Purpose: : Disturbances in the regulation of the retinal blood flow are involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of sight threatening diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. Therapeutic intervention on these diseases requires a detailed knowledge of the cells and pharmacological mechanisms involved in the regulation of the tone in retinal resistance arterioles. It has been shown that the vasodilating effect of ATP but not adenosine depends on the perivascular retinal tissue, but the factors responsible for this effect in the perivascular retina are unknown. Methods: : Porcine retinal arterioles (mean diameter 150 µm), with a rim of surrounding retina, were mounted in a wire myograph (DMT) and placed in a Zeiss LSM 5 Exciter confocal microscope allowing for simultaneous recording of vascular tone and calcium activity. The preparations were loaded with the calcium sensitive fluorophore Oregon Green and were pre-contracted with the prostaglandin analogue U46619 (10-6 M). The vascular tone ...
In 1998, a new paracrine factor was discovered during experiments on isolated retinal arteries. A huge variation in contractile response to prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) was observed in a study on isolated bovine retinal arteries. Because damage of smooth muscle cells of the arteries during the isolation was thought to be the reason for this variation, efforts were made to reduce damage by cleaning them not too rigorously from adherent tissue. Surprisingly, the arteries then no longer contracted to PGF2α. In further experiments, it was found that the contraction level of bovine retinal arteries with adhering retinal tissue was significantly lower than of those completely cleaned of adhering retinal tissue. Similar results were obtained when contracting the bovine retinal arteries with other contractile substances than PGF2α, such as serotonin, endothelin-1, or the thromboxane A2 mimetic U-46619. One explanation for this observation could be that the retina, like the endothelium releases NO, ...
Congenital anomalous retinal artery is a unilateral vascular anomaly with an excellent visual prognosis. Aberrant macular vessels are rare. Anomalous macular ve
Retinal Arteriolar Caliber Predicts Incident Retinopathy. Rogers, Sophie Louise; Tikellis, Gabriella; Cheung, Ning; Tapp, Robyn; Shaw, Jonathan; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin // Diabetes Care;Apr2008, Vol. 31 Issue 4, p761 Changes in retinal vascular caliber may reflect subclinical microvascular disease and provide prognostic information regarding risk of retinopathy. In this study, we examined the prospective association of retinal vascular caliber with retinopathy risk in an Australian population-based cohort. A... ...
65-year-old woman was seen in the office on January 12, 2011. She has noticed decreased vision in the right eye for the last two or three weeks. She has had some discomfort in both eyes as well. She has a history of low blood pressure, but she does have high cholesterol. VISUAL ACUITY: OD 20/60, OS 20/30. IOP: OD 14, OS 15. SLIT EXAMINATION: The right eye has some subtle epithelial irregularities just inferior to fixation and 3+ nuclear sclerosis. The left eye has 3+ nuclear sclerosis. EXTENDED OPHTHALMOSCOPY: OD: Vertical C/D ratio is 0.1. There is a retinal arterial macroaneurysm along the superotemporal branch retinal arterial about 2 disc-diameters superior to the fovea with a ring of fluid and hemorrhage around it. There is edema involving the fovea. OS: Vertical C/D ratio is 0.1. There are 2+ arterial venous crossing changes. OCT SCAN: The OCT scan shows an average central foveal thickness in the right eye of 586 microns and there is a serous foveal detachment. The left eye has a central ...
87 year old woman with severe vision loss for about 1 week. She has edema from a Macroaneurysm. The FA shows little or no leakage. Within one month the vision had improved from 20/125 to 20/50 and the edema almost completely resolved without any treatment. ...
