Information on antiretroviral dosing errors among health care providers for outpatient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is lacking. We evaluated factors associated with nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor dosing errors in a university-based HIV clinic using an electronic medical record. Overall, older age, minority race or ethnicity, and didanosine use were related to such errors. Impaired renal function was more common in older patients and racial or ethnic minorities and, in conjunction with fixed-dose combination drugs, contributed to the higher rates of errors in nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor dosing. Understanding the factors related to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor dosing errors is an important step in the building of preventive tools.
Definition of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor? Meaning of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor as a legal term. What does nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mean in law?
Definition of reverse transcriptase inhibitor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is reverse transcriptase inhibitor? Meaning of reverse transcriptase inhibitor as a legal term. What does reverse transcriptase inhibitor mean in law?
Background: Consistent long-term viral suppression has been difficult to achieve in children with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. We tested the safety and antiviral efficacy of a novel combination consisting of efavirenz, nelfinavir, and one or more nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in 57 children previously treated with only nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Methods: The children were monitored for 48 weeks after the initiation of therapy. We assessed plasma concentrations of efavirenz and nelfinavir, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, and lymphocyte subpopulations. Results: At base line, the 57 HIV-1â€"infected children (age range, 3.8 to 16.8 years) had a median of 699 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter and 10,000 copies of HIV-1 RNA per milliliter of plasma. The most common treatment-related effects of at least moderate severity were rash (in 30 percent of children), diarrhea (in 18 percent), neutropenia (in 12 percent), and biochemical abnormalities (in 12 ...
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NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) are active inhibitors of reverse transcriptase found in retroviruses such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The different nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors may be activated differently but they have the same mechanism of action. NRTIs are activated generally by phosphorylation to the triphosphate form by cellular enzymes. It then competes with cellular triphosphates, which are substrates for proviral DNA by viral reverse transcriptase. Reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV infection or AIDS, and in some cases hepatitis B. RTIs inhibit activity of reverse transcriptase, a viral DNA polymerase that is required for replication of HIV and other retroviruses.
BACKGROUND: Understanding the selection and decay of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants is important for designing optimal antiretroviral therapy.. OBJECTIVE: To develop a high-throughput, real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to quantify non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant variants K103N (AAT or AAC alleles) at frequencies as low as 0.1%, and to apply this to monitor these variants before, during, and after NNRTI therapy.. METHODS: HIV-1 RNA in longitudinal plasma samples obtained from patients starting and stopping NNRTI therapy was converted to cDNA and the target sequence region amplified and quantified by real-time PCR. Approximately 10 copies/reaction provided a template for a second round of PCR using primers that discriminated between the mutant and wild-type alleles. Amplification specificity was confirmed by thermal denaturation analysis.. RESULTS: Frequencies of 103N similar to assay background (0.029%) were observed in ...
Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Antiviral Activity of CC-31244, a Pan-genotypic, Potent Nonnucleoside NS5B Polymerase Inhibitor (NNI) for the Treatment of Hepatitis C ...
Single dose nevirapine (SD NVP) has greatly reduced the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens are recommended for use by the World Health Organization (WHO) in resource-limited settings. However, research suggests that mothers and infants exposed to SD NVP experience higher virologic failure rates when treated with NNRTI-based regimens than their unexposed counterparts. Data show that the use of SD NVP is associated with NNRTI resistance in HIV infected women and infants. The purpose of this trial was to compare and evaluate virologic responses to an NNRTI-based regimen versus a protease-inhibitor (PI)-based regimen in HIV infected infants who had or had not been exposed to SD NVP intrapartum and after birth.. ,,. ,, Participants were enrolled into one of two Cohorts with proposed enrollment into each Cohort of 288 participants. Cohort I participants must have received SD NVP for prevention of MTCT. Cohort II ...
