TY - JOUR. T1 - Neighborhood effects on an individuals health using neighborhood measurements developed by factor analysis and cluster analysis. AU - Li, Yu Sheng. AU - Chuang, Ying Chih. PY - 2009/1. Y1 - 2009/1. N2 - This study suggests a multivariate-structural approach combining factor analysis and cluster analysis that could be used to examine neighborhood effects on an individuals health. Data were from the Taiwan Social Change Survey conducted in 1990, 1995, and 2000. In total, 5,784 women and men aged over 20 years living in 428 neighborhoods were interviewed. Participants addresses were geocoded with census data for measuring neighborhood-level characteristics. The factor analysis was applied to identify neighborhood dimensions, which were used as entities in the cluster analysis to generate a neighborhood typology. The factor analysis generated three neighborhood dimensions: neighborhood education, age structure, and neighborhood family structure and employment. The cluster analysis ...
Downloadable! In the neighbourhood effects literature, the socialisation mechanism is usually investigated by looking at the association between neighbourhood characteristics and educational attainment. The step in between, that adolescents actually internalise educational norms held by residents, is often assumed. We attempt to fill this gap by looking at how educational commitments are influenced by neighbourhood characteristics. We investigate this process for migrant youth, a group that lags behind in educational attainment compared to native youth, and might therefore be particularly vulnerable to neighbourhood effects. To test our hypothesis we used longitudinal panel data with five waves (N=4179), combined with fixed-effects models which control for a large portion of potential selection bias. These models have an advantage over naïve OLS models in that they predict the effect of change in neighbourhood characteristics on change in educational commitment, and therefore offer a more dynamic
This study adds to the current literature by using multiple validated scales and indices that measured neighborhood and community characteristics and examined their independent relationships with self-care and outcomes in patients with T2DM. We found that neighborhood violence, aesthetics, walking environment, activities, food insecurity, neighborhood comparison, and social support have statistically significant associations with diabetes self-care behaviors and health outcomes to varying degrees. However, we did not find significant relationships between neighborhood safety, crime, perceived neighborhood problems, availability of recreational facilities, neighborhood rating, and access to healthy foods and self-care behaviors and health outcomes. This is the first study to our knowledge that used a large sample size and all available measures of neighborhood factors to assess these relationships. In addition, we entered variables in blocks and examined the amount of variance explained by each ...
Abstract: Study ObjectiveTo test associations and interactions between racial identification, neighborhood risk, and low birth weight disparities between infants born to African-American and white adolescent mothers.DesignRetrospective cross-sectional study. Birth cases were geocoded and linked to census tract information from the 2010 US Census and the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. A neighborhood risk index was created using principal component analysis, and mothers were grouped into 3 neighborhood risk levels (low, medium, high). Multilevel models with cross-level interactions were used to identify variation in racial differences in low birth weight outcomes across neighborhood risk levels when controlling for maternal demographic characteristics and pregnancy behaviors (smoking, prenatal care use).SettingNorth Carolina, United States.ParticipantsSingleton infants (n = 7923 cases) born to non-Hispanic African American and white adolescent mothers from the North Carolina State Center ...
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in associations between crime rates, cycling, and weight status between people living in low and high socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods. In total, 470 participants in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were included (age: 63-70 y). Body height and weight were measured using a stadiometer and calibrated weight scale, respectively. Cycling behaviour was assessed in a face-to-face interview, and neighbourhood crime rates were assessed using data from police reports. Men residing in high SES neighbourhoods cycled more than males residing in low SES neighbourhoods. Cycling was negatively related to crime rates among both men and women living in low SES neighbourhoods. Among men living in low SES neighbourhoods, more cycling was associated with lower BMI. Interventions aiming to prevent obesity in older people may consider aiming at increasing bicycle use in lower SES neighbourhoods, but neighbourhood safety issues should
TY - JOUR. T1 - Variations in outcomes by residential location for women with breast cancer. T2 - A systematic review. AU - Dasgupta, Paramita. AU - Baade, Peter D.. AU - Youlden, Danny R.. AU - Garvey, Gail. AU - Aitken, Joanne F.. AU - Wallington, Isabella. AU - Chynoweth, Jennifer. AU - Zorbas, Helen. AU - Youl, Philippa H.. PY - 2018/4/29. Y1 - 2018/4/29. N2 - Objectives: To systematically assess the evidence for variations in outcomes at each step along the breast cancer continuum of care for Australian women by residential location. Design: Systematic review. Methods: Systematic searches of peer-reviewed articles in English published from 1 January 1990 to 24 November 2017 using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Informit databases. Inclusion criteria were: Population was adult female patients with breast cancer; Australian setting; outcome measure was survival, patient or tumour characteristics, screening rates or frequencies, clinical management, patterns of initial care or post-treatment ...
