Ribonuclease III (RNase III or RNase C)(BRENDA 3.1.26.3) is a type of ribonuclease that recognizes dsRNA and cleaves it at specific targeted locations to transform them into mature RNAs. These enzymes are a group of endoribonucleases that are characterized by their ribonuclease domain, which is labelled the RNase III domain. They are ubiquitous compounds in the cell and play a major role in pathways such as RNA precursor synthesis, RNA Silencing, and the pnp autoregulatory mechanism. Within the RNase III superfamily, there are four known classes: 1, 2, 3, and 4. Each class is defined by its structural difference. Class 1 RNase III Class 1 RNase III have a dimer structure whose function is to cleave dsRNA into multiple subunits. It is a Mg2+ dependent endonuclease and is largely found in bacteria and bacteriophage. Recently, class 1 RNase III was found in Glomeromycotan Fungi, which was suspected to be the result of horizontal gene transfer from cyanobacteria . Among the RNases III in the class ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dicer elicits paclitaxel chemosensitization and suppresses cancer stemness in breast cancer by repressing AXL. AU - Chang, Ting Yu. AU - Chen, Hsin An. AU - Chiu, Ching Feng. AU - Chang, Yi Wen. AU - Kuo, Tsang Chih. AU - Tseng, Po Chun. AU - Wang, Weu. AU - Hung, Mien Chie. AU - Su, Jen Liang. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - Paclitaxel is a standard-of-care chemotherapy for breast cancer, despite the increasing recognition of its poor effectiveness in the treatment of patients with advanced disease. Here, we report that adenovirus-type 5 E1A-mediated elevation of the miRNA-processing enzyme Dicer is sufficient to enhance paclitaxel sensitization and reduce cancer stem-like cell properties in this setting. Elevating Dicer expression increased levels of the AXL kinase targeting miRNA miR-494, thereby repressing AXL expression to increase paclitaxel sensitivity. We found that Dicer expression was regulated at the transcription level by E1A, through activation of an MAPK14/CEBPα ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - β-arrestin-biased agonism of β-adrenergic receptor regulates Dicer-mediated microRNA maturation to promote cardioprotective signaling. AU - Teoh, Jian Peng. AU - Bayoumi, Ahmed S.. AU - Aonuma, Tatsuya. AU - Xu, Yanyan. AU - Johnson, John A.. AU - Su, Huabo. AU - Weintraub, Neal L.. AU - Tang, Yaoliang. AU - Kim, Il Man. PY - 2018/5. Y1 - 2018/5. N2 - Rationale: MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, non-coding RNAs that function to post-transcriptionally regulate target genes. First transcribed as primary miR transcripts (pri-miRs), they are enzymatically processed by Drosha into premature miRs (pre-miRs) and further cleaved by Dicer into mature miRs. Initially discovered to desensitize β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) signaling, β-arrestins are now well-appreciated to modulate multiple pathways independent of G protein signaling, a concept known as biased signaling. Using the β-arrestin-biased βAR ligand carvedilol, we previously showed that β-arrestin1 (not β-arrestin2)-biased β1AR ...
MicroRNA genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as large primary transcripts (pri-microRNA) that are processed by a protein complex containing the RNase III enzyme Drosha, to form an approximately 70 nucleotide precursor microRNA (pre-microRNA). This precursor is subsequently transported to the cytoplasm where it is processed by a second RNase III enzyme, DICER, to form a mature microRNA of approximately 22 nucleotides (Figure 1). The mature microRNA is then incorporated into a ribonuclear particle to form the RNA-induced silencing complex, RISC, which mediates gene silencing ...
Our studies of hairpin loop mutants of numerous human miRNAs have led to the unexpected finding that a large terminal loop facilitates miRNA maturation. Computer predictions of pre‐miRNA secondary structures have some terminal loops as small as 3 nt, but the most adjacent predicted stems frequently contain relatively unstable G:U or A:U base pairs flanked by bulges or internal loops (Figure 3). Thus, although those predictions are considered thermodynamically favorable, there likely is some structural plasticity in the loop regions, intrinsically or aided by binding proteins in vivo. We show here that restricting the terminal loops to below ∼10 nt by introducing mutations that stabilize the predicted smaller loops invariably reduced pre‐miRNA and mature miRNA production in transfected human cells (Figures 1, 2 and 4). We therefore believe that the proposed larger terminal loops, while certainly tentative, have more validity in vivo for pri‐miRNA processing than the previously predicted ...
