TY - JOUR. T1 - Bovine interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP)-isolation and sequence analysis of cDNA clones, characterization and in vitro translation of mRNA. AU - Liou, Gregory I. AU - Fong, S. L.. AU - Beattie, W. G.. AU - Cook, R. G.. AU - Leone, J.. AU - Landers, R. A.. AU - Alvarez, R. A.. AU - Wang, C.. AU - Li, Y.. AU - Bridges, C. D.B.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Three clones for b-IRBP were isolated by anti b-IRBP screening of two bovine retina libraries in the expression vector λgt11. The cDNA inserts were then used as hybridization probes to screen and isolate three more clones in a bovine retina library in the non-expression vector λgt10. The six overlapping clones generated a b-IRBP cDNA sequence of 3400 nucleotides. An open reading frame encoded the complete amino acid sequences of 8 of the 35 b-IRBP tryptic peptides purified in the present study. One tentative glycosylation site was identified. The coding region was followed by TAG translation terminating codon ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early onset photoreceptor abnormalities induced by targeted disruption of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein gene. AU - Liou, Gregory I.. AU - Fei, Yijian. AU - Peachey, Neal S.. AU - Matragoon, Suraporn. AU - Wei, Shuanghong. AU - Blaner, William S.. AU - Wang, Youxiang. AU - Liu, Chengyu. AU - Gottesman, Max E.. AU - Ripps, Harris. PY - 1998/6/15. Y1 - 1998/6/15. N2 - Vision in all vertebrates is dependent on an exchange of retinoids between the retinal pigment epithelium and the visual photoreceptors. It has been proposed that the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is essential for this intercellular exchange, and that it serves to prevent the potentially cytotoxic effects of retinoids. Although its precise function in vivo has yet to be defined, the early expression of IRBP suggests that it may also be required for normal photoreceptor development. To further assess the biological role of IRBP, we generated transgenic mice with targeted disruption ...
Human Retinol Binding Protein ELISA Kit from Innovative Research is a highly sensitive two-site enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) for measuring Human Retinol Binding Protein in biological samples. Strip well format. Reagents for up to 96 tests. In this assay the Retinol Binding Protein (RBP) present in samples reacts w
Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein(668-687), the amino acid residues 668 to 687 of human interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP), induces uveitis ...
Retinol Binding Protein / RBP, 20 µg. Retinol Binding Protein is a single-chain glycoprotein belonging to the superfamily of hydrophobic molecule transporter proteins, which is responsible for the transport of Retinol (vitamin A1) from the liver to
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BACKGROUND/AIM Cellular retinol binding protein-1 regulates retinol bioavailability and contributes to cell differentiation maintenance, but its role in ovarian carcinogenesis remains uncertain. We investigated CRBP-1 expression in ovarian tumors and CRBP-1 signaling-regulated pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed immunohistochemistry, methylation-specific PCR, gene copy number analysis in ovarian tumors and proliferation/apoptosis evaluation, gene array, blot and real-time PCR in CRBP-1-transfected A2780 ovarian cancer cells. RESULTS CRBP-1 expression was reduced or absent in G2 and G3 ovarian carcinomas. CRBP-1 silencing in 60% of G2 and 66.7% of G3 carcinomas was due to CRBP-1 promoter methylation. A2780 CRBP-1-transfected cells showed increased retinol-induced apoptosis, retinoid-induced reduced clonogenicity and down-regulation of proliferation and transcription genes, including AKT1, AKT3, EGFR, FOS, JUN, STAT1 and STAT5A. CONCLUSION CRBP-1 loss in G2/G3 ovarian carcinomas and
Recombinant Retinol Binding Protein 4, Plasma (RBP4) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Cynomolgus. Quelle: Human Cells. Jetzt Produkt ABIN2010004 bestellen.