Introduction: Studies have shown that neighborhood factors (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, food sources) have been associated with weight. However, neighborhood factors are often overlooked in weight loss interventions, and few studies examine the influence of neighborhoods on weight change. We examined the neighborhood environment and its association with weight change in a 12-mo. weight loss intervention.. Hypothesis: Individuals who live in obesogenic neighborhood environments (e.g., low income, absence of grocery stores) would be less likely to lose weight over time compared to those who live in healthy environments.. Methods: This analysis included data on body weight assessed at 0 and 6 mos and calculated as percent change. Residential address at baseline was geocoded using ArcGIS software and assigned the appropriate census tract. Key neighborhood measures included grocery store and restaurant density, proportion Black and low income, and an index of neighborhood socioeconomic ...
Objective Investigated the relation of family and neighborhood socioeconomic status to symptoms and disability in pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain. Hypothesis This study tested the hypothesis that measures of family and neighborhood SES would be highly correlated and that SES would be highly correlated with child symptoms and disability. Thus, lower SES would be associated with higher symptoms and disability. In addition, the study tested the hypothesis that the significant relation between socioeconomic status and child health would be mediated by childrens passive coping with pain. Methods Census data was used to obtain measures of neighborhood SES of 566 pediatric patients, ages 8-17 years old. Measures of family SES were obtained from patients parents. Patients completed questionnaires regarding their symptoms and disability. Results Family and neighborhood SES were highly correlated. There was no significant correlation between neighborhood or family SES and health. Because ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-assessed health status and neighborhood context. AU - Baum, Scott. AU - Kendall, Elizabeth. AU - Parekh, Sanjoti. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - In recent years, there has been growing interest in the relationship between the characteristics of neighborhoods and the health and well-being of residents. The focus on neighborhood as a health determinant is based on the hypothesis that residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood can negatively influence health outcomes beyond the effect of individual characteristics. In this article, we examine three possible ways of measuring neighborhood socio-economic status, and how they each impact on self-reported health status beyond the effect contributed by individual-level factors. Using individual-level data from the Household Income and Labor Dynamics Australia survey combined with neighborhood-level (suburb) data, we tested the proposition that how one measures neighborhood socio-economic characteristics may provide an important ...
Effects of Target Plant Species Body Size on Neighbourhood Species Richness and Composition in Old-Field Vegetation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
METHODS: The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) study randomized low-income families in public housing to an intervention arm receiving vouchers to subsidize rental housing in lower-poverty neighborhoods or to controls receiving no voucher. We examined 3 outcomes 4 to 7 years after randomization, among youth aged 5 to 16 years at baseline (n = 2829): lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD), psychological distress (K6), and Behavior Problems Index (BPI). Treatment effect modification by gender and familys baseline report of recent violent crime victimization was tested via interactions in covariate-adjusted intent-to-treat and instrumental variable adherence-adjusted regression models. ...
Neighborhood factors associated with same-sex households in U.S. cities. Reevaluating poverty concentration with spatial analysis: Detroit in the 1990S
The Obesity and Neighborhood Environment (ONE) database is a collection of variables derived using spatial analysis techniques that link community-level data to individual Add Health respondent residential locations in both space and time. The database provides physical, social, and economic neighborhood environment measures corresponding with Add Health respondent locations in Waves I and III. Community-level data include density and proximity to recreational facilities, land use patterning, population, economic, climate, and crime statistics, which are linked spatially and temporally to individual-level Add Health behavior and health outcome data. Request for these files must include a brief justification explaining the necessity and relevance of the data to the research agenda. There are no special security requirements. For more information, please see the study website.. ...
The Obesity and Neighborhood Environment (ONE) database is a collection of variables derived using spatial analysis techniques that link community-level data to individual Add Health respondent residential locations in both space and time. The database provides physical, social, and economic neighborhood environment measures corresponding with Add Health respondent locations in Waves I and III. Community-level data include density and proximity to recreational facilities, land use patterning, population, economic, climate, and crime statistics, which are linked spatially and temporally to individual-level Add Health behavior and health outcome data. Request for these files must include a brief justification explaining the necessity and relevance of the data to the research agenda. There are no special security requirements. For more information, please see the study website.. ...
