Title:Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions for HIV Prevention among South AfricanYouth: A Meta-Analytic Review. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):Lori A.J. Scott-Sheldon, Paige Walstrom, Abigail Harrison, Seth C. Kalichman and Michael P. Carey. Affiliation:The Miriam Hospital, Centers for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine, CORO West, Suite 309, 164 Summit Ave., Providence, RI 02906, USA.. Keywords:HIV, intervention, meta-analysis, sex, South Africa, youth.. Abstract:Objectives: To examine the efficacy of sexual risk reduction interventions among South African youth. Methods: Electronic databases were searched to identify studies published between 2007 and early 2013. Studies were eligible if they (1) targeted youth age 9-26, (2) evaluated sexual risk reduction interventions and (3) reported at least one behavioral outcome. Independent raters coded study characteristics, and intervention content. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated; positive effect sizes indicated less sexual risk behavior ...
Incarcerated adolescents represent a group at high risk for health consequences associated with risky sexual behaviors. Condom use is more common with non-main than main sex partners and substance use in conjunction with sexual risk also appears to vary by partner type. The research team will conduct a small randomized trial to pilot test a partner-specific HIV risk reduction intervention for currently or recently incarcerated adolescents who report problematic substance use. Participants will be randomized to a 5 session HIV risk reduction group intervention based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model, or a 5 session healthy lifestyles psychoeducation intervention, and then reassessed 3 months after their access to the general community is reinstated. The main hypothesis is that participants in the HIV risk reduction intervention condition will have lower levels of sex-related HIV risk behavior and of substance use in conjunction with sexual risk, relative to those in a healthy ...
Incarcerated adolescents represent a group at high risk for health consequences associated with risky sexual behaviors. Condom use is more common with non-main than main sex partners and substance use in conjunction with sexual risk also appears to vary by partner type. The research team will conduct a small randomized trial to pilot test a partner-specific HIV risk reduction intervention for currently or recently incarcerated adolescents who report problematic substance use. Participants will be randomized to a 5 session HIV risk reduction group intervention based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model, or a 5 session healthy lifestyles psychoeducation intervention, and then reassessed 3 months after their access to the general community is reinstated. The main hypothesis is that participants in the HIV risk reduction intervention condition will have lower levels of sex-related HIV risk behavior and of substance use in conjunction with sexual risk, relative to those in a healthy ...
In this study, oxygen reduction behavior of TiH2 powders during dehydrogenation process was investigated based on thermodynamics. During the hydrogenation–dehydrogenation (HDH) method to fabricate Ti powder, TiH2 was formed from a Ti sponge through hydrogenation annealing, and was easily pulverized even by ball milling due to its brittle nature. The ball milling process caused an increase in the oxygen concentration from 0.133 to 0.282 wt %, and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron Spectroscopy results demonstrated that the formation of oxide layers such as TiO and TiO2 formed on the surface of the TiH2 powder resulted in the higher oxygen content. Dehydrogenation, which is the process originally conducted to eliminate hydrogen from TiH2, was used to remove and/or reduce oxygen, resulting in the reduction of the oxygen concentration from 0.282 to 0.216 wt %. Thermodynamic calculations confirmed the possibility of oxygen reduction by atomic hydrogen but molecular hydrogen has no
February - Heart Health. Heart disease remains the number one killer of both men and women in the United States.1 While heart disease is often viewed as something to worry about when you get older, an estimated six in 10 preventable heart disease and stroke deaths happen to people under age 65.2 That is OVER HALF! The key risk factors for heart disease are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking. The good news is that heart health can be improved at any age by eating a nutritious diet, exercising most days of the week, maintaining a healthy weight, and quitting tobacco. This toolbox contains resources to help find tips and strategies that have proven effective. Fortunately, these same risk reduction behaviors pertain to nearly all chronic conditions. You can promote better health by using the materials located in the toolbox for activities, education, and programs. Remember, its never too late to start protecting heart health. ...