The kinetics of estrogen (E) modulation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) production in the liver of immature chicks were compared with those governing de novo induction of riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) in the same tissue. A single dose of E markedly enhanced the plasma levels of RBP without any detectable lag period to reach peak value by 24 h and this was followed by a decline to attain the baseline by 4 days. There was no amplification of the response during secondary stimulation unlike the case with RCP induction. With multiple E administration, the 4-fold increased plasma RBP concentrations were sustained at a steady state during both primary and secondary stimulations, whereas concomitant RCP concentration progressively increased with each hormone administration and this response was further amplified during secondary stimulation. Unlike RCP induction, enhanced RBP accumulation was not strictly E dose dependent although a minimal threshold level of the steroid was required to elicit ...
Native Human RETINOL BINDING PROTEIN protein (code: DS-01-0390). Purified protein from the urine of patients with chronic renal tubular proteinuria - lyophilized.
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Purpose: : To determine the role of CD8-IRBP-specific T cells in the pathogenesis of EAU and determine the conditions that lead to the activation of CD8-IRBP-specific autoreactive T cells. Methods: : EAU was induced in B6 and B6-ß2m-/- mice by adoptive transfer of T cells specific for IRBP 1-20. The purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were stimulated by immunizing IRBP 1-20 and APC in the absence or presence of cytokines (IL2, IL4, IL7, IL12, IL15, IL21, IFN-αß), and the proliferation of T cells and cytokine production were assessed. Antigen-specific CD8 cells were determined by binding to IRBP peptide-complexed with recombinant MHC class I (H-2Kb) dimmers. In vitro survival of the CD8 cell was determined by flow cytometry analysis. Finally, CFSE-labeled IRBP-specific T cells were injected to recipient mice, and the survival of the injected T cells assessed at varying days post injection using flow cytometry analysis. Results: : Transfer of T cells from immunized B6 mice to naïve B6 mice ...
Western blotting. Eyecups (including the retina) from dark-adapted mice were homogenized in 100 mm Tris/HCl, pH 7.4, and analyzed for protein content. Standard SDS-PAGE (7.5 or 10%) and Western blotting were performed. For immunodetection, polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against RPE65 (raised against amino acids 150-164 of human/bovine RPE65) (Redmond and Hamel, 2000), interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) (Smith et al., 1997), cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) (Crabb et al., 1991), transducin (Hamm et al., 1987), rhodopsin-kinase (Zhao et al., 1998), arrestin (Kueng-Hitz et al., 2000), and actin (Lessard, 1988) were applied. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies were applied (catalog #sc 2004 and 2031; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), and immunoreactivity was visualized using the Renaissance-Western blot detection kit (PerkinElmer Life Sciences, Emeryville, CA).. RT-PCR and Rpe65 sequence analysis. Total RNA was prepared from eyecups using the RNeasy kit ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) have been developed for the measurement of beta 2-microglobulin (B2M), retinol-binding protein (RBP), alpha 1-microglobulin (A1M) and urine protein 1 (UP1) in children. Results from random urine samples in 43 children (31 for B2M) are, when corrected for urine creatinine (geometric mean (range)): B2M 9.8 (6.0-40.7) micrograms/mmol, RBP 8.1 (less than 1-24.5) micrograms/mmol, A1M 0.4 (0.1-2.2) mg/mmol and UP1 17.8 (less than 2-309.4) micrograms/mmol. Fractional excretions (FE) in 23 children (14 for B2M) are (geometric mean (range)): FEB2M 0.04% (0.02-0.10%) and FEUP1 0.10% (0.01-1.21%). Results in overnight urine collections are also presented. Our results extend existing data for normal ranges in adults to include children and provide data on UP1 concentrations.
Circulating Retinol-Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) has recently been identified as a marker of insulin resistance. We tested this hypothesis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), patients with...
Bernard, AM. ; Moreau, D. ; Lauwerys, Robert. Latex Immunoassay of Retinol-binding Protein. In: Clinical Chemistry (Washington, DC) : international journal of molecular diagnostics and laboratory medicine, Vol. 28, no. 5, p. 1167-1171 (1982 ...