Gastrointestinal side effects of HAART are usually well tolerated and do not contribute to significant treatment discontinuation. However, diarrhea of moderate to severe intensity can occur in patients receiving multi-drug therapy [21-23]. The mechanisms underlying antiretroviral-induced diarrhea are unclear. The intestinal epithelium acts as a highly selective barrier, preventing the passage of toxic molecules and luminal bacterial translocation [24]. The normal barrier function is maintained by steady enterocyte turnover finely regulated by cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Cell-to-cell contacts within the intestinal epithelium structured by a scaffold of tight and adherens junctions, located apically, are further responsible for sealing the intestinal barrier [25-27]. The results of this study suggest that selected antiretroviral drugs influence small intestinal absorptive and secretory functions.. We have assessed intestinal mucosal morphology, permeability changes, and ...
The study is designed to select a dose of GSK1265744 primarily on the basis of antiviral activity and tolerability in HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral naive subjects.. This study consists of two parts:. Induction Phase: Approximately 200 subjects will be randomized (50 subjects in each of the 4 treatment arms). The Induction Phase consists of a 24 week dose-ranging evaluation of GSK1265744 at blinded doses of 10 mg, 30 mg and 60 mg once-daily and a control arm of open-label efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg once daily. The background dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all arms will be either abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) as selected by the Investigator. Subjects randomized to a GSK1265744 containing arm, who successfully complete 24 weeks on study and demonstrate virologic suppression (defined as having a plasma HIV-1 ribonucleic acid [RNA] ,50 copies per milliliter [c/mL] before Week 24, with no signs of virologic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chiral Indolylarylsulfone Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors as New Potent and Broad Spectrum Anti-HIV-1 Agents. AU - Famiglini, Valeria. AU - La Regina, Giuseppe. AU - Coluccia, Antonio. AU - Masci, Domiziana. AU - Brancale, Andrea. AU - Badia, Roger. AU - Riveira-Muñoz, Eva. AU - Esté, José A.. AU - Crespan, Emmanuele. AU - Brambilla, Alessandro. AU - Maga, Giovanni. AU - Catalano, Myriam. AU - Limatola, Cristina. AU - Formica, Francesca Romana. AU - Cirilli, Roberto. AU - Novellino, Ettore. AU - Silvestri, Romano. PY - 2017/8/10. Y1 - 2017/8/10. N2 - We designed and synthesized a series of chiral indolyarylsulfones (IASs) as new HIV-1 NNRTIs. The new IASs 8-37 showed potent inhibition of the HIV-1 WT NL4-3 strain and of the mutant K103N, Y181C, Y188L, and K103N-Y181C HIV-1 strains. Six racemic mixtures, 8, 23-25, 31, and 33, were separated at semipreparative level into their pure enantiomers. The (R)-8 enantiomer bearing the chiral (α-methylbenzyl) was ...
Panel of prototypical infectious molecular HIV-1 clones containing multiple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations ...
Pre-incubation of cell-free HIV-1 group M isolates with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors blocks subsequent viral replication in co-cultures of dendritic cells and T cells ...
We restricted our analyses to patients receiving the common ART combination of nucleoside plus non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. We concentrated on this treatment regimen for two major reasons. Firstly, NRTI plus NNRTI regimens are likely to remain popular as first-line therapy because of their demonstrated efficacy, simplicity of therapy, pill number and tolerability [1]. Secondly, NNRTI/NRTI therapy is likely to remain the dominant regimen for first-line therapy in resource-constrained countries. Among the 42 antiretroviral products whose price the Clinton foundation negotiated for resource-constrained countries only two contain PIs [35]. There are 71 countries (including the vast majority of sub-Saharan countries) that can now benefit from this negotiation, representing more than 92% of the people living with HIV globally [36, 37]. It is important to note that, as a general trend, PIs are likely to remain prohibitively expensive for resource-constrained countries in the short ...
Objective: Receptive anal intercourse in both men and women is associated with the highest probability for sexual acquisition of HIV infection. As part of a program to develop an effective prevention strategy, we performed an ex-vivo preclinical evaluation to determine the efficacy of multiple double combinations of maraviroc (MVC) and reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs). Design: The entry inhibitor, MVC, a nucleotide RTI, tenofovir and two non-nucleoside RTIs, UC781 and TMC120 (dapivirine, DPV), were used in double, combinations against a panel of CCR5-using clade B and clade C HIV-1 isolates and against MVC-escape variants. A gel-formulated version of MVC-DPV combination was also tested. Methods: Indicator cells, cocultures of immature dendritic cells with CD4+T cells, and colorectal tissue explants were used to assess antiviral activity of drug combinations. Results: All dual MVC-RTI combinations tested inhibited MVC-sensitive and resistant isolates in cellular and colorectal explants ...
