How is Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors abbreviated? CDSRF stands for Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors. CDSRF is defined as Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors very rarely.
This study examined independent contributions of executive functioning (EF), state regulation (SR), and social risk factors to symptom dimensions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in two cohorts, which included 221 Norwegian children and 294 Finnish adolescents. Independent contributions of EF and SR were shown in the Norwegian cohort and EF contributed independently in the Finnish cohort. When controlling for each symptom dimension, cognitive functioning and social risk factors were differentially associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. The results show the need to include both social risk factors and cognitive functioning to obtain a better understanding of ADHD symptoms.. ...
Ageing exerts differential effects on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. However, the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on arterial stiffness and wave reflections and, particularly, how such effects are influenced by ageing has not been assessed within a single large population, covering a sufficiently wide age range. Therefore, we determined the extent to which age alters the impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections were assessed in 4421 individuals (age range 18 to 92 years). When treated as continuous variables, clinic systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures and glucose levels were independently associated with stiffness, and, with the exception of diastolic pressure, these associations were more marked in older individuals. In contrast, clinic systolic and diastolic pressures and smoking were independently associated with wave reflections, with stronger associations observed in younger ...
The STEPS Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors Survey uses a survey methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to help countries establish noncommunicable disease surveillance systems. Some surveys are conducted at the country level and others at the subnational level. The methodology prescribes three steps-questionnaire, physical measurements, and biochemical measurements. Core topics covered by most surveys are demographics, health status, and health behaviors. These provide data on socioeconomic risk factors and metabolic, nutritional, and lifestyle risk factors. Details may differ from country to country and from year to year. This Egyptian national survey included smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity, physical measurements, and biochemical measurements.. Only reports are currently available. No data have been released.. ...
BACKGROUND: Although diabetes is a well-known risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, the cardiovascular disease risk of glycemia below the current diabetic threshold remains uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 652,901 Korean men aged 30 to 64 years from the Korean National Health Insurance System were categorized into 8 groups by fasting blood glucose (FBG) level at baseline and were followed up for cardiovascular diseases occurrence during 1992-2001. Over the follow-up period of 8.8 years, 10,954 stroke and 3766 myocardial infarction events occurred. In age-adjusted analyses, there was evidence of linear associations between FBG and myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke. However, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic position, behaviors, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, the associations with myocardial infarction and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke were markedly attenuated with increased risk only at the ...
Led by Shivani Patel, PhD, researcher in the Hubert Department of Global Health at Rollins School of Public Health, the team studied data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) national surveys from 2009 to 2010. The goal was to determine the extent to which national cardiovascular mortality could be expected to decrease if all states were successful at reducing those risk factor levels to specified target levels.. Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death nationally. The top five leading preventable risk factors for heart disease are elevated cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and smoking. The fraction of cardiovascular deaths that could have been prevented in 2009 to 2010 were reported under two scenarios: complete elimination of risk factors, and a more realistic goal of reduction of risk factors to the best achieved levels in U.S. states in 2009-2010.. Findings suggest that about half of deaths could be prevented if the modifiable risk factors ...
In this large, representative cohort of very old subjects aged 80 years and older, traditional cardiovascular risk factors did not show an association with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. This pattern was observed both in subjects with and without cardiovascular disease. The presence of frailty, on the other hand, was able to identify patients at high risk for mortality. However, within the strata of robust and frail subjects, traditional cardiovascular risk factors were not able to further identify patients at risk of mortality. Only a history of cardiovascular disease showed a strong association with mortality in robust subjects.. The current study showed that classic cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with mortality in the oldest old. In the Leiden 85 Plus study, de Ruijter et al. [17] showed that classic risk factors included in the Framingham risk score could not identify patients at risk for cardiovascular mortality. This study was performed on a subpopulation of ...
Background and aims: Carotid plaque is a specific sign of atherosclerosis and adults with carotid plaque are at increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes. Atherosclerosis has roots in childhood and pediatric guidelines provide cut-off values for cardiovascular risk factors. However, it is unknown whether these cut-offs predict adulthood advanced atherosclerosis. Methods: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a follow-up of children that begun in 1980 when 2653 participants with data for the present analyses were aged 3-18 years. In 2001 and 2007 follow-ups, in addition to adulthood cardiovascular risk factors, carotid ultrasound data was collected. Long-term burden, as the area under the curve, was evaluated for childhood (6-18 years) risk factors. To study the associations of guideline-based cut-offs with carotid plaque, both childhood and adult risk factors were classified according to clinical practice guidelines. Results: Carotid plaque, defined as a focal structure of the ...
The relationship between two well-established biological risk factors for schizophrenia has been discovered by John Hopkins researchers.
The relationship between depression and demographic risk factors, individual lifestyle factors, and health complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Yusuf Kayar, Nuk
It is well established that hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), and routine screening is recommended for standard lipids and other major modifiable risk factors, including blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and lifestyle habits.1 Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of CHD have led to the discovery of several nonlipid risk factors that may enhance our ability to identify and manage patients who are most likely to have a future cardiovascular event. Information about a constellation of risk factors provides better predictive power than a single risk factor, but whether novel markers should be added to conventional risk factor screening is debated. Three candidate markers have potential use in practice to alter strategies for the prevention of CHD: C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, and lipoprotein A.. There is increasing recognition that the underpinnings of atherosclerosis involve chronic inflammation and the deposition of cholesterol in ...
This is the first study on children concerning the changes of the cardiovascular risk factor profile in obesity in relation to the degree of weight reduction. In agreement with previous reports,7,8 our study showed that up to two thirds of our obese children already had one or more unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors.. In our sample, a significant improvement of cardiovascular risk factor profile associated with obesity (hypertension, increase in LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, decrease in HDL cholesterol) was shown due to a reduction of SDS-BMI of at least 0.5 over the time period of one year, while a reduction of SDS-BMI below showed no significant improvement except a lowering of LDL cholesterol in the group of children with a reduction of SDS-BMI of at least 0.25. A reduction of LDL cholesterol despite an improvement of other cardiovascular risk factors is probably caused by diet and not due to effective weight loss. Since hypertriglyceridaemia and decreased HDL cholesterol are ...