Preparation of purified PEDF and anti-PEDF. PEDF was isolated and purified form bovine interphotoreceptor matrix by ionic exchange and gel filtration chromatography, as previously described (Tombran-Tink et al., 1991). Briefly, soluble bovine interphotoreceptor matrix was extracted from fresh bovine eyes by a gentle lavage of the eyecup after careful removal of the anterior segment and vitreous. A volume of 0.5 ml of ice-cold PBS, pH 7.4, was used in this procedure. Washes from 100 eyecups were pooled, centrifuged, and filtered using a 0.2 μm Nalgene filtration unit. Approximately 500 ml of the interphotoreceptor matrix wash was applied to a Beckman Altex TSK column equilibrated with 10 mm sodium phosphate, pH 7.2. Bound PEDF was eluted with 0.5 m NaCl at a flow rate of 8 ml/min. Absorbance was monitored at 280 and 260 nm. Fractions containing the PEDF were combined, and the protein concentration was determined by a Bio-Rad assay (Hercules, CA). The pooled fractions were concentrated and ...
Libby, P R. and Bertram, J S., "Absence of retinoid-binding proteins in a retinoid-responsive cell line. Abstr." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2193 ...
Vitamin A has a large number of biological functions, including roles in vision, reproduction, immunity, tissue regeneration, and neuronal signaling. The existence of a cell surface receptor for the vitamin A carrier retinol binding protein (RBP) was proposed more than 30 years ago. Kawaguchi et al. now report the identification and characterization of the long-sought RBP receptor. The RBP receptor is a multipass-transmembrane domain protein with robust RBP binding and vitamin A uptake activity and is localized to the expected cellular locations for vitamin A uptake.. R. Kawaguchi, J. Yu, J. Honda, J. Hu, J. Whitelegge, P. Ping, P. Wiita, D. Bok, H. Sun, A membrane receptor for retinol binding protein mediates cellular uptake of vitamin A. Science 315, 820-825 (2007). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
Vitamin A has a large number of biological functions, including roles in vision, reproduction, immunity, tissue regeneration, and neuronal signaling. The existence of a cell surface receptor for the vitamin A carrier retinol binding protein (RBP) was proposed more than 30 years ago. Kawaguchi et al. now report the identification and characterization of the long-sought RBP receptor. The RBP receptor is a multipass-transmembrane domain protein with robust RBP binding and vitamin A uptake activity and is localized to the expected cellular locations for vitamin A uptake.. R. Kawaguchi, J. Yu, J. Honda, J. Hu, J. Whitelegge, P. Ping, P. Wiita, D. Bok, H. Sun, A membrane receptor for retinol binding protein mediates cellular uptake of vitamin A. Science 315, 820-825 (2007). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
In some tissues, the immune system can do more harm than good. This is especially true in the eye, where immune activation and inflammation may impede vision. The eye has a more tightly controlled inflammatory response than other tissues; however, inflammation may still occur. Uveitis, or inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, can result from either infection or systemic inflammation and is a major cause of blindness worldwide. One potential cause of uveitis is the presence of an underlying systemic autoimmune disease. The intraocular inflammation in this setting is thought to result from a loss of tolerance to self-antigens in the eye. Indeed, there is substantial evidence for autoimmune-mediated uveitis directed against two candidate retinal proteins, soluble antigen (S-Ag) and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP). However, as with all studies of human autoimmunity, the pathogenic role of these antigens in uveitis remains unproven. A recent paper by Mattapallil et al. makes ...
Liver has enormous capacity to store vitamin A which is stored in the form of retinol palmitate. Under normal condition, a well fed person has enough vitamin A storage to meet his needs for 6-9 months. Free retinol is highly active but toxic and is therefore transported within the blood stream in association with retinol binding protein which is produced by the liver. In case of severe deficiency, decreased production of retinol binding protein prevents the mobilization of liver retinol reserves.. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Reaktivität: Rind (Kuh), Human, Maus and more. 25 verschiedene RBP1 ELISA Kits vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikoerper-online.de bestellbar!