Clinical trial for Vertical infection transmission , Prevention of Perinatal Transmission of HIV-1 Without Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Clinical trial for Vertical infection transmission , Prevention of Perinatal Transmission of HIV-1 Without Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Racivir, also known as PSI-5004; (±)-FTC; RCV, 524W91, is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor potentially for the treatment of HIV infection. 524W91 was anabolized to the active 5-triphosphate in these cells. HBV replication was equally inhibited in cultures incubated with 524W91 when the drug was added 24 h preinfection, at infection, or 24 h postinfection. 524W91 inhibited HBV replication by 50% at less than 20 nM in human hepatocytes.
Learn more about Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors at Memorial Hospital Coenzyme Q 10 - Possible Benefits and Risks St. Johns...
Learn more about Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Coenzyme Q 10 - Possible Benefits and Risks ...
Learn more about Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors at Memorial Hospital Coenzyme Q 10 - Possible Benefits and Risks St. Johns...
Learn more about Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Coenzyme Q 10 - Possible Benefits and Risks ...
Learn more about Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors at Sky Ridge Medical Center Coenzyme Q 10 - Possible Benefits and Risks ...
Learn more about Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors at JFK Medical Center Coenzyme Q 10 - Possible Benefits and Risks St. ...
South Africa (SA) has the highest proportion of HIV-positive people in the world. In 2013, an estimated 10% of the population was HIV-positive, which amounted to 5.26 million people.[1] For adults between the ages of 15 and 49 years, an estimated 15.90% were HIV-positive.[1] However, SA has made positive changes in managing the HIV epidemic. The number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased, and there have been fewer AIDS-related deaths from 2005 to 2011.[2]. Antiretrovirals used in the management of HIV. HIV cannot be cured; however, there are several major classes of drugs used in its management. The five classes of drugs used for the management of HIV are entry inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, protease inhibitors and reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors).[3] These agents act through various mechanisms to stop the replication of HIV. The recommended regimens for the ...
For patients who are starting to take antiretroviral medication (to treat HIV) for the first time, there are now a variety of different medicines which may be taken together as a combination in order to form an effective treatment which suppresses the virus for prolonged periods of time. Currently, national guidelines recommend the use of two different drugs of one type (the nucleoside/ nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NRTI often known as "nukes") with a third drug from one of two other types (either a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, known as an NNRTI or "nonnuke", or a protease inhibitor, known as a PI) to form a treatment regime of three active drugs. In the UK and Europe, all PIs are given in combination with a small dose of a second PI, ritonavir, which has the effect of boosting the levels of the active PI in the bloodstream. The investigators know from both research studies and patient experience in clinic that a combination of a ritonavirboosted PI with an NNRTI ...
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), a disease in which the immune system progressively deteriorates, making sufferers vulnerable to all manner of opportunistic infections. Currently, world-wide there are estimated to be 34 million people living with HIV,
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Nucleoside Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Nucleoside Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) were the first type of drug available to treat HIV infection. Not surprisingly, NRTIs inhibit the enzyme reverse transcriptase. NRTIs are analogs (think of the word analogous, which means similar) because they are imitations of the bodys own nucleosides, which HIV uses to infect cells. NRTIs approved for use in the UK:. ...
Exposure to NRTI single-drug prophylaxis (primarily zidovudine) was not associated with preterm delivery.1 Other reports have found increased rates of preterm delivery when ART is compared with dual-ARV regimens9 and when non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART regimens were compared with other forms of ART.20. Mechanism for Preterm Delivery. The potential mechanism of action by which PIs may increase a womans risk of preterm delivery is unknown. Papp et al. demonstrated in cell culture, mouse models, and in pregnant women with HIV that exposure to PIs (except for darunavir) can decrease plasma progesterone levels. Low levels of plasma progesterone during pregnancy may potentially be associated with fetal loss, preterm delivery, and LBW.28 Papp et al. subsequently demonstrated that pregnant women with HIV exposed to PI-based ART with low serum progesterone have elevated levels of human placental 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase levels, an enzyme that inactivates serum ...