This study investigated the associations between circulating plasma biomarkers, which were previously identified by proteomics or immunohistochemistry experiments in human carotid plaques and adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients undergoing coronary angiography. The prognostic value of the majority of these proteins, including OGN and NGAL/MMP9 complex, for MACE had not yet been investigated. Higher circulating OGN and NGAL/MMP9 complex levels were associated with incident MACE during the first year of follow-up, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Adding OGN or NGAL/MMP9 to a model containing conventional cardiovascular risk factors improved risk classification and discriminatory ability, although the latter was not statistically significant. These associations with incident MACE and improvements in predictive ability were independent of CRP.. In previous proteomic experiments, we have identified a series of novel potential markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic ...
Breast cancer is a devastating disease. The specter of breast cancer frightens most women because it causes substantial morbidity and mortality despite our ever-increasing ability to provide earlier diagnosis and improved treatments. Breast cancer incidence rates are increasing worldwide, yet the relatively well-established risk factors account for no more than 50 to 55% of the breast cancer risk of westernized populations. 1-3 As a result, breast cancer epidemiologists have continued to search for additional risk factors, particularly lifestyle and environmental exposures, that are amenable to intervention.. Ovarian hormones, and particularly estrogens, play a major role in the development of breast cancer. 4 In fact, most accepted breast cancer risk factors can be interpreted as surrogate measures of a womans cumulative exposure to estrogen and possibly, progesterone. These risk factors include early age at menarche, late age at menopause, nulliparity or late age at first birth, lack of or ...
Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors.We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35,568 invasive breast cancer case patients from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Logistic regression models were used in case-case analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and tumor subtypes, and case-control analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and the risk of developing specific tumor subtypes in 12 population-based studies. All statistical tests were two-sided.In case-case analyses, of the epidemiological risk factors examined, early age at menarche (≤12 years) was less frequent in case patients with PR(-) than PR(+) tumors (P = .001). Nulliparity (P = 3 × 10(-6)) and increasing age at first birth (P = 2 × 10(-9)) were less frequent in ER(-) than in ER(+) ...
Background: Obesity is a known risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and plays a role in other CHD risk factors including dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. With nearly two-thirds of the adult US population being overweight and obese, it is important to know how these individuals perceive their CHD risk.. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between self-reported CHD risk factors and perceived CHD risk among overweight and obese adults.. Methods: Demographic data, CHD risk factors, and perceived lifetime CHD risk were collected via electronic surveys using REDCap, an Internet-based data capture tool, of overweight and obese adults enrolled in a Weight Loss Research Registry. CHD risk factors were assessed using an investigator-developed survey of self-reported diagnoses of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes, family history of CHD, and current smoking status. A risk factor ranking was assigned to each participant ranging from 0 ...
Synonyms for epidemiological association in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for epidemiological association. 106 synonyms for association: group, company, club, order, union, class, society, league, band, set, troop, pack, camp, collection, gathering, organization.... What are synonyms for epidemiological association?
Background: Job strain is associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk, but few large-scale studies have examined the relationship of this psychosocial characteristic with the biological risk factors that potentially mediate the job strain - heart disease association. Methodology and Principal Findings: We pooled cross-sectional, individual-level data from eight studies comprising 47,045 participants to investigate the association between job strain and the following cardiovascular disease risk factors: diabetes, blood pressure, pulse pressure, lipid fractions, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, obesity, and overall cardiovascular disease risk as indexed by the Framingham Risk Score. In age-, sex-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted analyses, compared to those without job strain, people with job strain were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.51), to smoke (1.14; 1.08-1.20), to be physically inactive (1.34; 1.26-1.41), and to be obese (1.12; ...
Few studies have evaluated risk factors among stroke patients in our population. This study is aimed at exploring risk factors among black stroke patients. A total of 524 stroke patients seen at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between January 2005 and June 2011 were evaluated to ascertain risk factors. Prestroke risk factors were obtained from patient’s medical history and hospital records. Risk factors such as hypertension were gotten from case history, with hypertension defined as blood pressure (BP) of ≥ 140/90 mmHg or features of long standing hypertension. History of smoking, alcohol intake, transient ischaemic attack (TIA) were also noted. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor, found in 87% of patients, followed by hypercholesterolaemia 15.1%, past history of stroke 11.5%, diabetes 10.1%, alcohol 8.8%, smoking 6.8%, TIA 5.3%, heart failure 2.4% and preeclampsia-eclampsia 2.0%, while 19.7% had more than one risk factor. About 53% had no prior knowledge of being
Guwatudde D, Mutungi G, Wesonga R, Kajjura R, Kasule H, Muwonge J, Ssenono V, Bahendeka SK.. The Epidemiology of Hypertension in Uganda: Findings from the National Non-Communicable Diseases Risk Factor Survey. PLoS One. 2015; 10(9): e0138991 ...
A recent study suggests that stiffness of the aorta may be a key risk factor for dementia. The findings are important, as aortal stiffness is something that people may be able to manage via lifestyle changes and medication even later in life. Participants in the study included 356 people with an average age of 78 who t
Background: Previous studies have examined individual risk factors in relation to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) but the combined effects of these factors are largely unknown. We investigated the degree to which clinical risk factors may explain the risk of PAD among men.. Methods: We prospectively followed 45,596 men from the Health Professional Follow-up Study without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline during a 22-year period (1986-2008). We defined four clinical risk factors - smoking, history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia - that were updated biennially during follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare PAD risk across individual and joint risk factors.. Results: During 874,769 person-years of follow-up, 497 confirmed PAD cases occurred. All four clinical risk factors were significantly and independently associated with a higher risk of PAD after multivariate adjustment (Figure). Risk of PAD more than doubled (hazard ratio: 2.14; ...
Among men in this cohort, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and type 2 diabetes account for the majority of risk associated with development of clinically significant PAD.
Recent research highlights why only a mask mandate and economic measures can save the lives of people who have this newly identified key risk factor for COVID-19 infection.
Hepatitis C virus itself is a causal risk factor for chronic kidney disease beyond traditional risk factors: a 6-year nationwide cohort study across Taiwan. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
RESULTS Among 5163 men who reported taking medication for diabetes, 1092 deaths (603 CVD deaths) occurred in an average of 12 yr of follow-up. Among 342,815 men not taking medication for diabetes, 20,867 deaths were identified, 8965 ascribed to CVD. Absolute risk of CVD death was much higher for diabetic than nondiabetic men of every age stratum, ethnic background, and risk factor level-overall three times higher, with adjustment for age, race, income, serum cholesterol level, sBP, and reported number of cigarettes/day (P , 0.0001). For men both with and without diabetes, serum cholesterol level, sBP, and cigarette smoking were significant predictors of CVD mortality. For diabetic men with higher values for each risk factor and their combinations, absolute risk of CVD death increased more steeply than for nondiabetic men, so that absolute excess risk for diabetic men was progressively greater than for nondiabetic men with higher risk factor levels.. ...