To review human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction interventions among injecting drug users (IDUs) that have adopted a network approach.,The design and outcomes of selected network-based interventions among IDUs are reviewed using the network concepts of the dyad (two-person relationship), the personal risk network (an index person and all of his or her relationship), and the "sociometric" network (the complete set of relations between people in a population) and community.,In a dyad intervention among HIV-serodiscordant couples, many of which included IDUs, there were no HIV seroconversions. Participants in personal risk network interventions were more likely to reduce drug risks and in some of these interventions, sexual risks, than were participants in individual-based interventions. Sociometric network interventions reached more IDUs and may be more cost-effective than individual-based interventions.,Network-based HIV risk reduction interventions among IDUs, and others at risk for ...
This study investigated the impact of HeartMaths Power to Change Performance stress and health risk reduction program on physiological and psychological stress and health risk factors in a sample of correctional peace officers. Eighty-eight officers from three facilities were randomized to an experimental group and a wait-list control group. The experimental group participated in the stress and health risk reduction program, which was delivered over two consecutive days. The program included instruction on health risk factors as well as training in positive emotion-focused stress reduction techniques intended to reduce negative emotional arousal, improve physiological balance, increase positive affect, and enhance performance. Learning and practice of the techniques was enhanced by heart rate variability feedback, which helped participants learn to self-generate physiological coherence, a beneficial mode associated with increased efficiency and synchronization in the functioning of physiological
My previous blog on consent touched briefly on the topic of power differentials conferred by hierarchical social positions, which I think warrants further examination on how it impacts sexual violence prevention. Interventions that target individual actions, behaviors, and knowledge are known as risk-reduction strategies. Such strategies rely on the individual capacity to protect oneself from…
The Section for Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation helps those who already have heart and vascular disease and those who are at high risk of developing it with programs that include nutritional services, prescriptive exercise programs, stress testing, multiple cardiovascular risk reduction programs, peripheral vascular rehabilitation program in collaboration with Vascular Medicine, comprehensive cardiovascular care for women, and educational programs for patients and healthcare providers.
The Section for Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation helps those who already have heart and vascular disease and those who are at high risk of developing it with programs that include nutritional services, prescriptive exercise programs, stress testing, multiple cardiovascular risk reduction programs, peripheral vascular rehabilitation program in collaboration with Vascular Medicine, comprehensive cardiovascular care for women, and educational programs for patients and healthcare providers.
Background: The University of Pittsburgh HIV/AIDS program provides care to over 1,500 HIV-infected persons. MSM and MSM who use injection drugs (MSM-IDU) represent 58% of the clinic population. Since 2010, there has been a steady increase in new syphilis diagnoses from 1.5% to 4% with the majority of cases representing re-infection. The CDC RESPECT protocol was adapted for implementation with HIV-positive MSM to reduce high-risk sexual behaviors through client-centered discussions.. Methods: This is a longitudinal descriptive research project intended to inform on: (1) the feasibility of implementing RESPECT using a peer counselor; (2) the compendium of client-identified risk reduction strategies, and; (3) the effectiveness of risk reduction strategies.. Results: Between 9/29/2010 through 7/9/2012, 161 non-duplicated clients were referred to RESPECT. Unsafe oral sex was the predominant sexual risk category (73.1%) followed by unsafe sex involving friends with benefits, group sex, or sex with a ...
The health effects of where people live, work, and interact are well documented, as are the value of neighborhood-level structural interventions designed to improve health. But place-based characteristics that contribute to disparities in HIV transmission and disease burden are poorly understood, possibly resulting in less-effective HIV risk reduction interventions and programming.. ...
Organizations can create a successful risk reduction program by clearly defining and adhering to processes for reporting, investigating and addressing the causes of accidents.. ...
To deploy effective COVID-19 prevention and risk reduction strategies, its important to learn the immune response to COVID-19. Heres what we know.
