Rhizobium, Agrobacterium and Allorhizobium are genera within the bacterial family Rhizobiaceae, together with Sinorhizobium. The species of Agrobacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (syn. Agrobacterium radiobacter), Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Agrobacterium rubi and Agrobacterium vitis, together with Allorhizobium undicola, form a monophyletic group with all Rhizobium species, based on comparative 16S rDNA analyses. Agrobacterium is an artificial genus comprising plant-pathogenic species. The monophyletic nature of Agrobacterium, Allorhizobium and Rhizobium and their common phenotypic generic circumscription support their amalgamation into a single genus, Rhizobium. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was conserved as the type species of Agrobacterium, but the epithet radiobacter would take precedence as Rhizobium radiobacter in the revised genus. The proposed new combinations are Rhizobium radiobacter, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium rubi, Rhizobium undicola and Rhizobium vitis.
Rhizobium fredii is a fast-growing rhizobium isolated from the primitive Chinese soybean cultivar Peking and from the wild soybean Glycine soja. This rhizobium harbors nif genes on 150- to 200-megadalton plasmids. By passage on acridine orange plates, we obtained a mutant of R. fredii USDA 206 cured of the 197-megadalton plasmid (USDA 206C) which carries both nif and nod genes. This strain, however, has retained its symbiotic effectiveness. Probing EcoRI digests of wild-type and cured plasmid DNA with a 2.2-kilobase nif DH fragment from Rhizobium meliloti has shown four homologous fragments in the wild-type strain (4.2, 4.9, 10, and 11 kilobases) and two fragments in the cured strain (4.2 and 10 kilobases). EcoRI digests of total DNA show four major bands of homology (4.2, 4.9, 5.8, and 13 kilobases) in both the wild-type and cured strains. The presence of major bands of homology in the total DNA not present in the plasmid DNA indicated chromosomal nif genes. Probing of HindIII digests of total and
Nodulation (nod) gene expression in Rhizobium meliloti requires plant inducers and the activating protein product of the nodD gene. We have examined three genes in R. meliloti which have nodD activity and sequence homology. These three nodD genes are designated nodD1, nodD2 and nodD3, and have distinctive properties. The nodD1 gene product activates expression of the nodABC operon, as measured by a nodC-lacZ fusion or by transcript analysis, in the presence of crude seed or plant wash or the inducer, luteolin. The nodD3 gene product can cause a high basal (uninduced) level of nodC-lacZ expression and nodABC transcripts which is relatively unaffected by inducers. The effect of nodD3 is dependent on the presence of another gene, syrM (symbiotic regulator). By primer extension analysis we determined that the transcription start site is the same for nodD1 plus luteolin or nodD3-syrM mediated expression of nodA and nodH mRNAs. syrM also enhances the expression of another symbiotically important ...
Other names: A. rhizogenes, ATCC 11325, Agrobacterium biovar 2, Agrobacterium genomic group 10, Agrobacterium genomic species 10, Agrobacterium genomosp. 10, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI1724), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI8196), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRIA4B), CFBP 5520, CIP 104328, DSM 30148, ICMP 5794, IFO 13257, JCM 20919, LMG 150, NBRC 13257, NCPPB 2991, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium sp. LMG 9509 ...
Other names: A. rhizogenes, ATCC 11325, Agrobacterium biovar 2, Agrobacterium genomic group 10, Agrobacterium genomic species 10, Agrobacterium genomosp. 10, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI1724), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI8196), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRIA4B), CFBP 5520, CIP 104328, DSM 30148, ICMP 5794, IFO 13257, JCM 20919, LMG 150, NBRC 13257, NCPPB 2991, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium sp. LMG 9509 ...
Pesticide properties for Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K1026, including approvals, environmental fate, eco-toxicity and human health issues
The Rhizobium common nod gene products NodABC are involved in the synthesis of the core lipochitooligosaccharide (Nod factor) structure, whereas the products of the host-specific nod genes are necessary for diverse structural modifications, which vary in different Rhizobium species. The sulfate group attached to the Rhizobium meliloti Nod signal is necessary for activity on the host plant alfalfa, while its absence renders the Nod factor active on the non-host plant vetch. This substituent is therefore a major determinant of host specificity. The exact biosynthetic pathway of Nod factors has not been fully elucidated. In particular, it is not known why some chemical modifications are introduced with high fidelity whereas others are inaccurate, giving rise to a family of different Nod factor structures produced by a single Rhizobium strain. Using protein extracts and partially purified recombinant NodH protein obtained from Escherichia coli expressing the R. meliloti nodH gene, we demonstrate ...
The plant supplies the rhizobia with energy in the form of amino acids and the . Legumes can become infected with nitrogen-fixing bacteria known as rhizobia. These bacteria live in the soil, and when a legume grows nearby a molecular communication ensues that enables the legume roots to become infected. In a process guided by both the bacteria and the plant, the rhizobia invade . Wally Eberhart, Corbis, NTB scanpix.. Update in progress: This page lists all of the current validly-published binomial names for the rhizobia , which currently consists of species in genera. Most of these bacterial species are in the Rhizobiacae family in the . The biological reduction of atmospheric Nto ammonium (nitrogen fixation) provides about of the biospheres available nitrogen. Most of this ammonium is contributed by legume- rhizobia symbioses, which are initiated by the infection of legume hosts by bacteria ( rhizobia ), resulting in formation of root nodules. Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that form ...