In this study, we have shown identical phenotypes when either Dicer or Dgcr8 gene was inactivated in NK cells. These results strongly suggest that these two molecules function in the same biological pathway in miRNA biogenesis, and demonstrate that the deficiency in miRNAs is the primary cause underlying the observed phenotypes. Although it is possible that Dicer-deficient cells also exhibit other more subtle phenotypes, such as the derepression of retrotransposons (24, 25), it appears that it is miRNAs, rather than other Dgcr8-independent, Dicer-dependent small RNAs, that are critical for NK cells.. Ablation of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, through deletion of Dicer or Dgcr8, led to increased apoptosis of peripheral NK cells. Similarly, Dicer deletion in developing B cells (17), thymocytes (15, 16), or iNKT cells (19) resulted in increased cell death. These results suggest that the miRNA pathway plays an important role in controlling cell survival. Potential mechanisms include mitotic defects ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MiR-26a enhances miRNA biogenesis by targeting Lin28B and Zcchc11 to suppress tumor growth and metastasis. AU - Fu, X.. AU - Meng, Z.. AU - Liang, W.. AU - Tian, Y.. AU - Wang, X.. AU - Han, W.. AU - Lou, G.. AU - Wang, X.. AU - Lou, F.. AU - Yen, Y.. AU - Yu, H.. AU - Jove, R.. AU - Huang, W.. PY - 2014/8/21. Y1 - 2014/8/21. N2 - Human cancers often exhibit attenuated microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and global underexpression of miRNAs; thus, targeting the miRNA biogenesis pathway represents a novel strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we report that miR-26a enhances miRNA biogenesis, which acts as a common mechanism partially accounting for miR-26a function in diverse cancers including melanoma, prostate and liver cancer. miR-26a was broadly reduced in multiple cancers, and overexpression of miR-26a significantly suppressed tumor growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo, including melanoma, prostate and liver cancers. Notably, miR-26a overexpression was accompanied by global ...
Dicer, also known as endoribonuclease Dicer or helicase with RNase motif, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DICER1 gene. Being part of the RNase III family, Dicer cleaves double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and pre-microRNA (pre-miRNA) into short double-stranded RNA fragments called small interfering RNA and microRNA, respectively. These fragments are approximately 20-25 base pairs long with a two-base overhang on the 3 end. Dicer facilitates the activation of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which is essential for RNA interference. RISC has a catalytic component argonaute, which is an endonuclease capable of degrading messenger RNA (mRNA). Dicer was given its name in 2001 by Emily Bernstein, a graduate student in Greg Hannons lab at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, who sought to discover the enzyme responsible for generating small RNA fragments from double-stranded RNA. Dicers ability to generate ~22 nucleotide RNA fragments was discovered by separating it from the RISC enzyme ...
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Lariat RNAs formed as by-products of splicing are quickly degraded by the RNA debranching enzyme 1 (DBR1), leading to their turnover. Null dbr1 mutants in both animals and plants are embryo lethal, but the mechanism underlying the lethality remains unclear. Here we characterized a weak mutant allele of DBR1 in Arabidopsis, dbr1-2, and showed that a global increase in lariat RNAs was unexpectedly accompanied by a genome-wide reduction in miRNA accumulation. The dbr1-2 mutation had no effects on expression of miRNA biogenesis genes or primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs), but the association of pri-miRNAs with the DCL1/HYL1 dicing complex was impaired. Lariat RNAs were associated with the DCL1/HYL1 dicing complex in vivo and competitively inhibited the binding of HYL1 with pri-miRNA. Consistent with the impacts of lariat RNAs on miRNA biogenesis, over-expression of lariat RNAs reduced miRNA accumulation. Lariat RNAs localized in nuclear bodies, and partially co-localize with HYL1, and both DCL1 and HYL1 ...
In plants, many dsRNA-binding protein (DRBs) have already been proven to play essential roles in a variety of RNA silencing pathways, mainly by promoting the efficiency and/or accuracy of Dicer-like protein (DCL)-mediated little RNA production. also provides multiple lines of proof displaying that DRB4 is normally partitioned into, at least, two distinctive cellular pools satisfying different functions, through exceptional binding with either DCL4 or DRB7 mutually.2. Collectively, these results revealed that plant life have evolved a particular DRB complicated that modulates selectively the creation of endoIR-siRNAs. The life of such a complicated and its own implication about the still elusive natural function of place endoIR-siRNA will end up being discussed. Launch In eukaryotes, RNA silencing is normally a conserved system that plays important roles in lots of natural processes such as for example maintenance of genome balance, advancement or antiviral protection. The many classes of ...