The VarioMACS™ Separator gives the flexibility to separate small samples as well as samples of up to 2×109 total cells. Various MACS® Columns can be used with the height-adjustable VarioMACS Separator: MS Columns for positive selection or depletion LS Columns for positive selection or depletion LD Columns for depletion Whole Blood Columns for positive selection of cells directly from whole blood The MS Column Adapter is required to insert MS Columns into the magnetic field of the VarioMACS Separator, and the LS Column Adapter is required to insert LS, LD, or Whole Blood Columns. - Lëtzebuerg
The QuadroMACS™ Separator allows the convenient performance of up to four simultaneous separations in combination with LS, LD or Whole Blood Columns:LS Columns for positive selection or depletion LD Columns for depletion Whole Blood Columns for positive selection of cells directly from whole blood Simultaneous separations might be desired for processing of multiple samples or for the separation of large samples split into portions. - Suomi
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a disease of the eye where the flow of blood through the central retinal artery is blocked (occluded). There are several different causes of this occlusion; the most common is carotid artery atherosclerosis. Central retinal artery occlusions cause sudden, acute, and painless loss of vision in one eye. Fundoscopic exam will show a red lesion, called a "cherry red spot," with surrounding pale retina (the pale color is caused by ischemia of the retina). The most common cause for CRAO is carotid artery atherosclerosis. In patients of 70 years of age and older, giant cell arteritis is more likely to be the cause than in younger patients. Other causes can include dissecting aneurysms and arterial spasms. The ophthalmic artery branches off into the central retinal artery which travels with the optic nerve until it enters the eye. This central retinal artery provides nutrients to the retina of the eye, more specifically the inner retina and the surface of the ...
What is Central Retinal Artery Occlusion?. The central retinal artery branches off the ophthalmic artery which in turn branches off the internal carotid artery. The central retinal artery is vital because it supplies blood to the inner two-thirds of the retina. . If the central retinal artery becomes occluded, there will be a sudden painless loss of vision in that eye.. Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is generally due to an embolism including platelet-fibrin, cholesterol, or calcium plaque. The emboli break off vessel walls ...
Thus if the central retinal artery gets occluded, there is complete loss of vision in that eye even though the fovea is not affected. The entire retina (with the exception of the fovea) becomes pale and swollen and opaque while the central fovea still appears reddish (this is because the choroid color shows through). This is the basis of the famous "Cherry red spot" seen on examination of the retina on funduscopy of a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). However it should be remembered that the Cilio retinal artery itself is a branch of the Short Posterior Ciliary Arteries which is derived from the Ophthalmic Artery. Therefore, its possible for the cilio retinal artery itself to occlude causing significant visual loss in the perfused macula region (surrounding visual field will remain intact). ...
We retrospectively studied 46 patients with symptomatic retinal artery occlusion and assessed the pattern and extent of carotid artery disease ipsilateral to the retinal artery occlusion. Ipsilateral internal carotid artery atherosclerotic lesions were virtually limited to the cervical arterial segment; 50% of such lesions were plaques or stenoses of less than or equal to 60%, whereas 15% of the angiograms were normal. No clinical features were significantly associated with a flow-limiting carotid stenosis of greater than 60%. Contrary to previous reports, the type of retinal artery occlusion, whether branch or central artery occlusion, was not predictive of severe underlying carotid stenosis or occlusion. Likely mechanisms of retinal artery occlusion include in situ thrombosis and emboli from carotid, and possibly cardiac, sources. Extension of thrombus from an occluded carotid artery into the ophthalmic artery did not appear to be a mechanism of retinal artery occlusion. ...
Objective: To describe a new computer-assisted method to measure retinal vascular caliber over an extended area of the fundus. Methods: Retinal photographs taken from participants of the Singapore Malay Eye Study (n = 3280) were used for this study. Retinal vascular caliber was measured and summarized as central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) using a new semi-automated computer-based program. Measurements were made at the Standard zone (from 0.5 to 1.0 disk diameter) and an Extended zone (from 0.5 to 2.0 disk diameter). Results: Reliability of retinal vascular caliber measurement was high for the new Extended zone (intraclass correlation coefficients >0.90). Associations of CRAE with blood pressure were identical between the Extended and Standard zones (linear regression coefficient -2.53 vs. -2.61, z-test between the two measurements, p = 0.394). Associations of CRAE and CRVE with other cardiovascular risk factors were similar between measurements ...