The role of soil microorganisms in plant growth, nutrient utilization, drought tolerance as well as biocontrol activity cannot be over-emphasized, especially in this era when food crisis is a global challenge. This research was therefore designed to gain genomic insights into plant growth promoting (PGP) Rhizobium species capable of enhancing soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds germination under drought condition. Rhizobium sp. strain R1, Rhizobium tropici strain R2, Rhizobium cellulosilyticum strain R3, Rhizobium taibaishanense strain R4 and Ensifer meliloti strain R5 were found to possess the entire PGP traits tested. Specifically, these rhizobial strains were able to solubilize phosphate, produce exopolysaccharide (EPS), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), siderophore and indole-acetic-acid (IAA). These strains also survived and grew at a temperature of 45 °C and in an acidic condition with a pH 4. Consequently, all the Rhizobium strains enhanced the germination of soybean seeds (PAN 1532 R) under
Monoclonal antibodies were used as cytochemical markers to study surface interactions between endosymbiotic Rhizobium bacteroids from pea root nodules and the encircling peribacteroid membranes, which are of plant origin. Monoclonal antibodies that react with Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or with a plant membrane glycoprotein were used as markers for material from the bacteroid outer membrane or the peribacteroid membrane, respectively. Membrane-enclosed bacteroids were isolated from nodule homogenates by sucrose gradient centrifugation, and the encircling peribacteroid membrane was released by mild osmotic shock treatment. Using an immunochemical technique (sandwich ELISA), it was shown that 1-5% of the LPS antigen released into the peribacteroid fraction by mild osmotic shock treatment was physically associated with peribacteroid membrane through a detergent-sensitive linkage. This association could be visualized when freshly prepared peribacteroid material was immobilized on gold grids ...
Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen. Rhizobium species form an endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing association with roots of legumes and Parasponia. The bacteria colonize plant cells within root nodules, where they convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia and then provide organic nitrogenous compounds such as glutamine or ureides to the plant. The plant, in turn, provides the bacteria with organic compounds made by photosynthesis. This mutually beneficial relationship is true of all of the rhizobia, of which the Rhizobium genus is a typical example. Beijerinck in the Netherlands was the first to isolate and cultivate a microorganism from the nodules of legumes in 1888. He named it Bacillus radicicola, which is now placed in Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology under the genus Rhizobium. Rhizobium forms a symbiotic relationship with certain plants such as legumes, fixing nitrogen from the air into ammonia, which acts as a natural fertilizer for the plants. ...
Agrobacterium infection, which is widely used to generate transgenic plants, is often accompanied by T-DNA-linked mutations and transpositions in flowering plants. It is not known if Agrobacterium infection also affects the rates of point mutations, somatic homologous recombinations (SHR) and frame-shift mutations (FSM). We examined the effects of Agrobacterium infection on five types of somatic mutations using a set of mutation detector lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. To verify the effect of secreted factors, we exposed the plants to different Agrobacterium strains, including wild type (Ach5), its derivatives lacking vir genes, oncogenes or T-DNA, and the heat-killed form for 48 h post-infection; also, for a smaller set of strains, we examined the rates of three types of mutations at multiple time-points. The mutation detector lines carried a non-functional β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) and a reversion of mutated GUS to its functional form resulted in blue spots. Based on the
A motile, Gram-stain-negative, non-pigmented bacterial strain, designated MGL06T, was isolated from seawater of the South China Sea on selection medium containing 0.1 % (w/v) malachite green. Strain MGL06T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhizobium vignae CCBAU 05176T (97.2 %), and shared 93.2-96.9 % with the type strains of other recognized Rhizobium species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and housekeeping gene sequences showed that strain MGL06T belonged to the genus Rhizobium. Mean levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain MGL06T and R. vignae CCBAU 05176T, Rhizobium huautlense S02T and Rhizobium alkalisoli CCBAU 01393T were 20 ± 3, 18 ± 2 and 14 ± 3 %, respectively, indicating that strain MGL06T was distinct from them genetically. Strain MGL06T did not form nodules on three different legumes, and the nodD and nifH genes were also not detected by PCR or based on the draft genome sequence. Strain MGL06T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone. The major fatty
Rhizobia are composed of specific groups of bacteria that have the ability to induce symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots or stems of leguminous plants. Rhizobia have attracted a great attention for more than 4 decades because of their enormous agricultural and economic value in sustainable agriculture. Up to the present time, many legumes have been found to be nodulated by several rhizobial species in diverse taxonomic groups. An assessment of rhizobial diversity provides pivotal information in understanding the horizontal gene transfer among bacterial genera and species, the bacterial evolution and the symbiotic effectiveness. The classification of rhizobia is becoming increasingly complex and is revised periodically because of new findings that propose new genera and new species. Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Rhizobia presents the application of conventional and molecular analyses, including numerical analysis, enzyme patterns, serological studies, plasmid profile, ...