Research on associations between neighbourhood characteristics and mental health is extensive, and has expanded in recent decades. The evidence base concerning such an association at older ages is, however, thin and inconclusive despite the ageing populations and still ongoing urbanisation of most industrialised countries. Older people may be particularly susceptible to neighbourhood factors,1 being less likely to commute and to spend time outside the neighbourhood. Those with functional limitations, in particular, are restricted to the immediate surroundings of the home. There are numerous mechanisms through which neighbourhood characteristics could affect mental health. Access to green space may reduce stress and be beneficial, for example, whereas a socioeconomically deprived area may be stressful and lack services, which may have harmful repercussions.2 Although some studies report no association between neighbourhood social characteristics and depressive scores, or changes in depressive ...
Dysfunctional Families and Bad Neighborhoods May Worsen Asthma in Children and Adolescents About one out of five Americans suffers from allergies. An allergy is an exaggerated response from the immune system to a substance such as dust, pollen, pet dander or mold.
The neighborhood environment may positively or negatively influence ones ability to maintain cognitive function with age. Since older adults spend less time outside, the neighborhood environment increases in importance with age. Studies suggest physical aspects of the neighborhood such as the availability of sidewalks and parks, and more social and walking destinations, may be associated with better cognitive functioning. Beneficial neighborhood environments can provide spaces for exercise, mental stimulation, socializing and reducing stress. To date, few studies have examined how the neighborhoods physical environment relates to cognition in older adults.
We explored the association between the characteristics of the food environment and obesity in women living in a midsize Brazilian city, thus contributing to the literature on neighborhood effects on obesity in a middle-income country. We found that obesity was positively associated with the availability of supermarket and healthy food establishments in the neighborhood and inversely associated with the average income of the neighborhood.. This is consistent with the literature which shows that contextual characteristics are associated with obesity in men and women 11. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants. Lancet 2016; 387:1377-96., however, no studies have been found that highlight the relationship between food environment and obesity in women specifically. Importantly, in our study 76% of the women interviewed were responsible for ...
Introduction: The identification of neighborhood level factors that are associated with use of EMS for acute stroke could identify novel targets for interventions to improve EMS activation and access to stroke treatment.. Objective: To investigate the association between neighborhood level factors and use of EMS for acute stroke.. Methods: We identified 2905 neurologist-adjudicated cases of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage that presented to the emergency department in the bi-ethnic Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi stroke surveillance project (2000-2008). Cases were geocoded by home address and assigned to census tracts (proxies for neighborhoods). Clinical information and use of EMS were abstracted from medical records. Census tract data were obtained from the 2000 US Census and the Corpus Christi Police Department. The association of census tract level factors (frequencies of age over 65 years, violent crime, Hispanic ethnicity, and household income) with EMS use was ...
Introduction: Neighborhood environments have been investigated in relation to individual cardiovascular disease risk. However, few studies have examined the contribution of neighborhood environments to racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular health (CVH).. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that there would be significant racial/ethnic differences in ideal CVH and these differences would be reduced after adjustment for neighborhood factors.. Methods: We used data from the MESA baseline examination (2000-2002; mean age=62, SD=10). Ideal cardiovascular health was defined using guidelines from the American Heart Association 2020 Strategic Impact Goals. We examined seven CVH indicators (blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, diet, physical activity, and smoking) and three summary measures (health factors, health behaviors, overall CVH). We compared racial/ethnic differences in ideal CVH before and after adjustment for neighborhood factors (socioeconomic, physical activity, ...
University of Colorado researcher Dr. David Olds and his colleagues will conduct two interrelated studies aimed at assessing the long-term impacts of prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses (Nurse Family Partnership, NFP) on children and their families. The first study examines the extent to which the NFP influences low-income parents decisions about where to live and the extent to which higher neighborhood quality may moderate or account for NFPs impact on women and their children.