The Berrien County Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (BRFS) is a telephone survey conducted every three years of Berrien County residents ages 18 years and older.
Rationale: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a critical determinant of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have identified several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, which may partly arise from a shared genetic basis with CAD, and thus be useful for discovery of CAD genes. Objective: We aimed to improve discovery of CAD genes, and inform the etiologic relationship between CAD and several CVD risk factors using a shared polygenic signal-informed statistical framework. Methods and Results: Using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) summary statistics and shared polygenic pleiotropy-informed conditional and conjunctional false discovery rate (FDR) methodology, we systematically investigated genetic overlap between CAD and 8 traits related to CVD risk factors: low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), type 2 diabetes (T2D), C-reactive protein (CRP), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and type 1 diabetes ...
Design, setting and participants: A CVD risk-factor survey was carried out in rural south-eastern Australia from 2004 to 2006. Using a stratified random sample, data for 1116 participants aged 35-74 years were analysed. Applying the Framingham risk equations to risk-factor data, 5-year probabilities of a coronary heart disease event, stroke and cardiovascular event were calculated. The effect of different changes in risk factors were modelled to assess the extent to which cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by changing the risk factors at a population level (population strategy), among the high-risk individuals (high-risk strategy) or both ...
The same things that would put a man at risk of heart disease also put women at risk. These risk factors include increasing age, abnormal cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, inactivity, smoking, excess body fat, chronic stress, and heredity. An interesting study released by Mayo Clinic also identified poor dental hygiene as another risk factor for heart disease. Inflammation of gum tissue can be an indicator for other inflammation in the body, including coronary arteries.. While the risk factors are the same, heart disease affects women in different ways than men. On average, heart disease affects men about ten years earlier in life, suggesting that women may be protected from heart disease prior to menopause. However, heart disease can strike before and during menopause, affecting young and middle-aged women with certain risk factors. So it is important to know the signs and symptoms no matter what your age is.. A study released in the American Heart Associations publication ...
Results Carotid plaque was present in 162 (49.1%) of the Spanish patients. The SCORE and Framingham score were each strongly associated with plaque (P ,0.0001). In predicting plaque presence, the area under the curve (AUC) (SE) of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the Framingham score was larger than for the SCORE (0.799 (0.024) versus 0.747 (0.027), P =0.003). The optimal cut-off value and corresponding sensitivity and specificity for the Framingham score and SCORE were 11.0, 64% and 81% and 0.5, 86% and 58%, respectively. Based on optimal cut-off values, a high Framingham score but not SCORE was associated with carotid plaque independent of age, sex, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein concentrations. Whereas a conventional Framingham score value of ≥20 correctly classified only 25% as being at high CVD risk, this proportion increased to 64% in those with a Framingham score of ,11; the percentage of patients without plaque incorrectly classified as being ...
The Risk Factor Assessment Branch develops, evaluate, and disseminates research methods, technologies, and resources for assessing cancer-related risk factors in the population.
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BACKGROUND: Although primary care physicians understand the importance of preventive services for patients with multiple risk factors (MRF) for coronary heart disease, physician intervention is limited. This study investigated (1) physicians views of challenges faced in managing patients with MRF; (2) the counseling and management methods they utilize; and (3) possible strategies to enhance MRF intervention in the primary care setting. METHODS: Two focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians from varying settings to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by a physician and a behavioral scientist using a previously developed semistructured interview guide. The group discussions were tape recorded and subsequently transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method for analysis. RESULTS: Physicians are challenged by knowledge limitations (contribution of individual risk factors to overall risk); limited support (guidelines,
Our analysis demonstrates that participants with persistent CAC = 0 had an overall lower cardiovascular risk factor profile. The healthy arterial aging group had a significantly lower level for all of the individual cardiovascular risk factors and a higher level for all of the healthy lifestyle factors, except Mediterranean diet. The absence of traditional CVD risk factors was also associated with persistent CAC = 0 when compared with participants with ≥3 CVD risk factors. However, there was no single modifiable traditional cardiovascular risk factor whose absence was strongly associated with healthy arterial aging. This is similar to a large cross-sectional cohort study of almost 17,000 participants by Boutouyrie et al. (19) in which sex, dyslipidemia, and smoking were not significantly associated with arterial aging, which was classified as an increased central arterial stiffness. In addition, Lehmann et al. (20) found a significant inverse trend between the number of cardiovascular risk ...
Mortality reduction in patients with diabetes mellitus is complex, and multifactorial intervention strategies assume a special importance due to high prevalence of other comorbid conditions.1 Unlike its role in microvascular complication prevention, aggressive glucose control, by itself, probably contributes only modestly in reducing macrovascular events like myocardial infarction.2 Optimal medical therapy (OMT) to simultaneously target other risk factors (like hypertension and dyslipidemia) with medications and lifestyle modification, in addition to blood sugar control are needed for cardiovascular complication and mortality reduction in diabetic patients.. There arent many randomized control trials that have evaluated the benefit of simultaneous risk factor control. The Steno-2 trial compared simultaneous intensive risk factor modification (with the goal A1C , 6.5%, cholesterol , 175 mg/dl, triglyceride level , 150 mg/dl, blood pressure , 130/80 mm Hg) to lenient control in 160 diabetic ...
BACKGROUND:: Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors have been described, but few studies have examined simultaneously the effects of both ageing and secular trends within the same cohort. METHODS:: Development of cardiovascular risk factors over the past three decades was analysed using serial measurements from 10 308 participants aged from 35 to 80 years over 25 years of follow-up from five clinical examination phases of the Whitehall II study. Changes of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol distribution characteristics were analysed with quantile regression models in the 57-61 age group. Age-related trajectories of risk factors were assessed by fitting mixed-effects models with adjustment for year of birth to reveal secular trends. RESULTS:: Average body mass index and waist circumference increased faster with age in women than in men, but the unfavourable secular trend was more marked in men. Distributions showed a ...