Rhizobium spp. are found in soil. They are both free-living and found symbiotically associated with the nodules of leguminous plants. Traditionally, studies have focused on the association of these organisms with plants in nitrogen-fixing nodules, since this is regarded as the most important role of these bacteria in the environment. Rhizobium sp. are known to possess several replicons. Some, like the Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmid p42d and the plasmid pNGR234b of Rhizobium NGR234, have been sequenced and characterized. The plasmids from these organisms are the focus of this short review.. ...
FINAL DIAGNOSIS: AGROBACTERIUM RADIOBACTER. CONTRIBUTORS NOTE:. The genus Agrobacterium are aerobic, gram negative, peritrichous bacilli which are mainly plant pathogens found in soil all over the world. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium radiobacter are two species that have been isolated from human specimens although only A. radiobacter is associated with clinical symptoms (1).. Despite A. radiobacters association with significant clinical symptoms, it is considered to be of low virulence and there have been no reports of mortality from the organism alone. The only difference between the two species is the presence of a tumor-producing plasmid, the Ti plasmid, in A. tumefaciens which results in a tumorous growth in plants (2).. Agrobacterium radiobacter is infrequently recognized in clinical specimens however it has been associated with immunocompromised patients that have implanted medical devices or transcutaneous catheters (1,3,4). It was first isolated in 1967 but was not ...
The most important step of this study was to isolate Rhizobium species and determination of their potency for growth factor production. We isolated 260 type bacteria on PCA (Plate Count Agar) media from adjacent soil samples of ten leguminous plants, two non-leguminous plants and control soil (without plant). Then pure cultures of 53 nitrogen fixing bacterial strains were isolated on selective Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar (YEMA) medium. Five isolates (Ma-G1, Ch-H2, Lo-F1, Sh-J1and Ra-I2) were selected as Rhizobium hainanense and better result was regarded in their assessment for production potency of various growth factors. All Rhizobium spp. were able to fix nitrogen in media. Among these isolates, indole acetic acid (IAA) was produced by Ma-G1 and Ra-I2. The exopolysaccharide production rate of Ma-G1 was enhanced expectedly (1.25-fold increase) by treating with IAA. Unfortunately, these five strains were unable to separate soluble phosphorus content from insoluble tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). ...
Procedures based on DNA hybridization and PCR were developed for quality control of Rhizobium inoculants. Inoculants for pea and goats rue were produced by Elomestari Ltd., Juva, Finland, in sterile dry fine peat by the standard procedure used by the company. The inoculants contained Rhizobium galegae HAMBI 1174 and HAMBI 1207 and an R. leguminosarum biovar vicia strain, 16HSA, either solely or in combinations of two or three strains. DNA was isolated from 1-g samples of each peat inoculant and analyzed by nonradioactive DNA-DNA hybridization and by PCR. The hybridization probes were total DNAs from pure cultures of R. galegae HAMBI 1207 and R. leguminosarum biovar viciae 16HSA and a 264-bp strain-specific fragment from the genome of R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The total DNA probes distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae or R. leguminosarum, and the strain-specific probe distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The hybridization results for R. galegae were verified in a PCR ...
SALEM, S.H. (1971) Néhány inszekticid hatása a Rhizobium trifolii effektív és ineffektív törzseinek fiziológiai aktivitására. Agrokémia és talajtan, 20 (3). pp. 368-376. ...
Agrobacterium species that are pathogenic on plants, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. vitis, A. rubi, and A. rhizogenes, all carry megaplasmids. By contrast, nonpathogenic strains either lack these plasmids entirely or carry mutant forms of plasmids. A strict requirement of the Ti plasmid for virulence was established through mutational analyses and by a demonstration that the introduction of Ti plasmids into Rhizobium or Phyllobacterium spp. converts these nonpathogenic species into tumor-inducing pathogens ( 2 , 3 ). Ti plasmids induce a disease called crown gall, which is typified by the formation of undifferentiated plant tumors at the plant crown (the subterranean-to-aerial transition zone). The related root-inducing or Ri megaplasmids carried by A. rhizogenes instead induce hairy root disease, which is typified by the formation of entangled masses of roots at the infection site ( 4 ).
Rhizobium rhizogenes (formerly Agrobacterium rhizogenes) is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces hairy root disease in dicotyledonous plants. R. rhizogenes induces the formation of proliferative multiple-branched adventitious roots at the site of infection, so-called hairy roots. In the rhizosphere, plants may suffer from wounds by soil pathogens or other sources. This leads to the secretion of phenolic compounds like acetosyringone which have chemotactic effects that attract the bacteria. Under such conditions, certain bacterial genes are turned on leading to the transfer of its tDNA from its root-inducing plasmid (Ri plasmid) into the plant through the wound. After integration and expression, in vitro or under natural conditions, the hairy root phenotype is observed, which typically includes overdevelopment of a root system that is not completely geotropic, and altered (wrinkled) leaf morphology, if leaves are present. Bacterial genes may be retained within the plant. The hairy roots ...
The genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiency among indigenous rhizobia isolates obtained from native field with or without organic fertilization and superficial mineral fertilization were investigated. Eighty-six indigenous rhizobia were isolated from these fields using four common bean varieties as trap-host. The common bean varieties Mexico 309 and Rio Tibagi selected the most efficient rhizobia strains because they showed the best yields and N contents results. The genetic characterization of 36 rhizobia isolates was evaluated by using electrophoretic profiles of amplification products using primers ERIC1-R and ERIC-2. Our results demonstrated that besides the large diversity in the indigenous rhizobial community, the genotype of the trap-host probably influences the selection of the most efficient strains.