The Institute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases IDM, Tübingen Lifestyle Intervention Program TULIP, International Graduate Program 1302
This report summarizes the collaborative efforts, activities and progress of the Pesticide Risk Reduction Program since 2003 in developing and implementing a reduced-risk strategy to manage Ascochyta blight disease of chickpea in Canada. The Programs Ascochyta blight strategy was developed in collaboration with pulse industry representatives including grower groups, commodity experts, researchers, and government specialists.. The objective of this strategy is to reduce risks to humans and to the environment from pesticides used to control Ascochyta blight in chickpea, while helping growers to ensure viable disease management and farm profitability. Within this strategy, pesticide risks and pest management issues are identified, reduced-risk solutions to address these issues are discussed and prioritized, and a plan of actions to support the strategy implementation is developed and carried out.. Chickpea is an important pulse crop in western Canada and is a priority commodity for the Program. ...
The electrochemical properties of two Ni(NNN)X2 pincer complexes are reported where X = Cl or Br and NNN is N,N′-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)bis-aldiminopyridine. Cyclic voltammetry under 1 atm of CO2 suggests electrocatalytic CO2 reduction activity, however, bulk electrolysis shows a poor Faradaic efficiency for
Solicitations of bids for specific implementation projects are posted on the government procurement website, Buyandsell.gc.ca, periodically as the requirements are developed by strategy implementation working groups. Emphasis is on projects that will lead to adoption of reduced-risk pest management tools or systems, and can be implemented within a relatively short timeframe of about three years.. Postings may include requirements for research and demonstration trials, workshops, strategy support (literature reviews, development of a strategic plan, measurement of risk reduction, etc.), and others for implementation of reduced-risk pest management solutions.. For more information, please contact:. Leslie ...
As mentioned, cultural factors may strongly influence risk behaviors of Latinos. For example, machismo may make it more difficult for Latinas to discuss condoms with their partners.(37) This issue was investigated by Suarez-Al-Adam et al.(38) in a sub-sample of Latinas who participated in a larger-scale intervention that recruited participants from sexually transmitted disease clinics and social service agencies in New Jersey.(39) All of the Latinas were recruited from social service agencies. More than half (60%) of the Latina participants had been born in Puerto Rico, 18% were from the U.S., another 18% had been born in Latin America and 4% from the Caribbean. Eighty-three percent of the women chose to be interviewed in English. The investigation compared 2 interventions that both took place over 7 sessions and were conducted in small, all-female groups. The control intervention consisted of a health-promotion information, and the experimental group received an HIV risk-reduction intervention. ...
The massive outbreak of cholera in 2008 that affected over 100 000 people and killed 4 000 and the measles outbreak of 2009 and early 2010 which affected over 10,544 with over 520 deaths, were testimony to the status of the social service system and a wake up call for everyone.. Urgent and important steps needed to be taken to reverse the tide. The Government, with the support of donors, launched several initiatives to address the underlying causes of cholera. These included the Emergency Rehabilitation and Risk Reduction programme, the Bulawayo Water and Sewerage Response programme, and Zim-Fund. These initiatives have contributed to the recovery of the water and sanitation sector and to reductions in cholera cases and other related deaths.. Transition funds were set up in health, education, and child protection which brought partners together to plan and coordinate national scale interventions at sectoral level under the leadership of the ministries of Health and Child Care, Primary and ...
To maximize the public health benefit of expenditures on HIV prevention, treatment and care in Sub Saharan Africa programs are needed that synergistically combine intervention strategies, target the intensity of interventions to attributable risk, support couples to reduce their risk of HIV transmission within the partnership, and facilitate safe and acceptable uptake of available treatment and prevention services. The goal of this study is to advance methodological innovations in the support of cost- effective combination HIV prevention programs. The study will develop reliable indicators for intervention exposure using biometric identifiers, develop indicators that capture dynamic multi-component risk reduction strategies, establish proof of concept for the combination and scalability of proven HIV intervention components never before brought to scale (HIV self-testing, PrEP for discordant couples), carefully assess the safety and acceptance of the strategy, and examine important operational ...