Background: Atherosclerosis is a systemic multifocal disease with a preference for the branching points of the arteries. In this study, we quantitatively measured carotid and femoral plaque volume in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and/or established atherosclerotic disease using a 3D ultrasound technique. Methods: In this prospective, single-centre study, we included 404 patients (median age 64; 56.9% men) with at least one CVRF or established cardiovascular disease. Plaque volume was measured using 3D ultrasound equipped with an automated software. Results: We found a strong correlation of plaque volume with CVRF and the number of vascular beds involved. The strongest associations with total and femoral plaque volume were noted for smoking, hypertension, age, as well as for the presence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (p < 0.05). Carotid plaque volume was best predicted by hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, age, as well as the presence of cerebrovascular disease and coronary
Compared with people with healthy kidneys, people with chronic kidney disease have more cardiovascular complications, including heart attack and stroke. Traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease include high blood pressure, diabetes, and abnormal cholesterol levels. Many people with chronic kidney disease have these traditional cardiovascular risk factors. More recently, researchers have identified other newer risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The newer risk factors include high blood levels of substances that indicate inflammation: homocysteine, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen. The blood levels of specific fats are also newer risk factors: low levels of apolipoprotein A1 and high levels of apolipoprotein B or lipoprotein(a). The frequency of these newer cardiovascular risk factors in people with chronic kidney disease is unknown ...
See related article, pages 1752-1758. The concept of coronary risk equivalents has gained increased acceptance in recent years. In the 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, diabetes mellitus, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and symptomatic carotid artery disease were cited as coronary risk equivalents.1 These conditions carry a 10-year risk of coronary heart disease events of ,20%.. In 2004, the tent containing coronary risk equivalent conditions was expanded by the NCEP committee to symptomatic carotid disease or ,50% obstruction of a carotid artery.2 In addition, whereas in 2001, the low-density lipoprotein target for coronary risk equivalents was ,100 mg/dL, in 2004, an optional target of ,70 mg/dL was established for high-risk patients.. In this issue of Stroke, Dhamoon et al, using data from the Northern Manhattan Study, provide further ammunition to support the enlargement of the coronary risk equivalent ...
We developed different types of risk prediction models to obtain an estimate of the discriminative power of very basic risk factors such as age, gender and BMI and the additive value of less conventional risk factors such as a genetic risk score and uCTX-II levels. We showed that all risk factor groups by themselves have limited and rather similar predictive value. Addition of either clinical/questionnaire-based variables, a genetic risk score or a biochemical marker, uCTX-II level to age, gender and BMI added little to none predictive value to the model. When adding knee pain and the baseline KL score (KL score of 1 as risk factor compared with 0 as reference) for the knee to the model, the AUC increased dramatically up to 0.86 in the independent validation study RS-II and to 0.76 in the Chingford Study.. The only model that achieves possible usefulness in daily practice is the one that incorporates X-ray information at baseline, ranging from AUC=0.76 in the Chingford Study to AUC=0.86 in ...
BACKGROUND: To identify new treatments to prevent stroke, it is important that we have reliable data on potential novel risk factors. METHODS: We studied seven novel vascular risk factors [apo-lipoprotein (b), C-reactive protein, Chlamydia pneumoniae, fibrin-D dimer, fibrinogen, Helicobacter pylori and lipoprotein (a)] and compared the amount of published data on their relations with ischaemic stroke versus acute coronary events by systematic review of all studies published up to 2003. RESULTS: From a total of 22,875 abstracts reviewed, 266 eligible studies were identified (167 case-control studies and 99 cohort studies). Two hundred and eleven (79%) studies included coronary events as an outcome for the purpose of a risk factor analysis. In 186 (70%) studies, coronary events were the only outcome that was analysed. Only 73 (27%) studies included stroke or TIA as an outcome event, and only 45 studies (17%) reported risk factor analyses for ischaemic stroke separately. These results were qualitatively
&lt;I&gt;Aim:&lt;/I&gt; The effectiveness of the support of a healthcare practitioner and a family member in producing changes in cardiovascular risk factor modification was tested in a randomised, controlled trial in patients with hypertension. &lt;br&gt;&lt;I&gt;Methods:&lt;/I&gt; The primary outcome measured after the 24-week intervention was blood pressure change. Secondary outcomes included patients' adherence to the programme, their knowledge about hypertension, exercise capacity, body weight, self-reported ability to control stress, adherence to medication and salt restriction, as well as symptoms. &lt;br&gt;&lt;I&gt;Results:&lt;/I&gt; There were no marked improvements in blood pressure regulation in either group. The differences between the experimental and control groups were 3 mmHg (CI -6.18-12.18) for systolic blood pressure and 4 mmHg (CI -1.48-9.48) for diastolic blood pressure. The estimated blood pressure
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle. You can read more information on this at the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute website.. We had this requirement come in from a partner on how we could store all the patient vital data within Dynamics 365 and calculate a risk score. Our example shows how to use North52s business rules engine for Dynamics 365 to set up a Multi-Sheet Decision Table to evaluate the patients risk score of Coronary Heart Disease.. Each Decision Table Sheet will evaluate specific Risk Factors with a variety of Conditions and decide if that risk factor applies to the patient. A final Decision Table Sheet will then provide a Risk Score based on the individual Risk Factors.. For this article it is assumed that you have at least basic familiarity with Decision Tables and/or have read the following articles:. ...
AIMS: To compare data on cardiovascular risk factor changes in lipids, insulin, proinsulin, fibrinolysis, leptin and C-reactive protein, and on diabetes incidence, in relation to changes in lifestyle.. METHODS: The study was a randomized lifestyle intervention trial conducted in northern Sweden between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending with a single counselling session. Follow-up was conducted at 1, 3 and 5 years.. RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up, an extensive cardio-metabolic risk factor reduction was demonstrated in the intensive intervention group, along with a 70% decrease of progress to type 2 diabetes. At 5-year follow-up, most of these beneficial effects had disappeared. Reported physical activity and fibre intake as well as high-density ...
Socioeconomic gradients in adiposity were not present during childhood for previous generations, but have emerged in contemporary children. It is unknown whether this translates to socioeconomic gradients in associated cardiovascular risk factors in children, with consequent implications for inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes when these children reach adulthood. Using data from 7772 participants aged 10-years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we examined the association between maternal education and a large number of cardiovascular risk factors (cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein, adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure), and examined whether inequalities were mediated by adiposity, measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-assessed total fat mass. There were socioeconomic differences in a number of the cardiovascular risk factors
Increased Serum Sodium and Serum Osmolarity Are Independent Risk Factors for Developing Chronic Kidney Disease; 5 Year Cohort Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
There is really no way to know for sure if youre going to get breast cancer, though certain risk factors can make it more likely. However, having one or more risk factors does not necessarily mean that you will get breast cancer. In fact, you can have all the risk factors and never get breast cancer, or you can have no known risk factors and still get the disease.. If you agree with any of the following bolded statements, you may be at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Some risk factors are out of your control, such as your age or family history. Others, like drinking one or more alcoholic drinks a day or taking hormones, are factors you can control.. Each time you agree with a statement, ask yourself if you are doing all that you can to control that particular risk factor. It may seem difficult, but your efforts can have a big payoff in terms of your health and quality of life. Ask your doctors and loved ones to help think of ways that you can lower your risk for breast ...
