheless, it is present. Panagrolaimus davidi is common in the field, but cannot be cultured using the media tested here. These two species are difficult to distinguish morphologically, apart from the absence of males in DAW1 and its longer recurved tail. Whilst it is possible that DAW1 is an introduced species, the sites at Shackletons hut at Cape Royds are dominated by P. davidi, which is clearly an endemic species.
The germ cells of multicellular organisms protect their developmental potential through specialized mechanisms. A shared feature of germ cells from worms to humans is the presence of nonmembrane-bound, ribonucleoprotein organelles called germ granules. Depletion of germ granules in Caenorhabditis elegans (i.e., P granules) leads to sterility and, in some germlines, expression of the neuronal transgene unc-119::gfp and the muscle myosin MYO-3. Thus, P granules are hypothesized to maintain germ cell totipotency by preventing somatic development, although the mechanism by which P granules carry out this function is unknown. In this study, we performed transcriptome and single molecule RNA-FISH analyses of dissected P granule-depleted gonads at different developmental stages. Our results demonstrate that P granules are necessary for adult germ cells to downregulate spermatogenesis RNAs and to prevent the accumulation of numerous soma-specific RNAs. P granule-depleted gonads that express the ...
Distinct roles for RDE-1 and RDE-4 during RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans.: RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular defense mechanism that uses double-
Small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), regulate most important biologic processes in eukaryotes, such as cell division and differentiation. Although sRNAs have been extensively studied in various eukaryotes, the role of sRNAs in the early emergence of eukaryotes is unclear. To address these questions, we deep sequenced the sRNA transcriptome of four different stages in the differentiation of Giardia lamblia, one of the most primitive eukaryotes. We identified a large number of endo-siRNAs in this fascinating parasitic protozoan and found that they were produced from live telomeric retrotransposons and three genomic regions (i.e., endo-siRNA generating regions [eSGRs]). eSGR-derived endo-siRNAs were proven to target mRNAs in trans. Gradual up-regulation of endo-siRNAs in the differentiation of Giardia suggested that they might be involved in the regulation of this process. This hypothesis was supported by the impairment of the differentiation ability of ...
The elt-1 RNAi phenotype provides a useful insight into the function of seam cells during postembryonic development. The loss of alae in the adult cuticle confirms the role of seam cells in producing this structure, which has previously been shown by laser ablation studies (Singh and Sulston, 1978). The apparently normal appearance of the underlying cuticle is also consistent with these previous studies and presumably this is derived from the dorsal/ventral hypodermis. RNAi of elt-1, applied during larval development, has a severe effect on the integrity of adult worms within a few hours of the L4-adult moult. Adult hermaphrodites show a `burst-vulva phenotype, in which the uterus herneates through the vulva. This is likely to be a direct consequence of seam-cell loss because the lateral seam anchors the vulval and uterine cells in position by virtue of the utse cell connection (Michaux et al., 2001; Newman et al., 2000; Sharma-Kishore et al., 1999). This hypothesis is supported by the ...
Fig. 4. Excess GLD-1 causes premature meiotic entry. (A) gld-1(oz10gf) has a smaller proliferative zone than wild-type animals. Dissected gld-1(oz10gf) and wild-type gonad arms from animals grown at 20°C to one day past L4, stained with REC-8- and HIM-3-specific antibodies, and DAPI. Proliferative zone defined as the number of cell diameters from the DTC that are REC-8-positive with all cells at that distance also REC-8-positive. n=15 per genotype. t-test P,10-7. The oz10 allele contains a deletion in the gld-1 3′UTR, as well as a missense mutation in an amino acid conserved in some, but not all homologues (Jones and Schedl, 1995). The increased GLD-1 accumulation is probably due to the mutant 3′UTR causing increased translation (Crittenden et al., 2002). However, we cannot rule out the possibility that the missense mutation affects GLD-1 levels or GLD-1 activity. (B) gld-1(oz10gf) enhances the `Glp phenotype of glp-1(bn18) at 20°C. The graph shows the percentage of animals that have lost ...
1. Baldwin, J.G., Nadler, S.A., and Wall, D.H. 1997. Nematodes: Pervading the Earth and Linking all Life. Pp. 176-191. In: Raven, P.H. (ed.). National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 625 pp.. 2. Bargmann, C. I. 1998. Neurobiology of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome. Science 282:2028-2033.. 3. Bargmann, C. I. And Mori, I. 1997. Chemotaxis and Thermotaxis. Pp. 717-737. In: Riddle, D.L., Blumenthal, T., Meyer, B.J. and Priess, J.R. (eds). C. elegans II. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, NY 1222 pp.. 4. Bird, D.M. and Opperman, C. H. 1998. Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Nematol. 30:299-308.. 5. Bird, D.M., Opperman, C.H., Jones S.J.M., and Baillie, D.L. 1999. The Caenorhabditis elegans gemome: a guide in the post genomics age. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 37:247-265.. 6. Blaxter, M. 1998. Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode. Science 282:2041-2046.. 7. Blaxter, M. and Bird, D. 1997. Parasitic nematodes. Pp. 851-878. In: Riddle, D.L., Blumenthal, T., Meyer, B.J. and Priess, J.R. (eds). C. ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is a widespread and widely exploited phenomenon which has potential as a strategy for both the treatment of disease and pest control. RNAi results in down‐regulation of a specific gene in response to the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). RNAi is one of a family of processes mediated by small non‐coding RNAs [1], [2]. In Caenorhabditis elegans, and in a number of other organisms, RNAi is systemic so that the introduction of dsRNA into one tissue triggers gene silencing in other tissues [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]. Furthermore, systemic RNAi enables C. elegans and other organisms to exhibit environmental RNAi [5]. For example, feeding C. elegans on bacteria expressing dsRNA initiates a widespread RNAi response [8], [9]. Studies in C. elegans and other organisms have provided mechanistic insights into RNAi [4], [10], [11], [12], [13], although the role of exogenous RNAi in the normal life of C. elegans and other animals remains unclear [14].. Whilst C. elegans ...
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00324 (0.00121 - 0.00866), b=3.08 (2.84 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ...
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans may hold the key to brain-like computational architectures: Si elegans will provide the scientific community with a reconfigurable, scalable and modular neuromimetic open-access computational platform to explore neural principles that give rise to complex behaviour and to derive a neuro-inspired technological blueprint for a new era of brain-like computational architectures.The Si elegans project started on April 1st 2013. ...
The C. elegans grinder is an intricately designed, macromolecular structure located in the terminal bulb of the pharynx. It acts as the teeth of C. elegans, crushing bacteria before they are passed to the intestine. The ...
A mutation in the let-653 gene of Caenorhabditis elegansresults in larval death. The lethal arrest is concurrent with the appearance of a vacuole anterior to the lower pharyngeal bulb. The position...
After three doses of the Zika vaccine known as GLS-5700, all 40 healthy volunteers in the study developed Zika-specific antibodies.
Soil nematode about 1mm long that lives in temperate regions. Doesnt really have a common name... except maybe tiny worm or something generic like th...
The main focus of our research is the study of neuronal function and dysfunction, using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Among...