The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease, including HIV infection; alcohol and other drug use; tobacco; unhealthy dietary behaviors; inadequate physical activity. YRBSS also measures the prevalence of obesity and asthma among youth and young adults.
The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is the largest U.S. public health surveillance system and collects data on health behaviors among high school students in grades 9-12.
Risk Perception Leading to Risk Taking Behaviour Amongst Farmers in England and Wales, Health and Safety Executive (HSE), ADAS Consulting Ltd books
The majority of young people in Middlesbrough dont get involved in risk taking behaviour, but if they do, there are a number of professionals and agencies who work to support them.
Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the influences of colorism on perceived harm of sexual risk taking behaviors among 243 African American adolescent females. Additionally, this study sought to examine the potential moderating role of cultural pride reinforcement messages and cultural endorsement of the mainstream messages. Hierarchal linear regressions were conducted to examine the studys hypotheses. The findings revealed that higher levels of acceptance of Eurocentric standards of beauty were associated with lower levels of perceived harm of sexual risk taking variables. However, further analyses revealed that this relationship did not remain significant. Additionally, neither cultural pride reinforcement messages or cultural endorsement of the mainstream messages served as significant moderators in the relationship between colorism and perceived harm of sexual risk taking.. Colorism and perceived sexual risk taking among African American adolescent girls: where does ...
In everyday life, we continuously make decisions, assuming the risk by making choices on material possessions or our body. Bodily signals may support the decision-making process, informing us about possible outcomes. Sensibility for such internal bodily changes influences the way we perceive the environment, and it can boost the body-related stimuli processing. Thus, the question arises of whether the individual sensibility to interoceptive signals modulates decision-making in the presence of biological stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we administered 50 healthy subjects with the Balloon Analogue Risk Task, in which participants were required to inflate a virtual balloon, and a modified version of it, in which they inflated a virtual body. We found that interoceptive sensibility predicted risk-taking behaviour only in the presence of body-related stimuli. Our results provided new evidence on the role of interoceptive sensibility in complex cognitive functions, such as risk-taking behaviour, which
This study aimed to determine demographic, behavioural and self-report disease/treatment variables among HIV-infected individuals (n = 666) that predict unprotected intercourse with a partner of unkno
Researchers are increasingly exploring the role of emotions in interactive decision‐making. Recent theories have focused on the interpersonal effects of emotions-the influence of the decisionmakers expressed emotions on observers decisions and judgments. In this paper, we examine whether people assess others risk preferences on the basis of their emotional states, whether this affects their own behavior, and how this assessment matches others actual behavior. To test these ideas, we used an experimental Stag Hunt game (n = 98), and included non‐trivial financial consequences. Participants were told (truthfully) that their counterparts previous task had left them happy, fearful, or emotionally neutral. People who were told their counterparts were fearful reported that they expected less risky decisions from these counterparts than people told their counterparts were neutral or happy. As a result, given that the Stag Hunt is a coordination game, these participants were themselves less
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced risk-taking behavior during frontal oscillatory theta band neurostimulation. AU - Dantas, Aline M.. AU - Sack, Alexander T.. AU - Brüggen, Elisabeth. AU - Jiao, Peiran. AU - Schuhmann, Teresa. N1 - data source: experiment in partnership with FPN. PY - 2021/5/15. Y1 - 2021/5/15. N2 - BackgroundMost of our decisions involve a certain degree of risk regarding the outcomes of our choices. People vary in the way they make decisions, resulting in different levels of risk-taking behavior. These differences have been linked to prefrontal theta band activity. However, a direct functional relationship between prefrontal theta band activity and risk-taking has not yet been demonstrated.ObjectiveWe used noninvasive brain stimulation to test the functional relevance of prefrontal oscillatory theta activity for the regulatory control of risk-taking behavior.MethodsIn a within-subject experiment, 31 healthy participants received theta (6.5 Hertz [Hz]), gamma (40 Hz), and sham ...
Four focus groups , each of 10-15 males, ages 20-50 years old, MSM will be conducted by a medical sociologist. Two groups will be HIV negative participants and two groups of HIV positive MSM. Every group will meet for two hours. The focus group will be recorded and the collected data will be processed further for evaluation and extraction of the relevant information.. The volunteers will sign an inform consent prior to entrance to the study. ...
Four focus groups , each of 10-15 males, ages 20-50 years old, MSM will be conducted by a medical sociologist. Two groups will be HIV negative participants and two groups of HIV positive MSM. Every group will meet for two hours. The focus group will be recorded and the collected data will be processed further for evaluation and extraction of the relevant information.. The volunteers will sign an inform consent prior to entrance to the study. ...