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HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in children after failure of first-line nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy ...
What is HIV? Get basic information on HIV, its symptoms, how it is spread, how HIV differs from AIDS, and how getting tested for HIV can help.. ...
A 12 years old HIV infected orphan was referred for further management. Both parents were also HIV infected and had died due to same.
Hiv, Patients, Hiv-1, Plasma, Ritonavir, Treatment, Report, RNA, Protease Inhibitors, Reverse Transcriptase, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Transcriptase, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Human, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Viremia, Virus, Safety, Antiretroviral Agents, Cell
Brand name: Edurant Generic name: rilpivirine hydrochloride (rilpivirine), or RPV Class: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (non-nucleoside, ...
c Monitor for therapeutic response and consider therapeutic drug monitoring to assure dosage adequacy in patients who weigh ,90 kg.. Key to Acronyms: COBI = cobicistat; EFV = efavirenz; EVG = elvitegravir; FTC = emtricitabine; MVC = maraviroc; NNRTI = non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI = protease inhibitor; TAF = tenofovir alafenamide. ...
Sustiva (Efavirenz) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). It is an antiviral medication that prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cells from multiplying in your body. ...
2WOM: Lersivirine: A Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor with Activity Against Drug- Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1.
The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), Sustiva (efavirenz) and Viramune (nevaripine), are now very commonly used as part of first-line HAART regimens. Previously, there was no d
1S9E: Roles of Conformational and Positional Adaptability in Structure-Based Design of TMC125-R165335 (Etravirine) and Related Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors That Are Highly Potent and Effective against Wild-Type and Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants.
Pozniak: Next generation NNRTI, unique binding means active against 181 mutation.......in >100,000 viral load group at baseline lersivirine performed less well than EFV (62%, 75% vs 83% shown in slide below)....the poor performances were not seen in geographical Region A but only in geographical Region B (So Africa: 72%, 68% vs 83% shown in slide below overall, and in >100k Region B 50%, 38% & 78%, see slides 8 & 9 below, Efficacy by Region)....half the patients with viral failure in the lersivirine >100,000 group were in So Africa and 4/5 failures in the >100k group in So Africa were non-adherent....so nonadherence by patients in So Africa in >100k group is responsible for the poor showing by lersivirine in the >100k group, the study patients numbers are very small so can be driven by such an occurrence....after failing lersivirine patients appeared to be sensitive to EFV....both doses of lersivirine were lipids neutral, good effects on LDL compared to EFV, also on total cholesterol and on ...
Combivir is an antiviral medication containing a combination of lamivudine and zidovudine. These medicines are in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) medicines called reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Combivir helps keep the HIV virus from reproducing in the body ...
There are four major types of retroviral drugs that are used in the administration of first line treatments regimes. Nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor
3-(N-(phthalimidomethyl)amino)-5-ethyl-6-methylpyridin-2-(1H)-one: HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor; structure given in first source
Doravirine is a novel non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with potent activity against wild-type virus (95% inhibitory concentration 19 nM, 50% human serum)....Quality confirmed by NMR,HPLC & MS.
臺灣地區愛滋病毒感染者抗愛滋病毒藥物的治療建議【前 言】含兩種核苷酸反轉錄酶抑制劑(nucleostide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors;NRTI)併用一種非核苷酸
Effect of a bound non-nucleoside RT inhibitor on the dynamics of wild-type and mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.: HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is an impor
This study aims at identifying predictors of the treatment decision of German physicians with regard to a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) -based initial treatment regimen. The study is based on a sub analysis of a nation-wide multi-centre, non-interventional, prospective cohort study. 133 patients were identified, who received antiretroviral first-line therapy. By means of a logistic regression, factors that determine the treatment strategy for treatment-naïve patients were analysed. Compared to patients receiving a NNRTI-based initial regimen, patients treated with PI/r are slightly younger, less educated, in a later stage of HIV and have more concomitant diseases. Regression analysis revealed that being in a later stage of HIV (CDC-C) is significantly associated with a PI/r-based treatment decision. Our analysis is the first study in Germany investigating sociodemographic and disease-specific parameters associated with a NNRTI-