Three bacterial isolates, designated W44T, W15 and W11, were isolated from the root of Oryza officinalis grown in Wuzhou, China. These isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped; demonstrated cellulase and urea activities; and formed cream-coloured colonies. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the similarities between strain W44T and strains W15 and W11 were 100 %; all of them belonged to the genus Rhizobium and had the highest sequence similarity to Rhizobium rosettiformans W3T (98.7 %), followed by Rhizobium ipomoeae shin9-1T (98.2 %). Sequencing of housekeeping genes (recA, atpD, rpoB and glnA) of the novel isolates revealed similarities to members of established Rhizobium species to be less than 94.3 %. The values of DNA-DNA hybridization between strain W44T and the reference strains ( R. rosettiformans W3T and R. ipomoeae shin9-1T) were 41.3 and 29.2 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acid of strain W44T was summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω9t and/or C18 : 1ω9c
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Rhizobium forms a symbiotic relationship with certain plants such as legumes, fixing nitrogen from the air into ammonia, which acts as a natural fertilizer for the plants. Current research is being conducted by Agricultural Research Service microbiologists to discover a way to use Rhizobiums biological nitrogen fixation. This research involves the genetic mapping of various rhizobial species with their respective symbiotic plant species, like alfalfa or soybean. The goal of this research is to increase the plants productivity without using fertilizers.[3]. In molecular biology, Rhizobium has also been identified as a contaminant of DNA extraction kit reagents and ultrapure water systems, which may lead to its erroneous appearance in microbiota or metagenomic datasets.[4] The presence of nitrogen fixing bacteria as contaminants may be due to the use of nitrogen gas in ultra-pure water production to inhibit microbial growth in storage tanks.[5]. ...
To study the effect of different temperature and carbohydrate sources, a laboratory experiment was taken and parameters are taken separately. To study the effect of different temperature on the growth of Rhizobium, YEMA medium was used for growth of Rhizobium, there is less growth as compared to 30 c, where significantly increase in biomass growth, up to 30 c temperature. To study the effect of different carbohydrate sources, the Richard medium was used to study the growth of Rhizobium. From data it was clear that, mannitol as a source there was significantly more growth of Rhizobium compared to other sources.. ...
Rhizobium spp. show chemotaxis to plant root exudates. A glycoprotein has been isolated from the root exudates of birdsfoot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus, which, at micromolar concentrations, attracts six strains of rhizobia. This glycoprotein has been given the trivial name trefoil chemotactin and contains approximately twice as much protein as carbohydrate. Gel filtration of trefoil chemotactin on a Bio-Gel A-1.5m column gave a molecular weight of approximately 60,000. Trefoil chemotactin represents a new class of chemoattractants for bacteria. ...
A 1.9 kb DNA region of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae strain VF39 capable of promoting microaerobic and symbiotic induction of the Rhizobium meliloti fixN gene was identified by heterologous complementation. Sequence analysis of this DNA region revealed the presence of two complete open reading frames, orf240 and orf114. The deduced amino acid sequence of orf240 showed significant homology to Escherichia coli Fnr and R. meliloti FixK. The major difference between ORF240 and FixK is the presence of 21 N-terminal amino acids in ORF240 that have no counterpart in FixK. A similar protein domain is also present in E. coli Fnr and is essential for the oxygen-regulated activity of this protein. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence upstream of orf240 revealed a motif similar to the NtrA-dependent promoter consensus sequence, as well as two DNA regions resembling the Fnr consensus binding sequence. A Tn5-generated mutant in orf240 lost the ability to induce the R. meliloti fixN-lacZ fusion. ...
The Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae nodulation protein NodO is partially homologous to haemolysin of Escherichia coli and, like haemolysin, is secreted into the growth medium. The NodO protein can be secreted by a strain of E. coli carrying the cloned nodO gene plus the haemolysin secretion genes hlyBD, in a process that also requires the outer membrane protein encoded by tolC. The related protease secretion genes, prtDEF, from Erwinia chrysanthemi also enable E. coli to secrete NodO. The Rhizobium genes encoding the proteins required for NodO secretion are unlinked to nodO and are unlike other nod genes, since they do not require flavonoids or NodO for their expression. Although proteins similar to NodO were not found in rhizobia other than R. leguminosarum bv. viciae, several rhizobia and an Agrobacterium strain containing the cloned nodO gene were found to have the ability to secrete NodO. These observations indicate that a wide range of the Rhizobiaceae have a protein secretion ...
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) suspension cultures respond to yeast elicitors with a strong alkalinization of the culture medium, a transient synthesis of activated oxygen species, and typical late defence reactions such as phytoalexin accumulation and increased peroxidase activity. The alkalinization reaction as well as the oxidative burst were also observed when tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell-suspension cultures were treated with yeast elicitors. Depending on the degree of polymerization, N-acetyl chitin oligomers induced the alkalinization response in both plant cell-suspension cultures, while only tobacco cell cultures developed an oxidative burst. Suspension-cultured tobacco cells responded to Sinorhizobium meliloti nodulation factors with a maximal alkalinization of 0.25 pH units and a remarkable oxidative burst. In contrast, addition of Sinorhizobium meliloti nodulation factors to suspension-cultured alfalfa cells induced a slight acidificatiton of the culture medium, instead of an ...