Sex differences in risk seeking behaviour, emergency hospital admissions, and mortality are well documented. Males are more likely to be admitted to an
A growing literature on poverty traps emphasizes the links between multiple equilibria and risk avoidance. However, multiple equilibria may also foster risk‐tak
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was developed by the Centers for Disease Control to monitor priority health-risk behaviors among students nationwide. Chicago Public Schools has administered the Youth Risk Behavior Survey since the surveys inception in 1991. The YRBS is administered every other year to a random sample of middle school and high school classrooms. Student participation is voluntary and anonymous. Topics covered include unintentional injuries and violence, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors, dietary behaviors, physical activity and obesity and asthma. The data are used to:. ...
A prospective study of alcohol involvement and the dual‐systems model of adolescent risk‐taking during late adolescence and emerging ...
In contrast to humans and most other animals, rhesus macaques strongly prefer risky rewards to safe ones with similar expected value. Why macaques prefer risk while other animals typically avoid it remains puzzling and challenges the idea that monkeys provide a model for human economic behavior. Here we argue that monkeys risk-seeking preferences are neither mysterious nor unique. Risk-seeking in macaques is possibly induced by specific elements of the tasks that have been used to measure their risk preferences. The most important of these elements are (1) very small stakes, (2) serially repeated gambles with short delays between trials, and (3) task parameters that are learned through experience, not described verbally. Together, we hypothesize that these features will readily induce risk-seeking in monkeys, humans, and rats. Thus, elements of task design that are often ignored when comparing studies of risk attitudes can easily overwhelm basal risk preferences. More broadly, these results highlight
N.C. Division of Public Health / Surveillance and Evaluation Team / 919-707-5425 / www.ncpublichealth.com State of North Carolina / Department of Health and Human Services / www.dhhs.state.nc.us N.C. DHHS is an equal opportunity employer and provider. The N.C. Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N.C. YRBS) provides a critical source of public health data for understanding the scope of injury-related problems and measuring progress toward overall goals among public school students. N.C. YRBS is a comprehensive statewide sample of 2,000 middle and 2,300 high school students from across the state. Every other spring in odd years, a core set of injury-related questions are asked along with other health and risk-factor questions. Risk-factor variables include information such as alcohol use, seat belt use and physical assault. The sampling scheme is intended to generate a statewide representative sample of weighted data. Increasing school district participation and data utilization are two keys for future ...
REFERENCES. 1. Schmidt MI, Duncan BB, Silva GA, Menezes AM,Monteiro CA, Barreto SM, et al. Chronic noncommunicable diseases in Brazil: Burden and current challenges. Lancet. 2011; 377(9781):1949-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60 135-9. [ Links ] 2. MacArthur GJ, Smith MC, Melotti R, Heron J,Macleod J, Hickman M, et al. Patterns of alcohol use and multiple risk behaviour by gender during early and late adolescence: The ALSPAC cohort. J Public Health. 2012; 34(Suppl. 1):i20-30. http://dx. doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fds006. [ Links ] 3. Hurrelmann K, Richter M. Risk behaviour inadolescence: The relationship between developmental and health problems. J Public Health. 2006; 14(1):20-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10389-005-0 005-5. [ Links ] 4. Spring B, Moller AC, Coons MJ. Multiple healthbehaviours: Overview and implications. J Public Health. 2012; 34(Suppl. 1):i3-10. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1093/pubmed/fdr111. [ Links ] 5. Guedes DP, Guedes JE, Barbosa DS, Oliveira JA,Stanganelli LCR. ...
Abstract:We elicit and estimate risk preferences for a pool of young adults in the UK, and explore their links with healthy eating and risky health behaviours. We construct the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) as an overall indicator of nutritional quality, and we use it to complement the body mass index BMI. While for females we find no significant association between the BMI and risk preferences, males with high BMI appear more risk-seeking. However, this association disappears when controlling for the quality of the diet. For males, the HEI is significantly associated with risk preferences. Males smoking status is not associated with risk preferences.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mental health, social support, and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among HIV-negative adolescent sexual minority males. T2 - three U.S. cities, 2015. AU - For The NHBS-YMSM Study Group. AU - Agnew-Brune, Christine B.. AU - Balaji, Alexandra B.. AU - Mustanski, Brian. AU - Newcomb, Michael E.. AU - Prachand, Nik. AU - Braunstein, Sarah L.. AU - Brady, Kathleen A.. AU - Hoots, Brooke E.. AU - Smith, Justin S.. AU - Paz-Bailey, Gabriela. AU - Broz, Dita. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - We examined the association between mental health issues, social support, and HIV among adolescent sexual minority males (SMM), who are disproportionally affected by HIV. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men (NHBS-YMSM) data among SMM aged 13-18 years were collected in three cities (Chicago, New York City, and Philadelphia). Separate log-linked Poisson regression models were used to estimate associations between mental health issues and social support ...