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sample_1: Ribonuclease III, [U-100% 13C; U-100% 15N], 1 mM; H2O 90%; D2O, [U-100% 2H], 10%; sodium phosphate 20 mM; sodium chloride 150 mM. sample_2: Ribonuclease III, [U-100% 13C; U-100% 15N], 1 mM; D2O, [U-100% 2H], 100%; sodium chloride 10 mM; sodium phosphate 150 mM. sample_conditions_1: ionic strength: 150 mM; pH: 6.5; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 298 K ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Results Number (control MP: 3.0*1010/mL vs PIC-induced MP: 3.1*1010/mL; n=2), size (median diameter 207 vs 199nm, n=2), Annexin V binding (mean ± SD: 66±10% vs 63±9%, n=3), the presence of CD4 on MP (20.9±1.4% vs 21.7±3.4%) and total protein content (330±50 vs 325±83 ng/mL) did not differ significantly between control MP and PIC-induced MP. FITC PIC was detected in 14.5±1.3% of U937-derived MP (n=3). In contrast to soluble PIC, MP-associated FITC-PIC was resistant to degradation by RNAse III (FITC-PIC MP + RNaseIII: 33.3±0.7; FITC-PIC MP: 29.0±2.6, n=2-3) and was stably present in cell culture supernatants from RASF treated with MP for 24h (FITC-PIC MP: 12.9 ± 0.2, n=3). PIC was transferred to RASF by MP as confirmed by a 27±15% increase in fluorescence intensity of RASF (n=7, p=0.002) treated with FITC PIC-induced vs PIC-induced MP. The sensitivity of RASF to TRAIL-induced apoptosis decreased after treatment of RASF with PIC-induced MP but not control MP, as shown by inhibition of ...
MiRNAs, a group of powerful modulator of gene expression, participate in multiple cellular processes under physiological and pathological conditions. Emerging evidence shows that Drosha, which controls the initial step in canonical miRNA biogenesis, is involved in modulating cell survival and death in models of several diseases. However, the role of Drosha in Parkinsons disease (PD) has not been well established. Here, we show that the level of Drosha decreases in 6-OHDA-induced cellular and animal models of PD. 6-OHDA induced a p38 MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of Drosha. This triggered Drosha degradation. Enhancing the level of Drosha protected the dopaminergic (DA) neurons from 6-OHDA-induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models of PD and alleviated the motor deficits of PD mice. These findings reveal that Drosha plays a critical role in the survival of DA neurons and suggest that stress-induced destabilization of Drosha may be part of the pathological process in PD ...
AGO2, PRKRA and TARBP2 were required for the efficient functioning of DICER1 in cells, and likely one of the roles of these proteins is to assure better synchronization of cleavages triggered by two RNase III domains of DICER1 ...
Ribonuclease, Ribonuclease Iii, mRNA, Ribose, RNA, RNA Cleavage, Gene, Gene Expression, Report, Distance, Family, Hydroxyl, Micrornas, miRNA, Mirnas, Pre-mirna, Rnase, Rnase Iii, Seed, Concentrations
IDT guarantees that at least two of the three Dicer-Substrate duplexes in the splice-common TriFECTa® kit will give a least 70% knockdown of the target mRNA when used at 10 nM concentration and assayed by quantitative RT-PCR when the fluorescent transfection control duplex indicates that ,90% of the cells have been transfected and the HPRT positive control works with the expected efficiency. Our Bioinformatics department did a full screening of the recommended sequences before adding them to the database. This included BLASTing the sequences to ensure they only line up with the gene in question, performing secondary structure checks, and making sure the end stabilities were favorable for incorporation into the RISC complex ...
Dicer-substrate short interfering RNAs (DsiRNAs) are chemically synthesized 27mer duplex RNAs that have increased potency compared to 21mer siRNAs.