The secreted nodulation-signaling protein NodO was purified from the supernatant of cultures of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae. The native protein has a M(r) of approximately 67,000, suggesting that it exists as a dimer since the DNA sequence predicts a M(r) of 30,002. Pure NodO protein had no protease, pectinase, or cellulase activity, and no binding was observed to lipooligosaccharide nodulation factors. Although NodO is relatively hydrophilic, it appeared to insert into liposomes and was protected by liposomes from proteolytic cleavage. When added to planar lipid bilayers, NodO formed cation-selective channels that allowed the movement of monovalent cations (K+ and Na+) across the membrane. NodO is a Ca(2+)-binding protein; in the presence of high concentrations of Ca2+, channel activity was reduced. We hypothesize that NodO plays a role in nodulation signaling by stimulating uptake of nodulation factors or by forming cation-specific channels that function synergistically with the ...
Looking for online definition of rhizobium in the Medical Dictionary? rhizobium explanation free. What is rhizobium? Meaning of rhizobium medical term. What does rhizobium mean?
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) can provide an agronomic and economically sustainable alternative to declining soil fertility and high cost of chemical fertilizers faced by smallholder farmers in Kenya. The aim of the study was to identify highly effective indigenous rhizobia for production of commercial bean inoculants and to investigate the influence of bio-char as a soil amendment on the effectiveness of both indigenous Kenyan rhizobia and commercial inoculant in symbiosis with common bean in low fertile soils of Western Kenya. Bioprospecting was conducted in Kenya to collect rhizobia isolates capable of nodulating and fixing N in symbiotic association with common bean. Three hundred and eighty rhizobia isolates were recovered from nodules of wild and cultivated legume hosts growing along a transect of different agro-ecological zones covering about 1045 km transect. These isolates were authenticated and tested for effectiveness on climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) var. Kenya Tamu in ...
The bacterial chromosome may be used to stably maintain foreign DNA in the mega-base range. Integration into the chromosome circumvents issues such as plasmid replication, stability, incompatibility, and copy number variance. The site-specific integrase IntA from Rhizobium etli CFN42 catalyzes a direct recombination between two specific DNA sites: attA and attD (23 bp). This recombination is stable. The aim of this work was to develop a R. etli derivative that may be used as recipient for the integration of foreign DNA in the chromosome, adapting the IntA catalyzed site-specific recombination system. To fulfill our aim, we designed a Rhizobium etli CFN42 derivative, containing a
293990028 - EP 1002868 A1 20000524 - Method to control gene expression in bacteria namely rhyzobiaceae to improve root nodule development nitrogen fixation and plant biomass production - A promintron sequence derived from an intervening sequence of the rolA gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 is described. The sequence is able to drive gene expression within bacteroids in all stages of nodule development in order to obtain, over the developmental time of the nodule, a constitutive expression of the gene(s) of interest. Uses of said sequence, derived vectors and recombinant bacteria are also described. IMAGE [origin: EP1002868A1] A promintron sequence derived from an intervening sequence of the rolA gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 is described. The sequence is able to drive gene expression within bacteroids in all stages of nodule development in order to obtain, over the developmental time of the nodule, a constitutive expression of the gene(s) of interest. Uses of said sequence,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of dominant indigenous Rhizobium meliloti by plasmid profiles and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. AU - Shishido, M.. AU - Pepper, I. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Yields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in irrigated production agriculture in the southwest U.S.A. varies widely, but is generally higher than in other areas of the U.S.A. Since nitrogen fertilizer is rarely applied, high yields are likely to be due in part to biological N2 fixation in the symbiotic association between alfalfa and Rhizobium meliloti. Dominant types of R. meliloti responsible for N2 fixation were identified from nodule isolates collected from five locations throughout the state of Arizona, which were not known to have been inoculated. The locations were sampled in the winter of 1987 and the summer of 1988. The dominant types (≥20% nodule occupancy at each sampling site) were identified through plasmid profile analysis and intrinsic antibiotic resistance patterns. Four types were found ...