This study looks at the effects of ownership structure, and on the risk taking behaviour of banks in Ghana. Using data from twenty-one (21) banks during 2000-2010, the study employs random effects panel data regressions. The results show that banks prefer to hold high excess reserves instead of lending to borrowers when they perceive the markets to be risky. Locally owned banks tend to be more efficient in managing their risk than foreign-owned banks while closed corporations tend to perform better in managing risk than locally-owned banks. ...
Although some adults may want this to be the standard, it is far from accurate in describing the world of todays teenagers. The reality is that sexual behavior is almost universal among American adolescents. Eighty-five percent of young adults ages 18 to 24 and 56 percent of adolescents ages 15 to 17 report having been with someone in an intimate or sexual way (including but not limited to intercourse).1 In addition, 66 percent of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 24 report having engaged in oral sex.2. According to data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 48 percent of all high school students and 65 percent of high school seniors report having engaged in sexual intercourse.3 A similar survey of college students found that 80 percent of students 18 to 24 years of age had engaged in sexual intercourse.4 In addition, studies have found that even those young people who remain virgins during their teen years ...
Does the prospect of taking a risk make you panic, or does it send a thrill down your spine? Everyone has a different level of comfort with taking chances. Among others things, risk-taking preferences are influenced by past experience, environment, and potential for reward. However, even under similar conditions, two individuals could easily display discrepant risk-taking behavior, providing evidence for the considerable role of personality in risk-taking. The questions on this test are designed to determine your level of comfort with risk-taking, and how it could affect your career.. To determine your propensity to take risks, answer the following questions honestly. If a given situation does not apply to you, select the answer that corresponds best to your conceivable reaction to that situation.. ...
The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including-. 2015 US Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ...
This dataset includes data on adolescents diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for DNPAOs Data, Trends, and Maps database, which provides national and state specific data on obesity, nutrition, physical activity, and breastfeeding. For more information about YRBSS visit https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm ...
This dataset includes data on adolescents diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for DNPAOs Data, Trends, and Maps database, which provides national and state specific data on obesity, nutrition, physical activity, and breastfeeding. For more information about YRBSS visit https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm ...
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a growing problem nationwide, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009), there are approximately 19 million new STIs each year, and almost half are among young people ages 15 to 24. Untreated STIs are estimated to cause at least 24,000 women to become infertile each year (CDC). Students with low self-esteem, consumed more alcohol, had more sexual partners, and had more HIV risk-taking behaviors than other students (Gullette & Lyons, 2006). What is not clear from the literature is how psychological variables affect risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between self-esteem, alcohol use, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) database, which is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents. The Add Health cohort has been ...
What issues affect looked after children?. Children in care and care leavers are more likely to experience poor health, educational and social outcomes. Young people leaving care in the UK are five times more likely to attempt suicide than their peers.(28). Few children or young people choose to become looked after. A high percentage enter the care system as a result of abuse or neglect, their experiences are also likely to have included one or more of the following: domestic violence, substance misusing parent(s), poverty, homelessness, the loss of a parent, or inadequate parenting. Whilst many remain in the care system only for brief periods, a considerable number spend a significant proportion of their childhood in care.. Children and young people who are looked after have the same core health needs as other young people, but what happens during childhood influences adult well-being and the likelihood of risk taking behaviours, employment, the development of ill health and disease. Looked ...
You will provide advice and guidance, identify evidence based specialist training and develop curriculum resources to support schools to improve the health and wellbeing of children and young people. Areas of responsibility could include building resilience, emotional health and wellbeing, sexual health, healthy relationships, diet and nutrition, physical activity, healthy eating, smoking and tobacco, substance misuse and risk taking behaviours. You will quality-assure the work of external providers of public health/health and wellbeing interventions, and work with schools and providers to embed a financially sustainable model of training delivery in the specified areas ...
The model developed by using further analysis of our data demonstrated some other associations. Children were more likely to wear helmets than adults, had a higher incidence of accidents in summer months, and were less likely to be involved in motor vehicle accidents. Summer cycling accidents were less likely to involve motor vehicles, presumably because of improved weather conditions and longer day length as well as proportionately more children on bicycles. Our model was unable to show direct links between some factors. For example, helmet use and motor vehicle involvement were conditionally independent for each given age group and for whether a head injury was sustained. This absence of a difference in the rate of motor vehicle involvement for helmet wearers and non-wearers sheds some light on the vexed issue of risk taking behaviour since it means within each age group and head injury category helmet wearers and non-wearers were just as likely to be involved in the more serious type of ...