Kayser, S., Vargas, P., Mendelsohn, D., Han, J., Bi, H., Benavente, A., & Bittner, A. K. (2017). Reduced Central Retinal Artery Blood Flow Is Related to Impaired Central Visual Function in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients. Current Eye Research, 42(11), 1503-1510.. ...
Most effective herbal treatment for Retinal Artery Occlusion and herbs for Retinal Artery Occlusion. Causes and Symptoms of Retinal Artery Occlusion. Herbal treatment of Retinal Artery Occlusion by natural herbs is given in repertory format.
Retinal arteries have clearly distinctive hyperreflective lower borders in SD-OCT but retinal veins do not. Using this feature, our study successfully differentiated retinal arteries from veins with a commercially available SD-OCT instrument.. OCT is commonly used in the diagnosis and management of retinal diseases, and is already a major non-invasive imaging modality in ophthalmology [19]. A recent report using commercially available SD-OCT has provided retinal vessel diameter measurements with good reproducibility [22]. The identification of retinal arteries and veins has to be done manually by comparing the OCT images with corresponding fundus images [22], which prevents OCT from being an independent useful tool to evaluate retinal vessels. However, retinal arteries and veins did exhibit different reflectivity patterns at close inspection (as shown in Figure 1 in our preliminary data). For arteries, both borders presented as hyperreflective in comparison to the surrounding retinal tissue; ...
When one of the vessels that carry blood to your eyes retina gets blocked, it can cause you to lose your eyesight. This problem often happens suddenly and without any pain. This is called a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO).
Abstract Background  We aim to study the circulatory parameters in the retrobulbar central retinal artery and vein in diabetic patients with and without medically treated systemic hypertension. Methods  The study included 108 patients with diabetes that were allocated in four different groups according to the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and hypertension: group 1â€"patients without DR and without hypertension (n = 23), group 2â€"patients without DR and with hypertension (n = 21), group 3â€"patients with nonproliferative DR and without hypertension (n = 36), group 4â€"patients with nonproliferative DR and with hypertension (n = 28). The circulatory parameters that were evaluated were: peak systolic blood velocity (PSV), end-diastolic blood velocity (EDV), maximum venous velocity (Vmax), minimum venous velocity (Vmin) and the Pourcelot index which were measured using color Doppler imaging. Non-parametric tests ...
Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.
Learn about symptoms and treatment of retinal artery occlusion, which occurs when the central retinal artery or one of the arteries that branch off of it becomes blocked.
Poster 4 Salim Ben Yahia. Advantages: To report clinical findings and outcome of an atypical case of Coats disease in an adult patient.. Methods: A 48-year-old female underwent ocular examination including dilated fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography.. Effectiveness / Safety: The patient presented with decreased vision in her left eye. Fundus examination revealed multiple macroaneurysms in the posterior pole superior to the macula associated with hard exudates. In addition to macroaneurysms, fluorescein angiography showed numerous microaneurysms and telangiectatic vessels with fluorescein leakage on macular area. Optical coherence tomography revealed macular edema and serous retinal detachment of the macula. The patient was treated by transpupillary thermotherapy, with spots applied to the macroaneurysms, leading to an improvement of visual acuity and partial resolution of macular edema and serous retinal detachment on optical coherence tomography three ...
Short posterior ciliary arteries aka Arteriae ciliares posteriores breves in the latin terminology and part of arteries and veins of the eye. Learn more now!
Intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) may be a better way of restoring vision in patients with sudden blockage of the central retinal artery in future, if promising results from an initial study are confirmed by randomised control trial.. Patients having IAT with urokinase in the retrospective case-control study had a better chance of improved visual acuity, with more attaining a final visual acuity of ,0.6 than those having conventional treatment (22% v 0%). Both patient groups were well matched. Younger age was the only significant attribute linked to improved vision, but the researchers are reluctant to use this to select for treatment as improvement did occur in some older some patients and because the condition has such a poor prognosis generally. Six patients had adverse events: cerebrovascular ischaemia, transient ischaemic attacks, and a stroke, promptly located and treated with urokinase ...