Two mutant derivatives of Rhizobium leguminosarum ANU843 defective in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were isolated. The LPS of both mutants lacked O antigen and some sugar residues of the LPS core oligosaccharides. Genetic regions previously cloned from another Rhizobium leguminosarum wild-type isolate, strain CFN42, were used to complement these mutants. One mutant was complemented to give LPS that was apparently identical to the LPS of strain ANU843 in antigenicity, electrophoretic mobility, and sugar composition. The other mutant was complemented by a second CFN42 lps genetic region. In this case the resulting LPS contained O-antigen sugars characteristic of donor strain CFN42 and reacted weakly with antiserum against CFN42 cells, but did not react detectably with antiserum against ANU843 cells. Therefore, one of the CFN42 lps genetic regions specifies a function that is conserved between the two R. leguminosarum wild-type isolates, whereas the other region, at least in part, specifies a strain-specific
Rhizobium etli noIL protein: gene from Rhizobium etli determines nodulation efficiency by mediating the acetylation of the fucosyl residue in the nodulation factor of plants; amino acid sequence in first source
See on Scoop.it - Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.caThe flagellotropic phage 7-7-1 infects motile cells of Agrobacterium sp H13-3 by attaching to and traveling along the rotating flagellar filament to the secondary receptor at the base, where it injects its DNA into the host cell. This is an interesting paper, because it describes a…
Rhizobia comprise a group of α- and β-proteobacteria known for their ability to establish symbioses with several leguminous species. The rhizobium-legume interaction, characterized by an exchange of signal molecules from both partners, culminates in the formation of specific structures, called nodules, where biological nitrogen fixation takes place [1-5]. This molecular dialogue begins with the exudation of flavonoids by the host legume roots that are recognized by a LysR-type transcriptional regulator in the bacterium, the NodD protein, which triggers the expression of the so-called nodulation (nod) genes by binding to specific sequences, nod boxes (NB), located upstream of these genes. Their cognate enzymes are implied in the production of lipochitooligosaccharides, also known as Nod factors (NF), which in turns induce the formation of root nodule primordia and play an essential role in the infection process. A part from flavonoids, other rhizobial nod gene inducers have been identified, ...
We have physically and genetically characterized 20 symbiotic and 20 auxotrophic mutants of Rhizobium meliloti, the nitrogen-fixing symbiont of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), isolated by transposon Tn5 mutagenesis. A suicide plasmid mutagenesis procedure was used to generate TN-5-induced mutants, and both auxotrophic and symbiotic mutants were found at a frequency of 0.3% among strains containing random TN5 insertions. Two classes of symbiotic mutants were isolated: 4 of the 20 formed no nodules at all (Nod-), and 16 formed nodules which failed to fix nitrogen (Fix-). We used a combination of physical and genetic criteria to determine that in most cases the auxotrophic and symbiotic phenotypes could be correlated with the insertion of a single Tn5 elements. Once the Tn5 element was inserted into the R. meliloti genome, the frequency of its transposition to a new site was approximately 10-8 and the frequency of precise excision was less than 10-9. In approximately 25% of the mutant strains, phage ...
A gene, cpaA, with similarity to calcium proton antiporters has been identified adjacent to lpcAB in Rhizobium leguminosarum. LpcA is a galactosyl transferase while LpcB is a 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate transferase, both of which are required to form the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core in R. leguminosarum. Mutations in lpcAB result in a rough LPS phenotype with a requirement for elevated calcium concentrations to allow growth, suggesting that truncation of the LPS core exposes a highly negatively charged molecule. This is consistent with the LPS core being one of the main sites for binding calcium in the Gram-negative outer membrane. Strain RU1109 (cpaA::Tn5-lacZ) has a normal LPS layer, as measured by silver staining and Western blotting. This indicates that cpaA mutants are not grossly affected in their LPS layer. LacZ fusion analysis indicates that cpaA is constitutively expressed and is not directly regulated by the calcium concentration. Over-expression of cpaA increased the concentration of calcium
44,203-229. , Hirsch, P. , Hooykaas, P J J , and Schilperoort, R. A (1983) A binary plant vector strategy based on separation of vir- and T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Tr-plasmrd. Nature 303, 179,180. 8. Stachel, S. E and Nester, E W. (1986) The genetic and transcriptional organization of the vir region of the A6 TI plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. EMBO J. $1445-1454 9. Stachel, S E and Zambryski, P (1986) virA and virG control the plant-induced activation of the T-DNA transfer process of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Biol. Rep. 10, 12-36. &APTER 7 Leaf Disk Transformation Ian S. Curtis, Michael R. Davey, and J. Brian Power 1. Introduction Reliable and efficient methods of transferring cloned genes into plants are essential for engineering crops with desired traits. The Gram-negative soil bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes, are natural genetic engineers, capable of transforming a range of dicotyledonous plants by transferring plasmid-encoded genes into recipient ...
Homologues of the plasmid replicator gene repC were detected and characterized in a sample of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains. Conserved PCR primers were designed from published sequences of repC; they amplified a fragment of about 750 bp from 39 out of 41 strains tested, and also from several Sinorhizobium strains, including S. meliloti. Restriction endonuclease digestion showed that the PCR product from individual strains, though uniform in size, was often heterogeneous in sequence. PCR products from 24 field isolates of R. leguminosarum from France, Germany and the UK were cloned and partially sequenced from both ends. Phylogenies constructed from the 5′ and 3′ ends (200 bp each) were largely congruent and demonstrated four clearly defined groups plus several unique strains. Published Agrobacterium repC sequences fall within the phylogeny of R. leguminosarum sequences, though not within any of the four groups. Specific pairs of PCR primers were designed for each of the four groups; 29 out of 41 R
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 10:550-559...Melanie J. Barnett 2 and Sharon R. Long 1 , 2...© 1997 The American Phytopathological Society...The Rhizobium meliloti SyrM protein activates transcription of nodD3 and syrA. Regulation of syrM is complex and may involve as yet undiscovered genes. Here we report the isolation of insertion mutants showing increased expression of a syrM-gusA gene fusion. Characterization of one mutant strain, d...