This license allows readers to share, copy, distribute, adapt and make commercial use of the work as long as it is attributed back to the author and distributed under this or a similar license. For more information, please see CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO. ...
At baseline (October to November 2014), 37 peer support groups for YLHIV were established in Luwero and Nakasongola districts. During this same time period, we recruited a cohort of 473 support group members, aged 15-24 years. After a 9-month intervention period (January to September 2015), we completed the end-line survey with 350 members of the original cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis applied to longitudinal data was used to assess changes in key outcomes from baseline to end line.. Results ...
Strawbridge, R. , Ward, J., Lyall, L., Tunbridge, E. M., Cullen, B. , Graham, N., Ferguson, A., Johnston, K., Lyall, D. , Mackay, D. , Cavanagh, J., Howard, D. M., Adams, M. J., Deary, I., Escott-Price, V., ODonovan, M., McIntosh, A. M., Bailey, M. , Pell, J. , Harrison, P. and Smith, D. (2019) Genetics of self-reported risk-taking behaviour, trans-ethnic consistency and relevance to brain gene expression. [Data Collection] ...
The proposed Center for Prevention Implementation Methodology (Ce-PIM) for Drug Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior is designed to accelerate research through the ap...
Three measures of risk-taking and four measures of performance were employed to investigate the effects of fear of failure (FF) on these two variables. All Ss were required to participate in all tests and seven hypotheses were formulated and examined within the general areas stated above. In the area of risk-taking, it was found that as the subjective failure became more intense, the high FF Ss tended to take fewer and fewer risks. Likewise, FF was found to have a debilitating effect on three of the performance tasks employed. The previous finding that high FF Ss set wider confirming intervals (CIs) than low FF Ss was also substantiated. Two questionnaires (Risk-Taking and Performance) were administered in attempts to obtain more direct indices of the effects of FF motivation in these two areas. Neither questionnaire proved to be as successful as the behavioral measures. (Author)(*PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)
This article explores the influence of competitive conditions on the evolutionary fitness of risk preferences, using the professional competition between fund managers as a practical example. To explore how different settings of competition parameters, the exclusion rate and the exclusion interval, affect individual investment behavior, an evolutionary model is developed. Using a simple genetic algorithm, two attributes of virtual fund managers evolve: the amount of capital they invest in risky assets and the amount of excessive risk they accept, where a positive value of the latter parameter indicates an inefficient investment portfolio. The simulation experiments illustrate that the influence of competitive conditions on investment behavior and attitudes towards risk is significant. What is alarming is that intense competitive pressure generates risk-seeking behavior and diminishes the predominance of the most skilled. Under these conditions, evolution does not necessarily select managers with ...
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently analyzed data from Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) conducted between 1991 and 1997 ...
Purpose: Teenagers have high rates of risky behavior including drug/alcohol use, smoking, sexual activity which affect health. Risky behaviors are prevalent in the United States, England, Australia, Canada and among Newark teenagers. This presentation describes: global perspectives on risky behaviors in teenagers; an intervention to reduce risky behaviors; gender differences on outcomes. The intervention guided by Banduras social learning theory focused on sexuality discussions, mentoring, health/fitness classes, cultural events, community service, and recognition. Methods: Pretest post-test design. Four intervention (n=230 girls;n=221 boys)/five comparison schools(n=134 girls; n=110 boys) participated. Intervention participants were randomly selected. Comparison participants were convenience sample. Intervention/comparison schools were matched on demographic variables. Instruments: AFL Core and Demographic Questionnaires. Pearson Chi Square, Mann Whitney U statistics and .05 level of ...
The 2015 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey [2.77MB,180Pages, 508] found that nearly 12% of high school females reported physical violence and nearly 16%
Background: Recent evidence suggests the effectiveness of stepwise, targeted approaches for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases with combinations of web-based and face-to-face interventions showing promising results. Objective: This paper reports on 1-year changes in health-risk behaviors, BMI, self-rated health, mental well-being, and risk of disease at 1-year follow-up after participation in a stepwise intervention that targeted persons at high risk of disease and persons with health-risk behavior. To this end, we distinguish between participants who took up the full intervention (web-based plus face-to-face) and those who received only the web-based intervention. Methods: The Early Detection and Prevention (Danish acronym: TOF) pilot study was conducted as a nonrandomized, 1-year follow-up intervention study in two municipalities in the Region of Southern Denmark. A total of 9400 citizens born between 1957 and 1986 (aged 29 to 60 years) were randomly sampled from participating general
(HealthDay)-Bisexual females and not sure male students report higher prevalences for many sexual risk behaviors than heterosexual students, according to research published in the Sept. 14 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Data from the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapies were examined to assess whether there are associations between neurocognitive functioning and risky behaviors among people living with HIV. Among the 658 HIV positive study participants examined, median age was 41 years; 57% were white, 32% were black, and 11% were Hispanic or of another ethnicity; 77% were male; 53% were men who have sex with men; median baseline cd4 count was 464 cells/mm3; 78% had a viral load ...