4İnönü Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Pediatri A.D., Malatya, Doç. Dr. In our study, we aim to present an interesting case who developed central retinal artery occlusion with preserved central vision because of the presence of cilioretinal artery. A 17-year-old man appealed to our clinic with the complaint of visual loss in the right eye (seeing only the center where the eyes stare at, but not surroundings) suddenly begun 3 months ago. On the examination, visual acuity of the right eye was 10/10, anterior segment examination was normal. On fundus examination, optic nerve head pallor was observed. The examination of the left eye was normal. The computerized visual field revealed concentric narrowing of visual field in the right eye. Since neurologic examination and VEP examination were normal, we carefully reexamined the fundus, and recognized the presence of cilioretinal artery in the right eye. Given these findings, the diagnosis of the previous occlusion of central retinal artery in the ...
The retina is the part of your eye that senses light so you can see. Retinal artery occlusion is a blood clot in an artery in the retina.. When an artery in the retina is blocked, doctors say it is "occluded." This blockage stops blood from flowing through the artery. And that can damage nerve cells that help you see. Or the artery may leak, causing swelling.. There is no pain. But most people suddenly lose all or most vision in that eye. It may last only seconds or minutes. Most of the time, its permanent.. ...
Retinal artery occlusion may occur in any of the vessels how to get rid of small acne scars supplying the eye. The main artery that supplies the eye and...
Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina ...
Patients with presumed thromboembolic CRAO have a poor visual outcome with 78% having no spontaneous visual recovery.2 Current standard therapies do not alter the natural history of disease, whereby 0% to 30% may have spontaneous improvement.2,6,23 In contrast, case series of patients with CRAO who undergo LIF report an improvement in final VA in 40% to 74% of subjects, and retrospective, nonrandomized studies of LIF treatment in CRAO document an improvement of VA in 20% to 70% of LIF subjects.11,12,24. In our study, 71% of subjects in the LIF group had an improvement of VA within the first 24 hours and 76% at final examination. In contrast, 9.5% and 33.3% of patients in the standard therapy cohort experienced improvement in VA at 24 hours and final examination, respectively. These point estimates are in keeping with previous studies and more importantly demonstrate a significant therapeutic advantage over the proportion of subjects who have a VA improvement either spontaneously or with standard ...
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular caliber and cardiovascular disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients without diabetes and hypertension. Methods: Intention to treat study of individuals who underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT) during a two year period. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as stenosis of >50% in at least one major coronary artery. Liver and spleen density were measured by abdominal (CT); intima-media thickness (IMT) by Doppler ultrasound; retinal artery and vein diameter by colored-retinal angiography; and metabolic syndrome by ATP III guidelines. Serum biomarkers of insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidant-antioxidant status were assessed. Results: Compared with 22 gender and age matched controls, the 29 NAFLD patients showed higher prevalence of coronary plaques (70% vs. 30%, p < 0.001), higher prevalence of coronary stenosis (30% vs. 15%, p < 0.001), lower retinal arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR) (0.66 ± 0
Dr. Weiskopf raises two points to which I would like to respond. First, he speculates that periodic intraoperative checks of the eyes for absence of direct pressure on patients eyes may be useful in preventing central retinal artery thrombosis. His spine team evidently established periodic intraoperative eye checks for all prone-positioned spine surgery patients and found that none of their 3,450 patients developed this complication.3 However, as he notes, the frequency of this event is very low. It is, therefore, impossible to draw any conclusion or even inference that his teams eye checks had anything to do with the outcomes that their patients experienced. Regarding the use of eye checks, it is disappointing to find that 6 of the 10 patients with central retinal artery occlusion in the America Society of Anesthesiologists Visual Loss Registry had at least one eye check during their procedures.1 In those 6 patients, eye checks apparently did not prevent this problem from occurring. ...
The patient was a 61-year old male who suddenly developed a blur before the right eye and was found to have a superior altitudinal defect in the visual field. He was not known to have cardiac or other vascular disease. When seen shortly after the onset, an embolus was seen obstructing the inferior temporal artery on the nerve head and the corresponding retina was gray. The fundus photograph was taken 8 weeks after the onset. The embolus was unchanged and the inferior retinal artery was severely narrowed. The retina was, however, no longer opaque but the visual field defect remained ...