Biological dinitrogen fixation by Rhizobium spp. in the root nodules of leguminous plants such as soybean is of considerable agronomic importance. Biological dinitrogen fixation is ATP- and reductant-dependent; between 12 and 30 mol of ATP are required per mol of dinitrogen reduced [1]. All free-living rhizobia are aerobic although some strains will also grow anaerobically with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor [2] ; ATP and reductant are generated during the oxidation of an exogenously supplied carbon source. In the bacteroids within the root nodule the exogenous carbon source (photosynthate) is derived from photosynthetic CO₂ fixation by the host plant. The identity of the carbon source(s) oxidised by the bacteroids in vivo has not yet been confirmed although sucrose is the major photosynthetic product translocated to the root nodules [3]. As dinitrogen fixation represents a drain on the photosynthetic supply [4,5] and since the supply of photosynthate is probably one of the major ...
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobia with leguminous crops accounts for 20% of the global nitrogen cycle. Rhizobium inoculation is always needed when certain new leguminous crops are introduced to new areas or regions. In addition to supply nitrogen to leguminous crops, they also spare soil nitrogen to succeeding crops. Thus the legume fixed nitrogen is important in sustaining pulse production.
Putative Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli IE4803 RM systems. Sequence name: chromosome RetIE4803. GenBank: CP007641 (4,598,466 bp). ...
Bidirectionally degrades single-stranded DNA into large acid-insoluble oligonucleotides, which are then degraded further into small acid-soluble oligonucleotides.
The X-ray crystal structure of the apo-form of the Fur protein from Rhizobium leguminosarum has been solved at 2.7 å resolution. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to give information on the solution conformation of the protein. The Fur homodimer folds into two domains. The N-terminal domain is formed from the packing of two helix-turn-helix motifs while the C-terminal domain appears primarily to stabilize the dimeric state of the protein. ...
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dead zones. Toxic algae fills these dead zones, taking up oxygen and killing fish and plants in the process.. In charge of the BYU study is Paul Skip Price, a postdoctoral fellow at BYU. He and his team have found that rhizobia bacteria might be the key in allowing plants to process nitrogen naturally, without nitrogen-based fertilizers.. Price said about 80 percent of the atmosphere is nitrogen, but it is in a form that plants cannot use. However, rhizobia and plants can work together to become mutually beneficial, a process known as symbiosis.. By doing this and providing nitrogen naturally, you wont have to add more fertilizers which cause more runoff, Price said.. The objective of Prices study is to discover the types of rhizobia that will work in conjunction with plants.. One of the problems we have now is we dont know what makes a good rhizobia for the soil, Price said. And so thats what were studying, is how to improve the rhizobia for the plant.. Price has discovered that ...
ID C6B1I1_RHILS Unreviewed; 387 AA. AC C6B1I1; DT 01-SEP-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 01-SEP-2009, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 63. DE SubName: Full=Binding-protein-dependent transport systems inner membrane component {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54700.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Rleg_0389 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54700.1}; OS Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (strain WSM1325). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; OC Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Rhizobium. OX NCBI_TaxID=395491 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54700.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54700.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=WSM1325 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54700.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256}; RX PubMed=21304718; RA Reeve W., OHara G., Chain P., Ardley J., Brau L., Nandesena K., RA Tiwari R., Copeland A., Nolan M., Han C., Brettin T., Land M., RA Ovchinikova G., Ivanova N., ...
ID C6B1D9_RHILS Unreviewed; 466 AA. AC C6B1D9; DT 01-SEP-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 01-SEP-2009, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 59. DE SubName: Full=ATPase, FliI/YscN family {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1}; DE EC=3.6.3.14 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Rleg_0347 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1}; OS Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (strain WSM1325). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; OC Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Rhizobium. OX NCBI_TaxID=395491 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=WSM1325 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256}; RX PubMed=21304718; RA Reeve W., OHara G., Chain P., Ardley J., Brau L., Nandesena K., RA Tiwari R., Copeland A., Nolan M., Han C., Brettin T., Land M., RA Ovchinikova G., Ivanova N., ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Rhizobium; Rhizobium etli; Rhizobium etli bv. ...
For most of us, our closest encounter with the element fluorine is likely to be our toothpaste or a municipal water supply with added fluoride.. But excess fluorine can be a problem. For example, high levels of fluorine in the soil can hurt plants. Fluorine in soils may also affect microbes and other organisms higher along the food chain.. A new study explored whether soil fluorine levels in New Zealand are high enough to hurt a specific microbe called Rhizobium.. Rhizobium bacteria live in root nodules of legume plants, like beans and lentils. These bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen, making the nutrients into a form the host plant can use.. Nitrogen fixation by Rhizobia means farmers need to use less nitrogen fertilizer. That can save significant costs.. If soil fluorine levels become high enough to hurt Rhizobia, it could impact the legume crops the bacteria help support.. In addition, pastures for grazing livestock often contain clover, another legume. High fluorine levels could harm ...
You man continents john alexander gilliard 2 she lanatomiste on and focus. Rather, its a trial that will gauge the impact of supporting the custom rom community this way. The advantages of referendums include the direct democratic element of them, the constitutional check they provide on a government, how they stimulate interest and involvement in public policy, provide a single, clear answer to a specific question in a way general elections cannot, and force policy makers to explain their proposals. Nursery stock is dipped in older man younger woman dating site a suspension of commercially prepared agrobacterium radiobacter strain 84 at planting time. Each and every one of us 60s and older senior online dating services is guided by the ideal of true sportsmanship. I hate you and stoned screeching faces maybe thats why they have dreadlocks. Kopp said the concept is where to meet persian singles in ny free suddenly becoming popular in china. There are wiper loose and combined with the usual ...