The principal objective of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) is to monitor risk behaviors and access to prevention services among three pop...
RAMAFIKENG, Matumo Catherine; ROSHAN, Galvaan e AMESUN, Seyi Ldele. Tobacco use and concurrent engagement in other risk behaviours: A public health challenge for occupational therapists. S. Afr. j. occup. ther. [online]. 2019, vol.49, n.1, pp.26-35. ISSN 2310-3833. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2310-3833/2019/vol49n1a5.. INTRODUCTION: Occupational therapists are concerned about what people do and how that impacts their health and well-being. However, occupational therapy contributions to the cessation and prevention of tobacco use remain limited. Tobacco use constitutes occupational performance that poses a serious threat to health, well-being and quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to report the extent of tobacco use and discuss the nature of risk behaviours among high school learners in the city of Maseru, Lesotho METHOD: The paper draws on findings of a larger study that aimed to establish the prevalence of risk behaviours among high school learners in Lesotho. 1121 learners aged 12-27 ...
Several studies have examined the effects of state cigarette tax increases on youth substance use over the 1990s, with most -- but not all -- finding that higher taxes reduce youth consumption of tobacco. We advance the literature by using data from the 1991-2005 waves of the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), providing information on over 100,000 high school age youths. We also are the first to make use of hundreds of independently fielded state and local versions of the YRBS, reflecting data from over 750,000 youths. Importantly, these data are to our knowledge the only sources of relevant information on youth smoking that were explicitly designed to be representative of the sampled state or locality. We estimate two-way fixed effects models of the effect of state cigarette taxes on youth smoking, controlling for survey demographics and area and year fixed effects. Our most consistent finding is that -- contrary to some recent research -- the large state tobacco tax increases of the ...
Data from the MYRBS provide accurate estimates of the prevalence of risk behaviors among public high school students in the Commonwealth, and are used to determine statewide changes in the prevalence of these behaviors over time. The data are important for planning health education and risk prevention programs. Additionally, the results of the MYRBS contribute to a national database of adolescent risk behaviors. Through careful examination of the MYRBS results, state and local agencies can use the data to set priorities for improving the health of students across the Commonwealth.. Results for individual schools, districts, towns, or regions are not possible from the statewide MYRBS, as survey methodology is designed to give state level estimates only. However, many schools and districts choose to conduct or participate in local surveys to gather data about the risk behaviors of their own students. While often confused with the MYRBS; these surveys are not administered, monitored or tracked by ...
Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSS) are conducted and analyzed by MSDHs Health Data and Research Unit to evaluate adolescent health and risk behaviors such as smoking, drug use, exercise and diet.. ...
Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSS) are conducted and analyzed by MSDHs Health Data and Research Unit to evaluate adolescent health and risk behaviors such as smoking, drug use, exercise and diet.. ...
Cressy noted that the spirits industry has been a part of this positive trend through the support of the Federal Trade Commissions We Dont Serve Teens program and the educational initiatives of the Foundation for Advancing Alcohol Responsibility (www.responsibility.org), which provides tools to parents, schools and communities to address underage drinking and drunk driving ...
A study in the January issue of the Journal of School Health presents data from the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey -- Middle School (YRBS-M). The YRBS-M ...
Adolescent risky behavior and depression are a national health concern. in child development, including high risk behavior, drug involvement, depression, and.. Youth with low risk orientation may be less tolerant of such risk-taking behaviors. On the other hand, risk-taking behavior can be thought of as the willingness to participate in behaviors that expose the adolescent to an increased likelihood of physical or mental harm. High risk-taking adolescents may be more likely to drink and drive, have. health and ones health behavior. In the United States, men and boys are more likely than women and girls to adopt a variety of attitudes and beliefs that undermine their health and well-being, including beliefs related to perceived invulnerability to risk and personal control over health and masculinity (Courtenay, 2000b, 2000c, in press).. by the CDC. This studys sample engaged in significantly less risk behaviors overall than did a general sample of adolescents the same age. This indicates that ...