Dicer, an RNase III type endonuclease, is the key enzyme involved in RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways. It is required for biogenesis of miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and also plays an important role in an effector step of RNA silencing, the RNA-induced silencing co …
Deposition of single cells into each well of a 96 well plates is common task for cell sorting flow cytometers. Cells are normally sorted on a "first come, first served basis" with commonly occurring cell types being sorted more often than infrequent cell types based on probability. Different wells can contain cells with the same characteristics and therefore existing sorting methods fail to capture the total diversity of cell populations. This has important implications for true clonal selection.. Dicer software addresses this problem by implementing a novel "Slice and Dice" sorting algorithm that ensures that each well of a multi-well plate contains a cell with different measured characteristics.. Dicer is designed to allow the sorting of single cells or particles into multi-well trays. Trays can be standard 96 well trays or user defined.. Dicer is designed to work with the Becton Dickinson InfluxTM and BD JazzTM cell sorters and provides extra sort modes, "Slice and Dice", "Sequenced" and ...
Buy our Human Drosha peptide. Ab12307 is a blocking peptide for ab12286 and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides free protocols, tips and expert support…
View mouse Dicer1 Chr12:104687742-104751952 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab85027 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: IHC-P,ICC/IF…Drosha抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
ヤギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab58589 交差種: Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P…Drosha抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
华西期刊社成立于2006年,隶属于四川大学华西医院全面负责13种医学科技期刊(9种中文和4种英文)的编辑出版管理工作
Looking for 68040 Microprocessor? Find out information about 68040 Microprocessor. A microprocessor from Motorola. It was the successor to the Motorola 68030 and was followed by the Motorola 68060. The 68040 was the first 680x0 family... Explanation of 68040 Microprocessor
Looking for Microprocessor 8086? Find out information about Microprocessor 8086. A sixteen bit microprocessor chip used in early IBM PCs. The Intel 8088 was a version with an eight-bit external data bus. The Intel 8086 was based on the... Explanation of Microprocessor 8086
Dicer-like endonuclease which seems not to be involved in cleaving double-stranded RNA in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, contrary to its DCL2 counterpart.
It was getting difficult to compete with Intel because Intel boasted a full line of semiconductor products: RAMs, EPROMs and microprocessors. Microprocessors drove sales of memories, and sales of memories funded research in microprocessors. Competition to Intel eventually came from Silicon Valley itself. In 1975 Jerry Sanders Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) introduced the AMD8080, a reverse-engineered clone of the Intel 8080 microprocessor. Above all, in 1975 AMD launched the 4-bit 2901 chip for the "bit-slice" method of building microprocessors. This method conceives a microprocessor as a set of modules: a control unit and several arithmetic logic units (ALUs). While the bit-slice method leads to bigger microprocessors (apparently defying the whole point of the microprocessor), in those days it offered a huge cost-saving advantage in creating high-performance microprocessors. By attaching a series of ALUs horizontally, a manufacturer was able to create virtually any kind of microprocessor. For ...
Dicer is a multidomain ribonuclease with specificity for dsRNA. Dicers catalytic role in the production of small RNAs is central to dsRNA-mediated gene silencing or RNA interference (RNAi) (1-3). Dicer is essential for the response of many organisms to dsRNAs encountered from exogenous sources, including those generated by viral infection or those that have been experimentally delivered. Additionally, Dicer must process endogenous dsRNAs that trigger silencing responses directed at repetitive elements such as transposons and centromeric sequences. Finally, Dicer must promote the maturation of endogenous noncoding RNAs, the microRNAs (miRNAs) that enter the RNAi pathway to regulate the expression of protein coding genes. In all of these cases, Dicer is directly responsible for producing from a longer precursor the ≈22-nt dsRNAs bearing signature 2-nt 3′ overhangs that are a hallmark of RNAi and related pathways.. The Dicer enzyme is organized as a modular structure, with a canonical Dicer ...
The ribonuclease enzyme Dicer is an important cellular protein since it catalyses a rate limiting step in the production of microRNAs. Early experiments showed that disruption of Dicer led to a decrease in microRNA activity and significant effects upon cell growth and differentiation. In humans, germ line disruption of Dicer leads to Familial Pleuropulmonary Blastoma. Several studies have documented that expression of Dicer is related to the progression or grade of human tumors. Thus there is a need to develop reagents that will identify the Dicer protein. Clonegene has developed two monoclonal antibodies against Dicer the first CG006 has been selected by its ability to work in western blot analysis, although it will also perform moderately well in immunohistochemical and fluorescence studies. The second more recently developed antibody, CG016, has been selected for its ability to detect Dicer in human formalin fixed paraffin human sections on immunohistochemical analysis. It is important to ...