The primary objective is to study if a sustained contraction of pathologically dilated retinal arterioles can be obtained. Retinal arteriolar diameter and the diameter response to increased blood pressure is studied using the Dynamic Vessel Analyzer (Imedos, Germany.. The secondary objective is to study whether the intervention can halt the development of diabetic retinopathy, which is assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning and fundus photography. ...
A central retinal artery occlusion is caused by arteriosclerosis, small emboli from cardiac arhythmias, temporal arteritis, and many other causes. The central vision can sometimes be maintained if there is an anomylous cilio-retinal artery, otherwise there is profound sudden loss of vision which is often unreversible unless treated within a short period of time ...
Mitchell, P., Taylor, B., Rochtchina, E., Wang, J.J., Cheung, N., De, Haseth K., Islam, F.M.A., Wong, T.Y., Saw, S.M. (2007). Blood pressure and retinal arteriolar narrowing in children. Hypertension 49 (5) : 1156-1162. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA. ...
Adult participants are recruited in Cape Town and Worcester (South Africa). Participants are enrolled in the HIV-negative control group, the HIV-positive ART naïve group and the HIV-positive ART group. Baseline examination and a follow-up examination after 18 months are done. The examination consists of a health questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, cardiovascular measurements (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness and retinal analysis), blood and urine chemistry. Here, we report the widths of retinal blood vessels, represented as the central retinal arteriolar/venular equivalent (CRAE/CRVE), and the arteriovenous ratio (AVR ...
Similar to a stroke that may occur in the brain, the arteries within the retina may become blocked by a small embolus within the vessel. The degree of visual change depends on the size and location of the blockage, which can be detected by a retinal angiogram. Rarely, the embolus blocking the vessel can be dislodged by laser or surgery, sometimes leading to recovery of vision. In some cases, treatment may be recommended to control the growth of abnormal blood vessels, which may include laser therapy applied to the retina or injections of medication ...
For Lasik, cataract surgery and general eye care, Eye Clinic & Laser Institute has been serving Merritt Island, Cocoa Beach, Melbourne-Palm Bay, Viera, Titusville and Brevard County since 1980. We were the first to bring LASIK to our local community in 1997 and are the only eye surgeons in Brevard to provide BLADELESS CATARACT LASER SURGERY (2013).
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a devastating disease that commonly leads to blindness. Only 17% of patients with CRAO have a spontaneous meaningful recovery. Multiple causes can induce CRAO: carotid artery disease, cardiac valvular disease, atrial fibrillation, hypercoagulable disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Multiple empiric treatments have been used though with poor evidence for effectiveness. In addition, there is a lack of consensus on the appropriate treatment and management paradigms for these patients. Dr. Youn and colleagues recently published the results of a focused questionnaire (read more).... ...
In the daily care of our patients, the optometrists here at Envision Optical see many Gold Coast patients with signs in their eyes of general diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and thyroid problems. We recommend taking a Digital Retinal Photograph of the back of our patients eyes as the best way to monitor eye health and detect any changes in the retina that may indicate the earliest signs of eye disease. According to new research published in American Heart Association journal "Hypertension", taking a Retinal Photograph in patients with high blood pressure may help detect stroke risk.. High blood pressure is the worlds single most important risk factor for stroke, yet, it is nearly impossible to predict which hypertension people are going to develop a stroke. This research study indicates photographing the retina (retinal imaging) may help detect people who are more likely to have a stroke.. The retina provides information on the status of blood vessels in the brain. Retinal imaging is a ...
A total of 10 eyes of 10 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 84.72± 8.5 years, and 7 of 10 patients (70%) were women. Surgery was performed on average 9.77±4.87 days after the onset of symptoms, and patients were observed for a follow-up period of 12months. On average, visual acuity improved 0.00875 decimal in pacients with AMD versus the VA improvement of 0.095decimal in patients with macroaneurysms between presentation and last follow-up. Visual acuity improved in 7 patients (70.0%), remained unchanged in 1 patient (10.0%), and worsened in 2 patients (20.0 ...