In mammalian biology, insulated neighborhoods are chromosomal loop structures formed by the physical interaction of two DNA loci bound by the transcription factor CTCF and co-occupied by cohesin. Insulated neighborhoods are thought to be structural and functional units of gene control because their integrity is important for normal gene regulation. Current evidence suggests that these structures form the mechanistic underpinnings of higher-order chromosome structures, including topologically associating domains (TADs). Insulated neighborhoods are functionally important in understanding gene regulation in normal cells and dysregulated gene expression in disease. Mammalian gene transcription is generally controlled by enhancers. Enhancers can regulate transcription of genes at large distances by looping to physically contact their target genes. This property of enhancers makes it difficult to identify an enhancers target gene(s). Insulators, another type of DNA regulatory element, limit an ...
Plans to build an upscale alcohol and drug detox center in a residential neighborhood are meeting growing resistance here. At the neighborhoods Common
Neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline.
This is the first study in which researchers use a population-level database to examine the independent effect of a composite measure of neighborhood risks and resources relevant to child development (the Child Opportunity Index) on individual-level pediatric acute care visits. Comparing the spatial distribution of neighborhood child opportunity and income revealed that child opportunity can be used to capture distinct aspects of neighborhood context and help identify different clusters of high- and low-risk neighborhoods. Neighborhood child opportunity was significantly associated with pediatric acute care visit frequency and a range of diagnoses after controlling for patient-level characteristics and area-level income.. Children who lived in neighborhoods with low levels of child opportunity were substantially more likely to be frequent users of acute care. Compared with children in neighborhoods with the highest levels of child opportunity, children in low-opportunity neighborhoods were also ...
Background: In previous public health surveys large differences in health have been shown between citizens living in different neighbourhoods in the Ã-rebro municipality, which has about 125000 inhabitants. The aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of health with an emphasis on the importance of neighbourhood characteristics such as the influence of neighbourhood social cohesion and social capital. The point of departure in this study was a conceptual model inspired by the work of Carpiano, where different factors related to the neighbourhood have been used to find associations to individual self-rated health. Methods: We used data from the survey Life & Health 2004 sent to inhabitants aged 18-84 years in Ã-rebro municipality, Sweden. The respondents (n = 2346) answered a postal questionnaire about living conditions, housing conditions, health risk factors and individual health. The outcome variable was self-rated health. In the analysis we applied logistic regression ...
Residents of low-poverty neighborhoods are more likely to have savings and to have higher total savings than those in high-poverty neighborhoods. The savings discrepancy is especially notable among low-income households: Fifty-nine percent of low-income families living in low-poverty neighborhoods have money they consider to be savings, and 54 percent have at least $1,000 in liquid assets, compared with just 35 percent and 28 percent, respectively, among residents with the same income who reside in high-poverty areas. Even when controlling for household income, net worth, homeownership, race, age cohort, household composition, and presence of children, families living in high-poverty communities have lower savings than those living in low-poverty neighborhoods.. ...
by Lindsey Ranner CHICAGO (AP)-People who collapse from cardiac arrest in poor Black neighborhoods are half as likely to get CPR from family members at home or bystanders on the street as those in better-off white neighborhoods, according to a study that found the reasons go beyond race. Dr. Comilla SassonStudy Lead Author The findings suggest a big need for more knowledge and training, the researchers said.
To explore associations between pets, and specifically dog ownership and sleep, health, exercise and neighbourhood. Cross sectional examination of 6575 participants of the Whitehall II study aged between 59 and 79 years. We used self-assessed measurement scales of the Short Form (SF36), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Control, Autonomy, Self-realisation and Pleasure (CASP), Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), sleep, exercise, and perceptions of local neighbourhood. In addition the Mini Mental State Examination which is administered to test global cognitive status (MMSE). We found 2/7 people owned a pet and of those 64% were
Thanks to new data from the Federal Reserve, we now know that population density and the ability for a neighborhood to improve may be more connected than previously thought.
Among African American youth, moving from a poor neighborhood to one with less poverty results in a lower use of African American Vernacular English, new Stanford research shows.
Unhealthy diets, especially in poorer neighbourhoods, have been linked to a limited choice of fresh foods, numerous ready foods and many fast-food restaurants.. Residents in these areas are more likely to experience early atherosclerosis: a disease that blocks blood vessels with fatty materials called plaques.. Atherosclerosis doesnt tend to have any symptoms initially but it leads to conditions such as peripheral vascular disease, heart attacks and strokes.. New research enrolled 5950 adults in a study with a 12 year follow-up period to find out whether social and physical factors are responsible for atherosclerosis in poor communities.. Dr Jeffrey Wing, the lead author of this study, said:. ...