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and ongoing patient self-management education and support to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Diabetes care is complex and requires multifactorial risk reduction strategies beyond glycemic control. A large body of evidence exists that supports a range of interventions to improve diabetes outcomes ...
Prilace 5 MG Tablet is used for hypertension, cardiovascular risk reduction etc. Know Prilace 5 MG Tablet uses, side-effects, composition, substitutes, drug interactions, precautions, dosage, warnings only on | Practo
Polypril 2.5 MG Tablet is used for hypertension, cardiovascular risk reduction etc. Know Polypril 2.5 MG Tablet uses, side-effects, composition, substitutes, drug interactions, precautions, dosage, warnings only on | Practo
Scientific evidence suggests that its important to use a disciplined lifestyle in preventing chronic diseases. Some research sometimes contradicts that,
A recent study reported in JAMA Oncology evaluated 10-year and 20-year breast cancer-specific mortality following diagnosis and treatment of ductal carcinoma i
Individual-level and group-level risk reduction interventions are effective in increasing condom use and reducing unprotected sex.
Lifestyle changes can have drastic impact on your heart health. Get tips about making lifestyle changes for a healthy heart from Discovery Health.
If someone told you there were simple steps that could minimize bladder leakage, youd probably give them a try. Check out the 5 lifestyle changes you can make today.
Staying Safe participants plan in advance how to access new equipment prior to using drugs.9 They also share harm reduction strategies and new injection ...
Being 16 weeks pregnant is a milestone. PregnancyMama gives you insights into your babys growth, physical, emotional and lifestyle changes you should expect in week 16, with tips on how to cope.
In this issue of the journal, Jin et al. [1] report a detailed analysis of the association between sexual risk-reduction behaviours other than condom use and incident HIV infection in a cohort of HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia. Sexual risk-reduction behaviours that are studied here include serosorting, unprotected anal intercourse with HIV-seronegative partners only; negotiated safety, unprotected anal intercourse with HIV-seronegative primary partners only; strategic positioning, unprotected insertive anal intercourse and withdrawal, unprotected receptive anal intercourse without ejaculation. In a world where condom use during anal intercourse has been the cornerstone of HIV prevention among MSM, it is remarkable that all these risk-reduction behaviours include anal intercourse without condom use. This inevitably raises the question why the sexual behaviour identified as the primary driver of the HIV epidemic in MSM has become the central component ...
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Participants who attended the lifestyle intervention program had significantly fewer emergency department presentations [Risk Ratio (RR) 0.31, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.83] and potentially avoidable emergency department presentations (RR 0.06, 95%CI .004 to .097) over the follow-up period. There were no differences between the groups in hospital admissions and there were insufficient data to determine changes in metabolic parameters. Lifestyle group participants increased their exercise capacity [6-minute walk test mean difference (MD) 41m, 95%CI 20 to 62] and had a mild decrease in weight (MD -0.8kg, 95%CI -1.5 to -0.2) and waist circumference (MD -1.3cm, 95%CI -2.1 to -0.6) after 8 weeks.. Significance of findings to allied health ...
In all three trials, a reduction of thrips numbers was observed following the application of Met52, with the soil incorporated treatment achieving better results than the overlay application. Thrips populations in the pots treated with Met52 were reduced by between approximately 28% and 55%. Soil samples taken over the course of the trial confirmed that Metarhizium conidia remained active in the soil over the trial period, thus providing continuing protection over the course of the trial.. In trial BPR11-061 a single application of Met52 G was applied at a rate of 1500 grams per cubic meter (g/m3), mixed into the top 3 centimeter (cm) of the growing media and overlain on the top of the growing media at the time of planting, with commercial standard Success and untreated plots serving as controls. The overlay soil treatments of Met52 G granular did not significantly reduce the thrips population, however the treatment blended into the top 3 cm of potting soil did result in an up to 28% reduction ...