Vitamin A and iron deficiency are common malnutrition affecting billions of people worldwide. However, in infrastructure limited settings, access to blood vitamin A and iron status test is limited because of the complexity and cost of traditional diagnostic methods. Direct measurements of vitamin A and iron level is not easy to perform, and it is necessary to measure approximate marker for obtaining vitamin A and iron deficiency status. Measurement of inflammatory marker is also necessary because the vitamin A and iron level are altered by inflammation status. Here we introduced a multiplex rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices that simultaneously characterize three markers relevant to vitamin A, iron and inflammation status: retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein with lateral flow immunoassay test strips. Level of retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein are indicated by excitation intensity of fluorescence tags with three different colors. The test ...
RRBP : Container/Tube: Plastic, 5-mL tube (T465) Specimen Volume: 5 mL Collection Instructions: 1. Collect a random urine specimen. 2. No preservative.
This gene encodes a protein that is a major component of the retinal interphotoreceptor matrix. The encoded protein is a proteoglycan that is thought to play a role in maintaining viability of photoreceptor cells and in adhesion of the neural retina to the retinal pigment epithelium. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013 ...
Buy our Recombinant Human RBP7 protein. Ab104483 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE, MS. Abcam provides…
Now Miguel L. Soares, Teresa Coelho, Joel N. Buxbaum and colleagues from research groups in Portugal and the US, in an attempt to understand the variations observed in the disease, studied 92 patients with different severity and age of onset. The team of scientists looked at genes involved either with TTR function (genes coding for proteins that metabolically interact with TTR) or amyloid deposition. Soares, Coelho, Buxbaum and colleagues results seem to indicate that the variability in disease found among different patients originates, not from the action of a particular gene, but from the combined interaction of several genes. The genes proposed to be involved in FAP include the APCS gene, which code for a protein found in the FAP amyloid deposit and the RBP gene which codes for retinol-binding protein, a vitamin A carrier which circulates in the plasma bound to TTR and so it can affect TTR solubility. Interestingly too, it seems that different ages of onset are influenced by distinct sets of ...
Laborator Synevo Informatii generale Proteina transportoare a retinolului (retinol binding protein=RBP) este o glicoproteina cu greutate moleculara mica (21 kDa), ce face parte din familia α globulinelor si are rol in transportul retinolului de la ficat la tesuturi. RBP leaga retinolul in raport stoichiometric 1:1, solubilizandu-l si totodata protejandu-l impotriva oxidarii. In plasma complexul […]. Continue Reading ...
1KT4: High-resolution Structures of Retinol-binding Protein in Complex with Retinol: pH-induced Protein Structural Changes in the Crystal State
This antibody pair set comes with matched antibody pair to detect and quantify protein level of human RBP4. (H00005950-AP22) - Products - Abnova
Human RBP5 full-length ORF ( NP_113679.1, 1 a.a. - 135 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00083758-P01) - Products - Abnova
rat Impg1 protein: SPACR - sialoprotein associated with cones and rods; major protein isolated from insoluble interphotoreceptor matrix of retina; RefSeq NM_023958
purpose. To determine whether the visual cycle is affected in mice without a functional gene for cellular retinol-binding protein type I (CRBPI −/− mice).. methods. Visual-cycle retinoids and rhodopsin levels were analyzed in eyes of dark adapted (DA) CRBPI −/− and wild-type (wt) mice before and during recovery from a flash. The rate of dark adaptation was analyzed using electroretinography (ERG).. results. all-trans-Retinyl esters were reduced to approximately 33% of wt levels in DA CRBPI −/− mice. Recovery from a flash in wt mice produced transient accumulations of all-trans-retinal and all-trans-retinyl ester, as the pulse of retinoid produced by the flash traversed the visual cycle. In CRBPI −/− mice, all-trans-retinal accumulated transiently, as in wt mice. However, all-trans-retinol also accumulated transiently in the neural retina, and the transient increase in all-trans-retinyl ester of the wt was reduced. Rates of 11-cis-retinal and rhodopsin formation were comparable in ...