Ottawa County teens are participating less in risky behaviors compared to teens in the rest of the state and nation.Thats according to data compiled from the countys 2013 Youth Assessment Survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Combined, the biennial surveys ask thousands of questions about sexual behavior, safety, drug use and community experience.Based on the responses and compared to the state and national figures, Leigh Moerdyke, Community Youth Development
Having sex at early age, having multiple sexual partners, having sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs and unprotected sexual behaviors are the common characteristics of risky sexual behavior which increases risk of individuals to sexuality and reproductive health problems. Risky sexual behavior is the most common problem in adolescents and young adults which may expose individuals for permanent social, economical, psychological and physical problem. So that this study focus on assessment of risk sexual behavior using institution based cross-sectional study design on 287 randomly selected subjects among Aksum University students. Almost 60% students reported to have ever had sexual activity. Of which 86 (83.5%) and 112 (64.4%) reported having inconsistent condom use and multiple sexual partners respectively. Even though more than half of first sexual intercourse (61.5%) starts due to their desire but still peer pressure and alcohol have significant effect. Similarly the study indicated that
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Preventing youths high-risk sexual behaviors represent some of the most difficult and important challenges for social and behavioral scientists. This study will identify factors contributing to youths high-risk sexual behaviors and their disparities. The objectives involve testing a causal model of sexual behaviors guided by the theory of triadic influence (TTI; Flay & Petraitis, 1994), a model well-tested in predicting other adolescent risk behaviors that specifies the operation of key proximal factors as well as more distal factors. Consistent with TTI, proximal factors will include self-efficacy, attitudes, and social norms; distal factors include global positive expectancies, depressive symptoms, parental relatedness, and academic orientation. Finally, potentially vital socio-cultural influences will be tested as ultimate (most distal) factors in the model. Global expectancies and cultural orientation in Latinos are two important factors of emphasis in ...
Risk attitudes influence decisions made under uncertainty. This paper investigates the association of risk attitudes with the utilization of preventive and general healthcare services, work absence and resulting costs to explore their contribution to the heterogeneity in utilization. Data of 1823 individuals (56.5 ± 9.5 years), participating in the German KORA FF4 population-based cohort study (2013/2014) were analyzed. Individuals general and health risk attitude were measured as willingness to take risk (WTTR) on 11-point scales. Utilization of preventive and medical services and work absence was assessed and annual costs were calculated from a societal perspective. Generalized linear models with log-link function (logistic, negative-binomial and gamma regression) adjusted for age, sex, and height were used to analyze the association of WTTR with the utilizations and costs. Higher WTTR was significantly associated with lower healthcare utilization (physician visits, physical therapy, and medication
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We propose a model of history-dependent risk attitude, allowing a decision makers risk attitude to be affected by his history of disappointments and elations. The decision maker recursively evaluates compound risks, classifying realizations as disappointing or elating using a threshold rule. We establish equivalence between the model and two cognitive biases: risk attitudes are reinforced by experiences (one is more risk averse after disappointment than after elation) and there is a primacy effect (early outcomes have the greatest impact on risk attitude). In a dynamic asset pricing problem, the model yields volatile, path-dependent prices.
Author(s): Guerrero, Lourdes R; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Chung, Paul J; Dosanjh, Kulwant K; Wong, Mitchell D | Abstract: Grit, defined as working strenuously toward challenges, maintaining effort and interest over years despite failure, adversity, and plateaus in progress, is strongly associated with academic achievement and life success and may also be associated with health outcomes and behaviors. We examined predictors of grit, and the association between grit and health behaviors among at-risk Latino adolescents.We analyzed baseline survey data collected in 2013-2014 from a sample of 1270 9th graders in low-income neighborhoods of Los Angeles. We examined factors associated with grit and whether grit is associated with substance use and delinquent behaviors, controlling for adolescent and parent sociodemographic factors.In a sample of mostly Latino adolescents (89.5%), compared to those with low grit, those with high grit had significantly lower odds of alcohol use in the last 30 days (odds ratio 0.30,
This work sought to investigate the relation between social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, drug use, and smoking) in web-based research. Self-report measures are a common way of gathering data in research on health risk behaviors. In several commonly used planning models of health promotion [1, 2], self-reports are used in several phases, for example, in the problem analysis (e.g., behavioral diagnosis) and in the evaluation of interventions (e.g., effectiveness). In tailored interventions, self-reports are used to tailor the intervention to respondents behavior and determinants of this behavior [3, 4]. One reason of why self-reports are used in research on health risk behaviors is that they require fewer resources (e.g., financial, logistical) and have higher specificity (e.g., quantity/frequency measures) compared to bio-medical measures such as hair testing and urine screening for drug use or an air carbon monoxide monitor for smoking. Another reason ...