An ambulatist is a licensed health care provider who specializes in the prevention, management, and care coordination of ambulatory patients with chronic diseases by using lifestyle medicine and drug therapy. Nearly half of all Americans live with at least one chronic condition and ~70% of all American deaths can be attributed directly to chronic diseases. Care coordination is necessary to curb the progression and cost associated with chronic disease in The United States. The ambulatist model of care coordination began in 2008 at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Prog ram (CVRRP) and Diabetes Risk Reduction Program (DMRRP) are employee wellness benefit programs for Creighton employees with the diagnoses of hypertension, dyslipidemia and/or diabetes. The programs are run by a health care specialty position called the "ambulatist". An ambulatist can be any licensed health care provider who receives training in direct patient care and lifestyle medicine. The ...
Departments of Nutritional Sciences (Ha, de Souza, Chiavaroli, Blanco Mejia, Di Buono, Leiter, Vuksan, Bazinet, Josse, Kendall, Jenkins) and Medicine (Leiter, Josse, Jenkins), Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; the Toronto 3D Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials Unit, Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre (Ha, Sievenpiper, de Souza, Jayalath, Mirrahimi, Chiavaroli, Blanco Mejia, Leiter, Vuksan, Kendall), Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute (Sievenpiper, Vuksan, Jenkins) and Division of Endocrinology (Josse), St. Michaels Hospital, Toronto, Ont.; Dalla Lana School of Public Health (Beyene), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Departments of Pathology and Molecular Medicine (Sievenpiper) and of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (de Souza, Beyene), Faculty of Health Sciences (Agarwal), McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.; American Heart Association (Di Buono), Houston, Tex.; Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute (Beyene), Toronto, Ont.; ...
Herein, we highlight a potential double effect of dietary intake of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) on cardiovascular risk reduction and disease control in patients with RA. Large studies in non-RA populations provide strong evidence for the beneficial effect of n-3 LCP supplementation in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. Cardiovascular risk reduction is at least partly explained by n-3 LCP effects on blood pressure, dyslipidemia, thrombosis and inflammation, all important factors also in RA, whereas abnormalities in vascular function and in vascular morphology similar to those observed in RA patients may even be moderately reversed ...
Pennsylvania healthcare facilities submitted 831 medication error reports associated with the oral anticoagulants warfarin, apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban to the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority from July 2013 through June 2014. The most commonly reported errors were drug omissions (32.5%),
Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in high-risk patient populations. The probability of a patient developing a postoperative SSI is inf
Objective: Premature CVD death is common among first responders. Effective risk reduction programs are urgently needed to address this public health concern. We tested the one year effectiveness of a lifestyle-based intervention program in police officers and firefighters in the Boston and Phoenix areas.. Methods: 173 participants with excess abdominal fat or CVD risk were assigned to a one year intervention or control group using cluster randomization by city. The intervention was comprised of a personalized nutrition plan based on an algorithm combining laboratory results with food preferences, phone coaching to encourage adherence to lifestyle recommendations including healthy eating and exercise and online food journaling.. Results: 130 participants remained in the study for one year (68 intervention; 62 control). In the intervention group the mean weight loss from baseline was 4.8% (4.9 kg, p,0.01) at 6 months and 3.1% (3.2 kg, p,0.01) from baseline at 1 year; waist circumference reduction ...
The Canadian Cancer Society conducted two separate data analyses aimed at gaining a richer understanding of its End 1 research investment. The first analysis used data from the Canadian Cancer Research Alliance (CCRA) special report on investment in cancer risk and prevention research to compare the CCSs 2005-2007 investment in cancer risk reduction and prevention research to CCRA members 2005-2007 investment. The second analysis used internal data to provide a detailed overview of CCS investment in End 1 research from 2006-2011.. Full reports are available upon request to [email protected] Last modified on: October 13, 2017. ...