Over a third of people with HIV have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the absence of hepatitis B or C, according to the results of a meta-analysis and systematic review published in AIDS. Metabolic disorders including high body mass index (BMI), diabetes and elevated lipids were key risk factors. The study also revealed high prevalences of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis, possible outcomes of NAFLD, with metabolic disorders once again shown as the most important factors.. NAFLD is common in HIV-monoinfected patients. Metabolic disorders are key risk factors for NAFLD independent of HIV parameters and predict its complications, comment the authors. Our systematic review underlines the need for additional data on NAFLD in HIV infection as well as a better standardised assessment and management of the disease.. Liver disease is now a leading cause of serious illness and death in people with HIV. Until now, much of the liver disease occurring in people living ...
Objectives. This study examined socioeconomic differentials in risk of death from a number of specific causes in a large cohort of White men in the United States. Methods. For 300 685 White men screened for the multiple Risk Factors Intervention Trial between 1973 and 1975, data were collected on median income of White households in the zip...
Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2014 Jan 21;10:55-62. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S53557. eCollection 2014.. Roed T1, Kristoffersen US2, Knudsen A3, Wiinberg N4, Lebech AM1, Almdal T5, Thomsen RW6, Kjær A2, Weis N7.. Abstract. OBJECTIVE: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem and has been associated with coronary artery disease. Our aim was to examine the prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers including endothelial biomarkers in patients with chronic hepatitis C and matched comparisons without manifest cardiovascular disease or diabetes in a cross-sectional design.. METHODS: Sixty patients with chronic hepatitis C (mean age 51 years) were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Copenhagen University Hospital, and compared with 60 age-matched non-hepatitis C virus-infected individuals from a general population survey. We examined traditional coronary artery disease risk factors, metabolic syndrome, carotid intima media thickness, and a range of endothelial biomarkers.. RESULTS: ...
NEW YORK, May 30, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:. Epidemiology: Major Abdominal Surgery - A key risk factor for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism [1]. http://www.reportlinker.com/p0536561/Epidemiology-Major-Abdominal-Surgery---A-key-risk-factor-for-deep-vein-thrombosis-and-pulmonary-embolism.html?utm_source=prnewswire&utm_medium=pr&utm_campaign=NoCategory [1]. Introduction. In 2010, Datamonitor estimates that there were 7.4 million major abdominal surgeries in the seven major markets. This number is not expected to change significantly, growing to 8.1 million surgeries in 2020.. Features and benefits. * Gain insight to market potential, including a robust 10-year epidemiology forecast of major abdominal surgeries.. * Understand the key epidemiologic risk factors associated with major abdominal surgery and how it is related to deep vein thrombosis.. Highlights. Datamonitors epidemiologists expect to see a ...
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In Taiwan, CVD is dominated by strokes but there is no robust evidence for a causal relationship between CKD and stroke. This study aimed to explore such causal association. Methods We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2004 to 2007. Each patient identified was individually tracked for a full three years from the index admission to identify those in whom any type of stroke developed. The study cohort consisted of patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of CKD and no traditional cardiovascular risk factors at baseline (n = 1393) and an age-matched control cohort of patients hospitalized for appendectomies (n = 1393, a surrogate for the general population). Cox proportional hazard regression and propensity score model were used to compare the three-year stroke-free survival rate of
Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Although certain dietary factors and lifestyles have been suggested to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, there have been few investigations focusing on rural areas. A case-control study was therefore carried out to investigate the risk factors of gastric cardia cancer (GCC) in rural areas of Linzhou. A total of 470 newly diagnosed cases of GCC and 470 healthy controls were included. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a uniform questionnaire containing questions on demographics, per capita income, living habits, dietary habits and family history of tumors. The relationship between putative risk factors and GCC was assessed by odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) derived from conditional logistic regression model by the COXREG command using SPSS 12.00. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate simultaneously the effects of multiple factors and other
Y chromosome haplogroup as a novel biological risk factor for coronary artery disease - The results of tracking paternal lineages in the west of Scotland primary prevention study (WOSCOPS ...
Looking for online definition of heart disease risk factor in the Medical Dictionary? heart disease risk factor explanation free. What is heart disease risk factor? Meaning of heart disease risk factor medical term. What does heart disease risk factor mean?
Ionizing radiation is a well-established risk factor for brain tumors. During recent years, microwave exposure from the use of cellular telephones has been discussed as a potential risk factor.
Results:. Study 1: 10-year cardiovascular mortality was significantly and linearly associated with glycemic control (fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1 levels) independently of the mode of treatment. A high fasting blood glucose level significantly predicted cardiovascular mortality in multiple logistic regression analysis independently of other risk factors. Study 2: Glycated hemoglobin A1c was the most important single risk factor associated with coronary heart disease death or all coronary heart disease events. In multiple logistic regression analysis, glycated hemoglobin A1c was significantly associated with coronary heart disease death after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coronary heart disease risk prediction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. AU - Chambless, Lloyd E.. AU - Folsom, Aaron R.. AU - Sharrett, A. Richey. AU - Sorlie, Paul. AU - Couper, David. AU - Szklo, Moyses. AU - Nieto, F. Javier. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - Risk prediction functions for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) were estimated using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a prospective study of CHD in 15,792 persons recruited in 1987-1989 from four U.S. communities, with follow-up through 1998. Predictivity of which individuals had incident CHD was assessed by increase in area under ROC curves resulting from adding nontraditional risk factors and markers of subclinical disease to a basic model containing only traditional risk factors. We also assessed the increase in population attributable risk. The additional factors were body mass index; waist-hip ratio; sport activity index; forced expiratory volume; plasma ...
The goal of the present study was to assess the improvement in discrimination that would be gained by adding the recommended nontraditional risk markers to the 2013 cPCE. The present study found that among the 4 ACC/AHA-recommended nontraditional risk markers studied, the CAC score provides the highest (albeit, modest) improvement in discrimination over and beyond the cPCE (Central Illustration). The superiority of the CAC score seems to be consistent across all possible ASCVD strata. To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess whether nontraditional risk markers improve risk prediction afforded by the cPCE.. Previous studies showed that CAC score, ABI, hsCRP levels, and FH improve discrimination and classification of risk over the Framingham risk score but to varying degrees (15-18). Our group (19), as well as a report by the Rotterdam study (15), showed that among these 4 risk markers, CAC score provided the greatest improvement in discrimination across the whole CHD risk spectrum and ...