Nursing bras come in a variety of styles, types, colors, fabrics, and prices. But how to choose the right bra? Find out in our article.
Get your perfect bra at JCPenney. We carry top bra brands like Warners & Playtex in a plethora of styles & colors. Up to 50% off select styles of bras. FREE shipping available.
According to studies, many women do not wear the right type of bra. So, maybe, if we know the different types, well be able to choose the right types for our needs. Majority of women wear a bra as an undergarment. To those few women who dont...
MalaCards based summary : Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion, also known as retinal artery occlusion, is related to ischemic optic neuropathy and central retinal artery occlusion, and has symptoms including amaurosis fugax An important gene associated with Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion is MTHFR (Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade) and Complement and coagulation cascades. The drugs Dipivefrin and Triamcinolone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, thyroid and retina, and related phenotype is mortality/aging ...
Sickle cell trait (SCT) is traditionally considered a benign condition by ophthalmologists. Several studies have reported ocular complications in SCT, but these complications have been described as a consequence of trauma, exertion, and associated systemic disorders. We here in the report a case of an Arab teen boy, who presented with a sudden loss of vision in his left eye of 1 h duration. The ocular examination revealed acute central retinal artery occlusion. He underwent a series of laboratory and radiological investigations. The blood investigations revealed SCT and abnormal partial thromboplastin time. The fundus fluorescein angiography revealed abnormal retinal vascular perfusion. Marked blood rheological impairment and activation of the coagulation pathway can occur without any contributing factors in SCT leading to severe ocular complications. This is one of the young patients with spontaneous vascular occlusion in SCT.
Background: To report a case of unilateral central retinal artery occlusion in a patient with Eisenmenger syndrome. Methods: Full ophthalmic examination, physical examin..
An asymptomatic 56-year-old Caucasian woman was referred when her optometrist noted an area of "hyperaemia" in the centre of her right optic disc at a routine visit. On presentation, her visual acuities were 6/9 in each eye, with normal intraocular pressures. Fundoscopy revealed a right optic disc macroaneurysm (figure 1A,B). Systemic enquiry did not reveal any risk factors. ...
Postoperative permanent visual loss is a rare but devastating complication of surgery estimated to occur after approximately 1/60,000 anesthetics. After procedures involving cardiopulmonary bypass and prone spinal surgery, the estimates are higher, 1/1600 to 1/1100, respectively and have led to the formation in July of 1999 of the Postoperative Visual Loss (POVL) Registry under the auspices of the American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) Committee on Professional Liability. The majority of reported cases as of early 2003 were associated with spine surgery (67%).. Of the spine cases, the majority were due to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) (81%) followed by central retinal artery occlusion (13%) and unknown diagnosis (6%). Central retinal artery occlusion is characterized by periorbital edema, a cherry red spot at the fovea and monocular blindness. It is thought to be due to direct prolonged extraocular pressure on the globe and thus is preventable. Direct pressure on the eye is the etiology most ...
We present a novel application of optical microangiography (OMAG) imaging technique for visualization of depth-resolved vascular network within retina and choroid as well as measurement of total retinal blood flow in mice. A fast speed spectral domain OCT imaging system at 820nm with a line scan rate of 140 kHz was developed to image the posterior segment of eyes in mice. By applying an OMAG algorithm to extract the moving blood flow signals out of the background tissue, we are able to provide true capillary level imaging of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The microvascular patterns within different retinal layers are presented. An en face Doppler OCT approach [Srinivasan et al., Opt Express 18, 2477 (2010)] was adopted for retinal blood flow measurement. The flow is calculated by integrating the axial blood flow velocity over the vessel area measured in an en face plane without knowing the blood vessel angle. Total retinal blood flow can be measured from both retinal arteries and veins. ...
The relationship of retinal vascular calibre to diabetes and retinopathy: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study.