RBP4, rat recombinant protein, Retinol Binding Protein 4, Plasma retinol-binding protein, PRBP, RBP validated in (PBV11176r-10), Abgent
Background To observe the partnership between serum retinol binding protein 4(RBP4) and cell function in Chinese subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and without known diabetes. not associated with age, BMI, waist circumference, WHR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), TC, TG, HDL-c, LDL-c, 2 h blood glucose, HOMA-IR, ALT, AST, -GT, hepatic extra fat content material (HFC), and insulin level of sensitivity index (ISI). However, in men, serum RBP4 levels were significantly associated with HDL-c, ALT, AST, however, not associated with every other parameters as stated above. A VRT-1353385 manufacture stepwise multiple linear regression evaluation showed that in females, HOMA-IR and RBP4 had been connected with HOMA- considerably, while in guys, HOMA-IR and BMI were variables connected with HOMA- significantly. Conclusions Serum RBP4, secreted by liver organ and adipose tissues generally, may involve in the pathogenesis of cell dysfunction in Chinese language women ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr;137(4):651-8. doi: 10.1007/s00432-010-0927-3. Epub 2010 Jun 15. Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
TC Hardman, SW Dub Rey, S Soni, S Chalkley; Erythrocyte Sodium-Lithium Countertransport (SLC) Activity and Retinol Binding Protein (Rbp) Excretion in Healthy Normotensive Subjects. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 August 1998; 95 (s39): 5P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs095005pa. Download citation file:. ...
Objective(s):Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that appears on the skin. Although psoriasis is clinically and histologically well characterized, its pathogenesis is unknown in detail. The aims of this study were to evaluate the proteome of psoriatic patients sera and to compare them with those of normal healthy human to find valuable biomarkers. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, twenty cases of white patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 10 males and 10 females and sixteen healthy controls, 8 males and 8 females were enrolled in the study. The serum protein expression patterns obtained after depletion of albumin were compared by using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to MALDI/TOF-TOF to identify disease associated proteins. Results: Differential expression of nine protein spots representing four unique proteins including alpha-1 antitrypsin, retinol binding protein, keratin 10 and an unknown protein (with pI 6.47 and molecular weight of 19941 Da), between psoriatic and
Binds to a retinoid X receptor (RXR) responsive element from the cellular retinol-binding protein II promoter (CRBPII-RXRE). Inhibits the 9-cis-retinoic acid dependent RXR alpha transcription activation of the retinoic acid responsive element. Active transcriptional corepressor of SMAD2. Links the nodal signaling pathway to the bifurcation of the forebrain and the establishment of ventral midline structures. May participate in the transmission of nuclear signals during development and in the adult, as illustrated by the down modulation of the RXR alpha activities.
Context: Insulin resistance, which associates with levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and adiponectin, is implicated in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the potential contribution of RBP4 and adiponectin in the etiology of PCOS and their relationships with specific fat depot measurements.. Design: This was a cross-sectional study.. Setting and Participants: Serum RBP4 and adiponectin levels were compared between 50 PCOS cases and 28 female controls (including 22 body mass index/fat mass-matched pairs) and correlated with specific fat depot (including visceral) axial magnetic resonance imaging cross-sectional area measurements. All subjects were of U.K. British/Irish origin.. Main Outcome Measure(s): Serum levels of RBP4 (automated immunonephelometric assay) and adiponectin [immunoassay: total and high molecular weight (HMW)]. Data are reported as geometric mean (SD, range) and optionally adjusted for fat mass and ...