Small RNA‐mediated silencing pathways regulate a variety of cellular processes in eukaryotes (Dueck & Meister, 2014). Their effector complex, the RNA‐induced silencing complex (RISC), consists of an Argonaute protein bound by an approximately 20‐ to 30‐nt small RNA. Three major classes of Argonaute‐bound small RNAs exist. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are processed from double‐stranded RNA precursors by the RNase III enzyme Dicer. They are loaded into the AGO subfamily of Argonaute proteins as an RNA duplex, and one of the two strands (the passenger strand) is then removed to form a mature RISC. In contrast, the third class of small RNAs, Piwi‐interacting RNAs (piRNAs), are suggested to be produced from single‐stranded precursor RNAs independently of Dicer and are loaded into the Piwi subfamily of Argonaute proteins.. In vitro RISC assembly assays using cell extracts have demonstrated that Hsp90 and Hsp90 co‐chaperones enhance the loading of miRNAs and ...
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short ~22 nucleotides (nt) ribonucleic acids which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. miRNAs are key regulators of all cellular processes, and the correct expression of miRNAs in an organism is crucial for proper development and cellular function. As a result, the miRNA biogenesis pathway is highly regulated. In this review, we outline the basic steps of miRNA biogenesis and miRNA mediated gene regulation focusing on the role of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). We also describe multiple mechanisms that regulate the canonical miRNA pathway, which depends on a wide range of RBPs. Moreover, we hypothesise that the interaction between miRNA regulation and RBPs is potentially more widespread based on the analysis of available high-throughput datasets.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs of 22 nt that regulate the gene manifestation by foundation pairing with target mRNAs, leading to mRNA cleavage or translational repression. target ubiquitously indicated genes than tissue-specifically indicated genes. These results support the current suggestion that miRNAs are likely to be mainly involved in embryo development and keeping of tissue identity. Intro MicroRNAs (miRNAs), encoded in the chromosomal DNA and transcribed as longer stemCloop precursors, termed pri-miRNAs, are non-coding small (21C23 nt) RNAs that regulate the manifestation of target mRNAs [examined in (1C4)]. Upon transcription, pri-miRNA is definitely converted to mature miRNA duplex through sequential processing by RNase III family of endonucleases Drosha and Dicer (3,4). One strand of the processed duplex is integrated into a silencing complex and guided to target sequences by foundation pairing [examined in (5,6)]. This results in the cleavage of target mRNAs or ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that bind to the 3 UTR of mRNAs. We are using zebra fish as a model system to study the developmental roles of miRNAs and to determine the mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate target mRNAs. We generated zebra fish embryos that lack the miRNA-processing enzyme Dicer. …
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Gene Silencing Activity* of dsRNA Dicer Substrate and mdRNA (nicked or gapped) Dicer Substrate Dicer Dicer Nicked SEQ ID Mean Dicer SEQ ID Nicked Nicked Gapped Gapped Gapped Length Set Target Pos† NOS.dagger-dbl. (%) 95% CI NOS Mean (%) 95% CI SEQ ID NOS Mean (%) 95% CI 5-S{circumflex over ( )} 1 AKT1 1862 63, 283 20.6 4.0% 503, 723, 283 23.5 5.7% 503, 940, 283 54.3 12.0% 14 2 AKT1 1883 64, 284 29.7 7.3% 504, 724, 284 51.4 6.7% 504, 941, 284 76.9 19.5% 12 3 AKT1 2178 65, 285 15.4 2.4% 505, 725, 285 22.3 6.4% 505, 942, 285 24.4 5.1% 14 4 AKT1 2199 66, 286 26.4 3.6% 506, 726, 286 62.7 6.6% 506, 943, 286 66.8 10.8% 15 5 AKT1 2264 67, 287 35.2 7.3% 507, 727, 287 34.1 7.3% 507, 944, 287 31.3 5.2% 12 6 AKT1 2580 68, 288 27.6 5.7% 508, 728, 288 40.1 8.3% 508, 945, 288 91.5 17.0% 12 7 AKT1 2606 69, 289 14.0 2.6% 509, 729, 289 14.9 3.2% 509, 946, 289 33.4 6.9% 11 8 AKT1 2629 70, 290 21.0 10.1% 510, 730, 290 13.5 2.4% 510, 947, 290 13.6 2.1% 12 9 AKT1 2661 71, 291 37.4 6.6% 511, ...