The Internal Controls and Risk Management Specialist plays a key role in ensuring that the USGs humanitarian assistance and disaster risk reduction programs are effective and efficient. The Internal Controls and Risk Management Specialist supports OFDAs efforts to strengthen internal controls throughout OFDAs global operations, implement and fully utilize the Agencys Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) framework and tools, and coordinate and track OFDAs ongoing audits and open recommendations. The Internal Controls and Risk Management Specialist assists in analyzing the effectiveness of existing and newly implemented internal controls, creating and documenting new internal controls, responding to Federal Managers Financial Integrity Act (FMFIA) requirements, tracking corrective action plans, and monitoring significant internal control and risk weaknesses.. ...
OBJECTIVE-To assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program that can be readily translated into clinical practice for obese patients with type 2 diabetes.. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The study consisted of a 12-month randomized controlled trial of 147 health plan members with type 2 diabetes and obesity (BMI ≥27 kg/m2). Participants were randomized to lifestyle case management or usual care. Case management entailed individual and group education, support, and referral by registered dietitians; intervention cost was $350 per person. Individuals treated with usual care received educational material. Both groups received ongoing primary care. Outcomes were difference between groups for change in weight (kilograms), waist circumference (centimeters), HbA1c, fasting lipid levels, use of prescription medications, and health-related quality of life.. RESULTS-Case management resulted in greater weight loss (P , 0.001), reduced waist circumference (P , 0.001), reduced HbA1c level (P = 0.02), ...
Improving strategies for risk reduction among family members of patients with melanoma may reduce their risk for melanoma. To evaluate the effects of two behavioral interventions designed to improve the frequency of total cutaneous skin examina
Baker A, Richmond R, Castle D, Kulkarni J, Kay-Lambkin F, Sakrouge R, Filia S, Lewin TJ. Coronary heart disease risk reduction intervention among overweight smokers with a psychotic disorder: Pilot trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry [Internet]. 2009 [cited 1];43:129-135. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19153920 ...
Risk reduction is taking action to lower ones risk of developing cancer. The following risk reduction strategies may reduce the chance of developing lung cancer.
UC Berkeley was awarded a five-year grant expected to total $47 million from the U.S. National Institute on Aging (NIA) to incorporate advanced brain imaging into an Alzheimers Association-led study to explore whether lifestyle changes can protect memory in those at risk of developing dementia.. The expanded study will be the first large-scale investigation of how lifestyle interventions, which include exercise, diet, cognitive stimulation and health coaching, affect well-known biological markers of Alzheimers and dementia in the brain.. "A healthy diet and lifestyle are generally recognized as good for health, but this study is the first large randomized controlled trial to look at whether lifestyle changes actually influence Alzheimers disease-related brain changes," said Susan Landau, a research neuroscientist at Berkeleys Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, and principal investigator of the add-on study.. The U.S. study to Protect brain health through lifestyle Intervention to Reduce ...
OBJECTIVE: Due to the increased lifetime risk of endometrial cancer (EC), guidelines recommend that women with Lynch syndrome (LS) age ≥ 35 undergo annual EC surveillance or prophylactic hysterectomy (PH). The aim of this study was to examine the uptake of these risk-reducing strategies. METHODS: The study population included women meeting clinical criteria for genetic evaluation for LS. Data on cancer risk-reducing behaviors were collected from subjects enrolled in two distinct studies: (1) a multicenter cross-sectional study involving completion of a one-time questionnaire, or (2) a single-center longitudinal study in which subjects completed questionnaires before and after undergoing genetic testing ...
The pharmaceutical industry views drug development through several prisms, including that of enabling patients to live longer and healthier lives, and in so doing, improve public health. This model was successfully promoted for the adoption of cardiovascular risk reduction drugs. There also are the scientific and medical challenges of unmet medical needs. It is also necessary, however, to show investors and stockholders a return on considerable investment at a time when developing a new drug has surpassed the billion-dollar threshold.. Business investment in cancer prevention involves many disincentives. It is difficult to predict a return on investment in the current cancer prevention environment, where definitive trials generally are large and the acceptable side effects profile of a drug is problematical because prevention involves healthy people. Furthermore, prevention trials can require years to decades to complete, during which time the intellectual property clock continues to tick. Even ...