This paper deals with the relation between excessive risk taking and capital structure in banks. Examining a quarterly dataset of U.S. banks between 1993 and 2010, we find that equity is valued higher when more risky portfolios are chosen when leverage is high, and that more risk taking has a negative impact on valuation of the debt of highly leveraged banks. We find no evidence that deposit insurance is encouraging risk taking behaviour. We do find that banks with a more troubled loan portfolio take on more risk. Banks whose share price has slumped tend to gamble for resurrection by increasing the riskiness of their asset portfolios. The results suggest that incentives embedded in the capital structure of banks contribute to systemic fragility, and so support the Basel III proposals towards less leverage and higher loss absorption capacity of capital ...
Objective To investigate AIDS related high risk behaviors among men who have sex with men(MSM) and provide evidence for policy development in Huainan.Methods A total of 279 participants were recruited by using snowballing sampling in Huainan city.Structured-questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data,knowledge about HIV/AIDS,sexual behavioral information,condom use and situation about reception of HIV prevention services.Univariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis was applied in this study.Results Most of the MSM were young,the mean age of these participants was 28.40 years.Among them,78.14% were unmarried,and 68.46% had an education beyond senior middle school.89.90% were aware of AIDS-related knowledge.In the past six months,of 275 respondents,100% MSM had homosexual anal sex,7.72% had commercial homosexual sex,31.05% had sex with female.Among the subjects,62.36% has unprotected anal intercourse with non-commercial male sex partners,38.10% had unprotected intercourse
| One of the most interesting aspects of the human brain is its ability to become addicted. Addiction is a serious problem and based on genetic predisposition, many are prone to it. Addictive behaviors include alcohol, nicotine, cannabis & opioid dependence, psychosis response from cannabis use, eating disorders such as binge eating, and adrenaline seeking/risk taking behaviors. These forms of addiction are all involved in biological areas that contribute to disease. We have the ability to test our patients to determine if they have a genetic predisposition to one of these addictive behaviors and create protocols to advise them to stay away from participating in any of these harmful behaviors at the risk of developing an addiction. The genetic test we use is DNA Mind from D
Rohypnol is a brand name of flunitrazepam, another benzo - but which is 10 times as potent. It is one of the date rape drugs - but has also appeared in adulterated red heroin. It causes sedation, respiratory suppression and profound amnesia. Especially combined with other substances it may lead to fatal overdose - but at lesser extremes can lead to bizarre/criminal/risk taking behaviour - such that users wake up to face consequences of actions they have carried out but cannot remember ...
* Modulating risk taking behaviour in healthy populations * Risk vs uncertainty: neurocognitive aspects of decision making under uncertainty by serial entrepreneurs * Decision making under uncertainty: C-suite executives...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released new data that emphasizes the connection between student health and academic performance. Although studies have indicated a relationship between educational outcomes and health-related behaviors, there has been a lack of recent nationally representative studies. CDC analyzed results from the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to assess the relationship between academic achievement and 30 health-related behaviors significantly contributing to morbidity and mortality among adolescents in the United States. Key findings from this study include:. ...
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by a greater tendency to take risks. While the adult literature has shown that sex steroids influence reward-related brain functioning and risk taking, research on the role of these hormones during puberty is limited. In this study, we examined the relation between pubertal hormones and adolescent risk taking using a probabilistic decision-making task. In this task, participants could choose on each trial to play or pass based on explicit information about the risk level and stakes involved in their decision. We administered this task to 58 11-to-13-year-old girls while functional MRI images were obtained to examine reward-related brain processes associated with their risky choices. Results showed that higher testosterone levels were associated with increased risk taking, which was mediated by increased medial orbitofrontal cortex activation. Furthermore, higher estradiol levels were associated with increased nucleus accumbens activation, which ...
Implementation of a school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program in Canada did not lead to an increase in sexual risk-taking behaviors among adol
Trait sensation-seeking, defined as a need for varied, complex, and intense sensations, represents a relatively underexplored hedonic drive in human behavioral neuroscience research. It is related to increased risk for a range of behaviors including substance use, gambling, and risky sexual practice. Individual differences in self-reported sensation-seeking have been linked to brain dopamine function, particularly at D2-like receptors, but so far no causal evidence exists for a role of dopamine in sensation-seeking behavior in humans. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective D2/D3 agonist cabergoline on performance of a probabilistic risky choice task in healthy humans using a sensitive within-subject, placebo-controlled design. Cabergoline significantly influenced the way participants combined different explicit signals regarding probability and loss when choosing between response options associated with uncertain outcomes. Importantly, these effects were strongly dependent on ...