No. 1: Comparative Effectiveness of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. View final report.. No. 2: Future Research Needs for the Treatment of Common Hip Fractures. View final report.. No. 3: Future Research Needs for the Integration of Mental Health/Substance Abuse and Primary Care. View final report.. No. 4: Future Research Needs for Comparative Effectiveness of Treatments of Localized Prostate Cancer. View final report.. No. 5: Future Research Needs To Reduce the Risk of Primary Breast Cancer in Women. View final report.. No. 6: Future Research Needs for Outcomes of Weight Gain in Pregnancy. View final report.. No. 7: Future Research Needs for the Management of Gestational Diabetes. View final report.. No. 8: Future Research Needs for Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers Added to Standard Medical Therapy for Treating Stable Ischemic Heart Disease. View final report.. No. 9: ...
Twenty nine percent of the 700,000 strokes that occur yearly nationwide are among stroke survivors. Blacks, both nationally and among Harlem residents, have a twofold increase in recurrent strokes. Harlem Latinos have a threefold increase in risk relative to Whites.. Primary risk factors for recurrent stroke include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and under use of anti-thrombotic agents. Controlling risk factors can be particularly challenging for low-income, minority populations who lack the resources needed to adhere to necessary therapies. In Harlem, 72% of adults studied six months post stroke did not have these three risk factors treated adequately.. We propose to determine if participation in a recurrent stroke prevention educational intervention, versus usual care, can activated stroke survivors to at reduce primary risk factors for recurrent strokes while providing an effective, low-cost, sustainable recurrent stroke prevention program in neighborhoods like Harlem, whose residents bear a ...
0006] According to an aspect of the invention, a computer-assisted method provides identification of predictive key risk indicators (KRIs) for organizations and/or firms through the application of specific statistical and quantitative methods that are well integrated with qualitative adjustment. The method may include the steps of: 1) identifying a set of key risks using a first triangulation process with risk information for an identified risk; 2) identifying risk indicators associated with the identified risks using a second triangulation process; 3) conducting, by a risk management computer system, quantitative and statistical analysis to identify a set of statistical associations and a set of predictive relationships of the risk indicators and the key risks through correlation testing and regression modeling; and 4) selecting a set of predictive key risk indicators from the set of statistical associations and the set of predictive relationships. Additionally, the method may also include the ...
BACKGROUND: Limited comparative, prospective data exist regarding cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected women starting antiretroviral therapy in Africa.. METHODS: In 7 African countries, 741 women with CD4 ,200 cells/mm were randomized to tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) plus either nevirapine (NVP, n = 370) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r, n = 371). Lipids and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated at entry, 48, 96, and 144 weeks. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate mean risk factor changes and clinically relevant risk factor changes.. RESULTS: At entry, both NVP and LPV/r groups were similar regarding age [mean = 33.5 (SD = 7.1) years], CD4 [129 (67) cells/mm], and HIV-1 RNA [5.1 (0.6) log10 copies/mL]. Nearly, all women had normal lipids and BP except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Over 144 weeks, the LPV/r compared with NVP group had significantly greater mean lipid increases (eg, non-HDL: +29 vs. +13 mg/dL) and smaller HDL increases ...
Physical activity is consistently associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in epidemiologic studies. This association among higher risk subgroups, such as those with a first-degree family history of colorectal cancer or high body mass index remains unclear. We searched MEDLINE for studies examining physical activity and colorectal cancer risk among higher risk subgroups through July 11, 2017. Fifteen and three studies were eligible for inclusion for body mass index and first-degree family history of colorectal cancer subgroups, respectively. Estimates of the highest to lowest comparison of physical activity for each subgroup of risk were pooled using random-effects models. The pooled associations of physical activity and colorectal cancer risk for those without and with a first-degree family history of colorectal cancer were 0.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.39-0.80) and 0.72 (95% CI = 0.39-1.32), respectively (pheterogeneity = 0.586). The pooled associations of physical activity and
On the basis of clinical and pathologic criteria, endometrial carcinoma has been distinguished as types I (mainly endometrioid) and II (nonendometrioid). Limited data suggest that these subtypes have different risk factor profiles. The authors prospectively evaluated risk factors for types I (n = 1,312) and II (n = 138) incident endometrial carcinoma among 114,409 women in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study (1995-2006). For individual risk factors, relative risks were estimated with Cox regression by subtype, and P(heterogeneity) was assessed in case-case comparisons with type I as the referent. Stronger relations for type I versus Type II tumors were seen for menopausal hormone therapy use (relative risk (RR) of 1.18 vs. 0.84; P(heterogeneity) = 0.01) and body mass index of ≥30 vs. |30 kg/m2 (RR of 2.93 vs. 1.83; P(heterogeneity) = 0.001). Stronger relations for type II versus type I tumors were observed for being black versus white (RR of 2.18 vs. 0.66; P
Our data suggest that inclusion of walnuts in the diet, with or without dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake, improved diet quality and may also improve EF, reduce total and LDL cholesterol in this sample of adults at risk for diabetes. Inclusion of walnuts in the diet, with or without dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake, did not affect anthropometric measures, insulin response, and blood pressure in these participants at risk for diabetes. No differential treatment effects were observed in our outcome measures, whether or not the participants received dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake to compensate for the inclusion of walnuts in their diet.. The inclusion of 56 g walnuts/day in the diet, with or without dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake, significantly improved diet quality as measured by the 2010 HEI in this sample of adults at risk for type 2 diabetic. Improving diet quality has been associated with a reduction of cardiometabolic risk and chronic diseases in ...
Recent studies in the field demonstrate an increasing impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality in HIV relative to AIDS-related diagnoses. Studies continue to support an approximately 1.5 to two-fold increased risk of IHD conferred by HIV, with specific risk varying by sex and virologic/immunologic status. Risk factors include both traditional CVD risk factors and novel, HIV-specific factors including inflammation and immune activation. Specific antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs may increase CVD risk, yet the net effect of ART with viral suppression is beneficial with regard to CVD risk. Management of cardiovascular risk and prevention of CVD is complex, because current general population strategies target traditional CVD risk factors only. Extensive investigation is being directed at developing tailored CVD risk prediction algorithms and interventions to reduce CVD risk in HIV.. SUMMARY ...