Bradley Gelfand, assistant professor in the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, has been awarded a research grant from the American Heart Association to study atherosclerosis.. The grant will be used to determine whether the same novel findings previously discovered in human age-related macular degeneration also apply to human atherosclerosis. In particular, which levels and activity of the enzyme Dicer are altered in the vessel wall during atherosclerotic lesion formation. One consequence of Dicer reduction could be the build-up of unwanted, toxic RNAs that are normally eliminated by Dicer activity. The research is to essentially determine whether the enzymatic deficiency initially described in human AMD also occurs and contributes to atherosclerosis development. The grant is a scientific funding grant which provides funding for Gelfands project for four years.. Gelfand has been with UK since 2010 when he came to study as a ...
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1. HutvágnerG. McLachlanJ. PasquinelliAE. BálintE. TuschlT. 2001 A cellular function for the RNA-interference enzyme Dicer in the maturation of the let-7 small temporal RNA. Science 293 834 838. 2. KettingRF. FischerSE. BernsteinE. SijenT. HannonGJ. 2001 Dicer functions in RNA interference and in synthesis of small RNA involved in developmental timing in C. elegans. Genes & Development 15 2654 2659. 3. HammondSM. BernsteinE. BeachD. HannonGJ. 2000 An RNA-directed nuclease mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing in Drosophila cells. Nature 404 293 296. 4. HammondSM. BoettcherS. CaudyAA. KobayashiR. HannonGJ. 2001 Argonaute2, a link between genetic and biochemical analyses of RNAi. Science 293 1146 1150. 5. HutvágnerG. ZamorePD. 2002 A microRNA in a multiple-turnover RNAi enzyme complex. Science 297 2056 2060. 6. BernsteinE. KimSY. CarmellMA. MurchisonEP. AlcornH. 2003 Dicer is essential for mouse development. Nat Genet 35 215 217. 7. ...
Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Most of the TCC cases are of the superficial type and are treated with transurethral resection (TUR). However, the recurrence rate is high and the current treatments have the drawback of inducing strong systemic toxicity or cause painful cystitis. Therefore, it would be of therapeutic value to develop novel concepts and identify novel drugs for the treatment of bladder cancer. Ki-67 is a large nucleolar phosphoprotein whose expression is tightly linked to cell proliferation, and curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess powerful anticancer properties. In this study, we evaluated the combined efficacy of curcumin and a siRNA against Ki-67 mRNA (Ki-67-7) in rat (AY-27) and human (T-24) bladder cancer cells. The anticancer effects were assessed by the determination of cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Ki-67-7 (10 nM) and curcumin (10 µM
RNA turnover plays an important role in both virulence and adaptation to stress in the Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. However, the molecular players and mechanisms involved in these processes are poorly understood. Here, we explored the functions of S. aureus endoribonuclease III (RNase III), a member of the ubiquitous family of double-strand-specific endoribonucleases. To define genomic transcripts that are bound and processed by RNase III, we performed deep sequencing on cDNA libraries generated from RNAs that were co-immunoprecipitated with wild-type RNase III or two different cleavage-defective mutant variants in vivo. Several newly identified RNase III targets were validated by independent experimental methods. We identified various classes of structured RNAs as RNase III substrates and demonstrated that this enzyme is involved in the maturation of rRNAs and tRNAs, regulates the turnover of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs, and autoregulates its synthesis by cleaving within ...
4. Microsoft is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of Washington, with its principal place of business located at One Microsoft Way, Redmond, Washington. 5. Microsoft develops, licenses, sells and supports several types of software products for PCs, including "operating systems" and "applications." 6. PC operating systems control the operation of a computer by managing the interaction between the computers microprocessor, memory and attached devices such as keyboards, display screens, disk drives, and printers. A PC operating system functions as the "central nervous system" of the PC. PC operating system software is designed to work with specific microprocessors, the integrated circuits that function as the "brain" of the computer. 7. Most of the personal computers in the world today use the x86 class of microprocessors, originally designed by Intel Corporation. The x86 class includes Intel 286, 386, 486, and Pentium microprocessors, as well as microprocessors ...