4KAD: Crystal structure of probable sugar kinase protein from Rhizobium etli CFN 42 complexed with N1-(2.3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)acetam
TY - ABST. T1 - ¤In vivo¤ studies of nitrogen fixation and assimilation in pea-¤Rhizobium¤ nodules by 15N NMR spectroscopy. AU - Scharff, A.M.. AU - Hansen, P.E.. AU - Rosendahl, L.. N1 - Conference code: 3. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. KW - Planteproduktion og stofomsætning. M3 - Conference abstract for conference. T2 - 3rd European Nitrogen Fixation Conference. Y2 - 20 September 1998 through 24 September 1998. ER - ...
Extension of the current 12-month expiry of rhizobial inoculants in Australia to 18 months would have commercial benefits for the manufacturers and resellers. The dilemma, however, is that numbers of rhizobia in the inoculants decline over time and individual cells may lose efficacy. The research undertaken in this study shows the effect of lupin and chickpea inoculant age (i.e. 0, 6, 12, 15 and 18 months old) on numbers of rhizobia, rhizobial cell characteristics and efficacy. For the latter, assessments included colony size on plates, survival on inoculated beads, and infectiveness and effectiveness in field experiments at 3 sites.. Assessment of commercially produced inoculants at the Australian Legume Inoculants Research Unit (ALIRU) laboratory indicated that, on average, chickpea and lupin inoculants had counts of about log10 9.6 when fresh, delivering ,log10 6 rhizobia/seed. At 12 months, the average counts had fallen to log10 9.4, delivering slightly less than log10 6 rhizobia/seed. By 18 ...
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Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15:350-359...Elizabeth A. Rathbun , Michael J. Naldrett , and Nicholas J. Brewin...© 2002 The American Phytopathological Society...Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae normally gains access to pea host cells through tubular cell wall ingrowths termed infection threads. Matrix glycoprotein (MGP), a major component of the infection thread lumen, is also secreted from the tips of uninoculated roots and can be released into solution...
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by plants and its bacterial associations represent an important natural system for capturing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) and processing it into a reactive form of nitrogen through enzymatic reduction. The study of BNF in non-leguminous plants has been difficult compared to nodule-localized BNF in leguminous plants because of the diverse sites of N2 fixation in non-leguminous plants. Identification of the involved N2-fixing bacteria has also been difficult because the major nitrogen fixers were often lost during isolation attempts. The past 20 years of molecular analyses has led to the identification of N2 fixation sites and active nitrogen fixers in tissues and the rhizosphere of non-leguminous plants. Here, we examined BNF hotspots in six reported non-leguminous plants. Novel rhizobia and methanotrophs were found to be abundantly present in the free-living state at sites where carbon and energy sources were predominantly available. In the carbon-rich apoplasts of
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Name: Rhizobium miluonense Gu et al. 2008. Category: Species. Proposed as: sp. nov.. Etymology: mi.lu.o.nense N.L. neut. adj. miluonense, pertaining to the Miluo River, a famous river located in Hunan Province, where the bacterium was isolated Gender: neuter Type strains: CCBAU 41251; DSM 21815; HAMBI 2971; LMG 24208 See detailed strain information at ...
We have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for transgenic and adventitious root production using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated co-transformati
ID ARLY_AGRVS Reviewed; 467 AA. AC B9JTJ2; DT 28-JUL-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 24-MAR-2009, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 54. DE RecName: Full=Argininosuccinate lyase {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00006}; DE Short=ASAL {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00006}; DE EC=4.3.2.1 {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00006}; DE AltName: Full=Arginosuccinase {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00006}; GN Name=argH {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00006}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Avi_4017; OS Agrobacterium vitis (strain S4 / ATCC BAA-846) (Rhizobium vitis OS (strain S4)). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; OC Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Agrobacterium. OX NCBI_TaxID=311402; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=S4 / ATCC BAA-846; RX PubMed=19251847; DOI=10.1128/JB.01779-08; RA Slater S.C., Goldman B.S., Goodner B., Setubal J.C., Farrand S.K., RA Nester E.W., Burr T.J., Banta L., Dickerman A.W., Paulsen I., RA Otten L., Suen G., ...
Copper effect on photosynthetic performance, symbiotic efficiency and biosorption of rhizobia associated with Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.]
A sand pouch-plant infection technique for counting most probable numbers of rhizobia in soil is described. Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifoli detected by the plant infection method performed in enclosed glass tubes or in sand pouches did not differ significantly. The described method was used to assess numbers of R. leguminosarum bv. trifoli (R.l.t.) and bv. viciae (R.l.v.) in 20 ...
A sand pouch-plant infection technique for counting most probable numbers of rhizobia in soil is described. Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifoli detected by the plant infection method performed in enclosed glass tubes or in sand pouches did not differ significantly. The described method was used to assess numbers of R. leguminosarum bv. trifoli (R.l.t.) and bv. viciae (R.l.v.) in 20 ...