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in America, with well-established and identifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are the primary driver for first cardiovascular event, and risk factor modification has been a significant driver for reduction of cardiovascular death in certain populations in recent decades.1,2 However, there remains significant opportunity to improve clinician and patient participation in evidence-based screening and preventative care. According to registry-based studies, 40-60% of patients with cardiovascular risk factors are non-adherent to at least one key component of primary prevention.3 Among those with established atherothrombotic disease, up to 90% are taking antiplatelet, lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive therapy. However, fewer than 50% are fully adherent to all medications with a class 1 indication in secondary prevention, which is associated with marked increase in risk for recurrent events and death.4. The Million Hearts Initiative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The fibroblast growth factor-23 and Vitamin D emerge as nontraditional risk factors and may affect cardiovascular risk. AU - Masson, S.. AU - Agabiti, N.. AU - Vago, T.. AU - Miceli, M.. AU - Mayer, F.. AU - Letizia, T.. AU - Wienhues-Thelen, U.. AU - Mureddu, G. F.. AU - Davoli, M.. AU - Boccanelli, A.. AU - Latini, R.. PY - 2015/3/1. Y1 - 2015/3/1. N2 - Objectives: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and vitamin D are hormones involved in phosphate homoeostasis. They also directly influence cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We examined whether the relationships between levels of vitamin D or FGF-23, cardiac phenotype and outcome were independent of established cardiac biomarkers in a large cohort of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Design and Setting: Plasma levels of FGF-23 and vitamin D were measured in 1851 men and women (65-84 years) resident in the Lazio region of Italy. Participants were referred to eight cardiology centres for clinical examination, electrocardiography, ...
A high body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD); however, a low BMI may also be associated with an increased mortality risk. There is limited information on the relation of incident CHD risk across a wide range of BMI, particularly in women. We examined the relation between BMI and incident CHD overall and across different risk factors of the disease in the Million Women Study. 1.2 million women (mean age = 56 years) participants without heart disease, stroke, or cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) at baseline (1996 to 2001) were followed prospectively for 9 years on average. Adjusted relative risks and 20-year cumulative incidence from age 55 to 74 years were calculated for CHD using Cox regression. After excluding the first 4 years of follow-up, we found that 32,465 women had a first coronary event (hospitalization or death) during follow-up. The adjusted relative risk for incident CHD per 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was 1.23 (95%
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high prevalences in Taiwan and worldwide, but the role of HCV infection in causing CKD remains uncertain. This cohort study aimed to explore this association. This nationwide cohort study examined the association of HCV with CKD by analysis of sampled claims data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2004. ICD-9 diagnosis codes were used to identify diseases. We extracted data of 3182 subjects who had newly identified HCV infection and no traditional CKD risk factors and data of randomly selected 12728 matched HCV-uninfected control subjects. Each subject was tracked for 6 years from the index date to identify incident CKD cases. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the risk of CKD in the HCV-infected and control groups. The mean follow-up durations were 5.88 years and 5.92 years for the HCV-infected and control groups, respectively. Among the sample of 15910 subjects, 251 subjects
Results Modelbase indicated that baseline age, smoking, hypertension, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and diabetes were all significantly associated with plaque progression; the summarised population attributable risk (PAR) was 28.4%. Modelbase + change indicated that status changes in age, hypertension, and high LDL-C were significant; the summarised PAR was 37.9%. Compared with Modelbase, Modelbase + change exhibited a significant increase in c-statistics (P = 0.001), from 0.668 (95% CI: 0.645-0.691) to 0.688 (95%CI: 0.665-0.710). The NRI was 2.17% (95% CI: 1.29-3.05, P = 0.073) among participants without atherosclerosis progression, and was 6.57% (95% CI: 5.04-8.11, P , 0.001) among those with progression. The summarised NRI was 8.74 (95% CI: 7.51-9.94, P , 0.001). Adverse change in hypertension and elevated LDL-C accelerated atherosclerosis progression, but favourable change in their status failed to slow progression. We ...
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of rosiglitazone and/or exercise training on novel cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred overweight/obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with inadequ
06/12/2015 - The USPSTF posted a draft research plan n use of nontraditional risk factors in cardiovascular disease risk assessment.
American Cancer Society (ACS). October 18, 2016. A new study from American Cancer Society researchers finds eleven of the 15 cancers with the most impact on healthy years of life lost in the United States are closely-associated with two preventable risk factors: smoking and alcohol. The study, appearing early online in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, also finds the cancer burden is 20% to 30% higher in African Americans than in all races/ethnicities combined.. To measure cancer burden, researchers led by Joannie Lortet-Tieulent calculated the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost to cancer, i.e. the loss of life in full health because of cancer. This measure combines mortality, incidence, survival, and quality of life into a single summary indicator.. They estimated the U.S. burden of cancer in 2011 at over 9.8 million DALYs, which was equally shared among men and women (4.9 million DALYs for each sex). DALYs lost to cancer were mostly related to premature death due to cancer ...
Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that microalbuminuria is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other vascular diseases in persons with type 2 diabetes. In the present study we examined the prevalence and risk factors for micro- and macroalbuminuria and examined glycemic control as well as treatment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in persons with known type 2 diabetes in Germany. Methods: The presented data were derived from the `KORA Augsburg Diabetes Family Study, conducted between October 2001 and September 2002. Participants were adults aged 29 years and older with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 581). Microalbuminuria was defined as an albumin-creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria as an albumin-creatinine ratio of more than 300 mg/g. Results: Microalbuminuria was revealed in 27.2% and macroalbuminuria in 9.0% of the 581 included diabetic persons. Multivariable regression analysis identified HBA1c, ...
The Stanford Five-City Project was initiated in 1978 to evaluate the effects of community-wide health education on coronary heart disease risk factors in two control San Luis Obispo and Modesto and two treatment Monterey and Salinas cities. This paper examines sex differences in the prevalence of smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension...
© 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Objective: To examine the effect on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors of interventions to alter consultations between practitioners and patients with type 2 diabetes. Search Strategy: Electronic and manual citation searching to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Inclusion Criteria: RCTs that compared usual care to interventions to alter consultations between practitioners and patients. The population was adults aged over 18 years with type 2 diabetes. Trials were set in primary care. Data extraction and synthesis: We recorded if explicit theory-based interventions were used, how consultations were measured to determine whether interventions had an effect on these and calculated weighted mean differences for CVD risk factors including glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C).