We are sometimes asked how one or two nutritional supplements can benefit patients with so many different gene defects," Dr. Berson said. "With respect to vitamin A, we and others have suggested that under daylight conditions rods give cones vitamin A via Müller cells. Interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) transports vitamin A between these cells. Release of vitamin A from IRBP requires DHA present in oily fish. Rod degeneration leads to a deficiency of vitamin A and DHA. This could explain why vitamin A plus an oily fish diet benefits patients with RP. Patients are advised to take vitamin A to replace their rods and eat oily fish to enhance delivery of vitamin A to cones ...
Introduction: Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonist which showed beneficial effects on lipid profile and total cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study. This study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of fenofibrate therapy on three novel biomarkers of cardiovascular risk, namely adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), which are all downstream targets of PPAR-alpha or PPAR-gamma, in patients with type 2 diabetes.. Methods: A total of 216 patients (108 in the fenofibrate group and 108 in the placebo group) were randomly selected from the FIELD study cohort. A-FABP, FGF21, and RBP4 levels were measured in serum samples at both baseline and the fifth year of the study.. Results: Relative to the placebo group, the changes of serum FGF21 and RBP4 levels were 85% (P,0.001) and 10% ...
RPA929Hu01, Recombinant Retinol Binding Protein 4, Plasma (RBP4), 视黄醇结合蛋白4(RBP4)重组蛋白, PRBP; RBP; Plasma retinol-binding protein | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
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We report here the gene expression patterns, as revealed by in situ hybridisation, of the retinoic acid receptors alpha, beta and gamma (RAR-alpha, -beta and -gamma), and the cellular binding proteins for retinol and retinoic acid (CRBP, CRABP) in non-neural tissues of mouse embryos during the period of organogenesis. At all stages, RAR-alpha transcripts were almost ubiquitous, whereas the distribution of transcripts of the other four genes was distinctive in all systems. At early stages in the formation of an organ, the expression patterns were different in the epithelium, the adjacent mesenchyme, and in mesenchyme more distant from the epithelium, suggesting a role for RA and RA receptors in epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions. In the developing face, limb bud and genital tubercle, where large expanses of mesenchyme are present, differential patterns of expression were established before the onset of overt tissue differentiation, suggesting some significance for pattern formation in ...
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important cause of death among hospitalized patients. The 2 most common causes of AKI are acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and prerenal azotemia (PRA). Appropriate diagnosis of the disease is important but often difficult. We analyzed urine proteins by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis from 38 patients with AKI. Patients were randomly assigned to a training set, an internal test set, or an external validation set. Spot abundances were analyzed by artificial neural networks to identify biomarkers that differentiate between ATN and PRA. When the trained neural network algorithm was tested against the training data, it identified the diagnosis for 16 of 18 patients in the training set and all 10 patients in the internal test set. The accuracy was validated in the novel external set of patients where conditions of 9 of 10 patients were correctly diagnosed including 5 of 5 with ATN and 4 of 5 with PRA. Plasma retinol-binding protein was identified in 1 spot and a fragment ...
Transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid that carries the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein bound to retinol. This is how transthyretin gained its name: transports thyroxine and retinol. The liver secretes transthyretin into the blood, and the choroid plexus secretes TTR into the cerebrospinal fluid. TTR was originally called prealbumin (or thyroxine-binding prealbumin) because it ran faster than albumin on electrophoresis gels. It functions in concert with two other thyroid hormone-binding proteins in the serum: In cerebrospinal fluid TTR is the primary carrier of T4. TTR also acts as a carrier of retinol (vitamin A) through its association with retinol-binding protein (RBP) in the blood and the CSF. Less than 1% of TTRs T4 binding sites are occupied in blood, which is taken advantage of below to prevent TTRs dissociation, misfolding and aggregation which leads to the degeneration of post-mitotic tissue. Numerous other small ...