Depression and depressive symptoms mediate the association between drug use and HIV risk. Yet, there are few interventions that target depressive symptoms and HIV risk for people who use drugs (PWUD). This study was a randomized controlled trial of an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy and HIV prevention intervention to reduce depressive symptoms, injection risk behaviors and increase condom use in a sample of urban people who used heroin or cocaine in the prior 6 months. A total of 315 individuals aged 18-55, who self-reported at least one HIV drug and sex risk behavior and scored ≥16 and ,40 on the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale were randomized using a two-block design, stratified by sex to ensure equivalent numbers, to a 10 session intervention arm (n = 162) or a single session control arm (n = 153 ...
Now let me talk about Nettles central thesis. It has been previously proposed in literature that low mood (and thus risk-aversion) is due to being in a poor state wherein one can avoid energy expenditure (and thus worsening of situation) by assuming a low profile. Nettle plays the devils advocate and argues that an exactly opposite argument can be made that the organism in a poor state needs to indulge in high risk (and high energy) activities to get out of the poor state. Thus, there is no a prior reason as to why one explanation may be more sound than the other. To find out when exactly high risk behavior pay off and when exactly low risk behaviors are more optimal, he develops a model and uses some elementary mathematics to derive some conclusions. He, of course , bases his model on a Preventive focus, whereby the organism tries to minimize getting in a state R , which is sub-threshold. He allows the S(t) to be maximized under the constraint that one does not lose sight of R. Ill not go ...
Substance use and sexual risk behaviour affect young peoples current and future health and wellbeing in many high-income countries. Our understanding of time-trends in adolescent health-risk behaviour is largely based on routinely collected survey data in school-aged adolescents (aged 15 years or less). Less is known about changes in these behaviours among older adolescents. We compared two cohorts from the same geographical area (West of Scotland), surveyed in 1990 and 2003, to: describe time-trends in measures of smoking, drinking, illicit drug use, early sexual initiation, number of opposite sex sexual partners and experience of pregnancy at age 18-19 years, both overall and stratified by gender and socioeconomic status (SES); and examine the effect of time-trends on the patterning of behaviours by gender and SES. Our analyses adjust for slight between-cohort age differences since age was positively associated with illicit drug use and pregnancy. Rates of drinking, illicit drug use, early sexual
Objective:To know the high risk behavior status of STD/HIV among men who have sex with men(MSM)in Shenzhen and provide scientific evidence for behavior intervention among high risk population.Methods:Face to face questionnaire interview was conducted after information consent.Data were collected and analyzed by Epidata 3.0.Results:Among 203 MSM,the average age was 26 years(15-57).Senior middle school or technical middle school education groups were the main body(38.9%).86.7% of them were unmarried.They mainly resided in Luohu and Futian district.The age for the first sexual intercourse ranged from 12 to 30 and 52.2% had first sex with men and the average of sex partners was 31.Among them,47.3% were bisexual,43.8% were homosexual and 2.0% were heterosexual.Only 41.4% used condom every time when having sex with partners within 6 months.14.3% had sex with foreigners and 12.3% had been informed STD by health care workers.54.2% had been tested for HIV.Conclusion:MSM generally have more sex partners and low
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Drug use, mental distress and exposure to violence in the teen years appears to raise the odds for later HIV infection, a new study suggests.. Teens who engage in risky behaviors are more likely to have unsafe sex -- and that may put them at increased risk for HIV, the AIDS-causing virus, University of Michigan researchers reported.. Our findings support the notion that the increasing frequency of psychosocial risk factors experienced during adolescence may have effects on HIV risk behaviors decades later, said study author David Cordova. Hes an assistant professor of social work at the university.. Cordovas team followed 850 residents of Flint, Mich., from age 14 until age 32. Most were black. The participants behaviors, health and social conditions were assessed six times over 18 years.. One-quarter of those with more behavioral risk factors as teens were more likely to have unprotected sex with recent partners. In adulthood, they were also more ...
This study examined associations between individual and neighborhood compositional characteristics for young black and white men who have sex with men (MSM), ages 15-25 years. Individual baseline data were collected during 1999-2000 as part of a 13-city randomized control trial. Neighborhood composition data at the zip code tabulation area were obtained from the 2000 US Census. Consistent with other studies, individual characteristics--including supportive condom use peer norms--were associated with any unprotected anal sex, HIV testing, having an HIV-positive/unknown test result, recent participation in prevention activities, and knowledge of antiretroviral therapies used to treat HIV. While young black men generally engaged in less risky sexual behaviors, they were more likely to test for HIV than were young white men but were also less likely to have recently participated in prevention programs or have knowledge of drugs used to treat HIV. Associations were also observed for neighborhood
High-risk sexual behavior puts people at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unplanned pregnancy, and being in a sexual relationship before being mature enough to know what makes a healthy relationship. Teens and young adults are at higher risk than adults. Examples of high-risk sexual behavior include...