MRFIT). Known by its acronym, this large randomized trial of preventive interventions initially was thought to demonstrate the inadequacy of preventive interventions, such as cholesterol-lowering regimens, because death rates were not significantly different between the groups with and without intervention. However, more detailed analysis revealed that apparent similarity of intervention and control groups was due, in part at least, to contamination of the control group by publicized intervention methods that many adopted, although it was not meant to be part of their regimen; and that intervention did significantly reduce death rates from coronary heart disease, but the death rates due to violent causes, such as traffic crashes and suicide, were significantly elevated in the intervention group, raising the possibility that lower cholesterol levels were associated with adverse modification of mood. A brief description and formalities for access to data sets from the MRFIT studies are at ...
The strength of the present nested case-control design compared with a conventional case-control design is that information on risk factors is collected before the event. This eliminates the risk of recall bias when patients who have suffered a serious event like stroke are interviewed and ensures that information also is available in severely affected and deceased subjects. The drawback is that lifestyle, including tobacco habits, may change from the time of the baseline data collection to the time of the event, which would tend to dilute the strength of any existing correlation, resulting in lower ORs. The time from baseline to the stroke event averaged 4.5 years. This reduces the likelihood that many participants have drastically changed their lifestyles, particularly because mean age at baseline was 55 years, an age when tobacco habits are relatively stable. Few participants reported a history of ischemic heart disease at the time of the risk factor survey, and an ECG was not obtained. ...
In this study, a newly developed risk assessment model for stroke onset was shown by several statistical indicators to be superior to the gold-standard Framingham Stroke Risk Score. This new stroke risk score model(NEW-STROKE) was developed using a novel, model-building technology, called synthesis analysis, that allowed for the incorporation of seven additional literature-derived risk factors into the original FSRS.. Compared with the discrimination of these two models, the NEW-STROKE model had higher modified C-statistics than the original FSRS model in the overall group and in the female subgroup in the presence of censoring for survival time. This observation illustrates that the NEW-STROKE model has higher precision in both the overall group and the female subgroup in predicting stroke risk score. When evaluating calibration, the NEW-STROKE model outperformed the original FSRS model as evidenced by smaller Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square values (,20) after recalibration in the overall group and ...
Few studies have examined how various lifestyle factors in midlife predict longevity, and none of these studies have examined the impact of physical fitness. The present study aimed to examine longevity in relation to smoking, overweight and physical fitness. We prospectively studied longevity (defined as reaching at least 85 years of age) in relation to smoking status, body mass index and physical fitness in 821 healthy men between 51 and 59 years of age. Of these, 369 were smokers, 320 were overweight, and 31 were obese. The associations were adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol level, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Deaths were registered until the 31st of December, 2006. Physical fitness was measured as the total work performed in a maximal exercise tolerance bicycle test. 252 men survived to the age of 85 years (30.7%). Smoking status was significantly and independently related to longevity; 37.2% of the non-smokers survived to the age of 85, and 22.8% of the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a working population. T2 - A retrospective cohort study. AU - Gumbiner, Barry. AU - Andresen, Elena M.. AU - Hearne, F. Terry. AU - Michaelson, T. Erik. AU - Bryson, Michael. AU - Lednar, Wayne M.. AU - Cass, Roger. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1996/3. Y1 - 1996/3. N2 - Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) appear to cluster in individuals, possibly because of a single, underlying metabolic disorder. We describe the prevalence of metabolic risk factors for CVD in a young working population and the tendency for individuals with some risk factors to acquire additional factors. This was a retrospective three year follow up study of baseline CVD risk factors assessing (1) incidence of risk factors and (2) fatal CVD. The study group consisted of 9,747 Eastman Kodak employees, who participated in a worksite-based cardiovascular screening program in Rochester, New York, which ...
p,Background: Reduced socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, although the mechanism is not clear. It may be that those with lower SES have a greater burden of classic vascular risk factors.,/p, ,p,Methods: Our aim was to quantify the extent to which classic vascular risk factors explain the association between SES and stroke incidence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining the association of SES and stroke incidence, where classic vascular risk factors were considered. Searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from 1980 onwards we identified 17 studies, 12 of these studies provided sufficient information to allow a meta-analysis. From each study the increased risk of stroke incidence, where the lowest socioeconomic category was compared with the highest, was recorded and pooled. The stroke incidence risks, adjusted for grouped classic risk factors, were also pooled. Review Manager 5 software was used for all analyses ...
Effective for dates of service beginning October 1, 2015, Harvard Pilgrim will not cover the counseling risk factor reduction codes CPT 99401-99404 and 99411-99412 when they are billed in conjunction with a preventive exam or a problem-oriented visit. Because these services are already included as part of a preventive exam or problem-oriented visit, they should not be reimbursed as separate procedures.. For more information, please refer to Harvard Pilgrims updated Evaluation and Management Payment Policy.. ...
The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS-SOL) is the largest study to date to examine the prevalence of heart disease risk factors-high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and smoking-within a diverse Hispanic/Latino population. Findings from HCHS-SOL also showed that the prevalence of risk factors varies across and within Hispanic/Latino populations. For example, people of Puerto Rican background experienced higher rates of heart disease risk factors compared to other Hispanic/Latino groups.. Participants who were more acculturated (born in the United States or lived in the United States for 10 years or longer or preferred using English rather than Spanish) were significantly more likely to have three or more risk factors as well as self-reported heart disease or stroke. And those with lower education or with annual incomes less than $20,000 were more likely to have multiple heart disease risk factors than those with higher education and incomes.. Heart ...
Embargoed until 6am on Thursday 10 April 2014. London, UK, Thursday 10 April 2014: Two new studies presented today at the International Liver CongressTM 2014 have provided more evidence to clarify the role of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD).. In the first long-term study[1], in patients at high CVD risk, NAFLD was shown to contribute to the progression of early atherosclerosis independently of traditional CVD risk factors. In a second long-term study[2], NAFLD was confirmed as a significant long-term risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Importantly, those patients showing signs of an improvement in the fatty appearance of their liver in response to treatment then had a reduced risk of going on to develop diabetes. NAFLD describes a range of conditions where there is a build-up of fat in the liver cells in people who do not drink alcohol excessively. It is rapidly becoming the most ...
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Doug Manuel, MD, MSc, William M. Flanagan, BM, Meltem Tuna, PhD, Anya Okhmatovskaia, PhD, Philippe Finès, PhD; Carol Bennett, MSc. Coronary heart disease risk factors in Canada: a Microsimulation predictive model. Simulated Technology for Applied Research (STAR). Slideshow 3725048 by cicero