TLP is located in a residential neighborhood on the upper part of a hill in the city of , an incredibly dynamic city that sits on the worlds busiest land border with the city of San Diego. The house is composed of three volumes that contain the main living spaces. The shape of these three volumes, trapezoidal prisms, respond to the irregular shape of the plot ...
This study addresses a gap in the food environment literature by investigating spatial differences in the inter relationship of price, variety and quality of food in southern England. We conducted a survey of all grocery stores (n=195) in the city of Southampton, UK, and ranked neighbourhoods according to national quintiles of deprivation. We found no difference in availability or cheapest price across neighbourhoods. However, the poorest neighbourhoods had less variety of healthy products and poorer quality fruit and vegetables than more affluent neighbourhoods. Dietary inequalities may be exacerbated by differences in the variety and quality of healthy foods sold locally; these factors may influence whether or not consumers purchase healthy foods.
A complex web of socioeconomic factors - from neighborhood characteristics to racial, ethnic, and gender disparities - often influence individuals health outcomes. RAND research on the social determinants of health includes the effects of parks and green space on neighborhood physical activity and health outcomes,
Indicator 16 (Neighborhood Safety) provided parental views of the safety of their neighborhoods, showing major differences in the living situations of children of different racial backgrounds. While the prevalence of poverty in a neighborhood is not the only element that contributes to neighborhood safety and support for young children, it is a powerful indicator. Moreover, addressing conditions at a neighborhood level requires looking beyond individual service strategies to community-building ones.. Several analyses of high poverty or high child vulnerability census tracts have showed that the poorest census tracts also are the most diverse. In an analysis of all census tracts in the United States on ten indicators related to child-raising vulnerability, Village Building and School Readiness showed that tracts with six or more vulnerability factors were primarily populated by people of color (83 percent non-white and/or Hispanic), while those with no vulnerability factors were primarily white, ...
Josh Levins article on Tenleytown (Wisconsin Badgers, 7/4) captures the good side of living in the neighborhood, but then dismisses it to get to his real point: The neighborhood would be better off if we would just get some big apartment buildings. Then, presumably, we would have sufficient residents to support all the upscale retail that Levin believes the community is begging for.. Go off of Wisconsin Avenue and Tenleytown is a residential neighborhood a community where the neighbors speak to each other when they pass on the streets, kids play on the sidewalks, and seniors walk to the stores. As Beth Kravetz said in the article, its really nice to live here. While many of us realize that the neighborhood is going to change over time, as new developments come and go, we want to ensure that the qualities that make this a great neighborhood to live in arent lost.. I dont buy into Levins opinion that Tenleytowners should travel down to Cleveland Park to see how its done. Take off the ...
The study found that 9-18-year-olds who lived in places with more greenery had significantly less aggressive behaviors than those living in neighborhoods with less greenery. Both short-term (one to six months) and long-term (one to three years) exposure to greenspace within 1,000 meters surrounding residences were associated with reduced aggressive behaviors. The behavioral benefit of greenspace equated to approximately two to two-and-a-half years of adolescent maturation ...
The purpose of this investigation was to characterize supermarkets, measure the distance from shoppers residence to supermarkets they shopped at, and explore the associations of these with shoppers BMI. We found that most shoppers lived more than one kilometre from the supermarket and that the price of a basket of common foods across all five supermarkets was inversely associated with BMI of its shoppers. This relationship between the price of food basket with BMI remained significant even after adjusting for socio-economic confounders. These findings suggest that many people shop for food outside of their immediate residential neighbourhood and that BMI may be a function of food pricing.. Investigations of the BE have predominantly focused on identifying the associations between individual characteristics such as lifestyle behaviours and obesity with characteristics in the surrounding environment, including potential destinations such as supermarkets. The main methods used for defining the ...
7.2 Participants views of their neighbourhoods, the visual infrastructure in Savage, Bagnall and Longhursts (2005) terms, are socially constructed into motifs. This paper has described some specific motifs provided by participants. Moreover, the research provides insight into the process by which neighbourhoods are imagined. I argue that participants construct their views of the built environment by comparing aspects of their actual neighbourhood to an idealised conception of what we could call the good neighbourhood. 7.3 Participants discussed several motifs related to aspects of their own neighbourhoods that were less than ideal. These negative motifs related to issues of unsightliness or risk. The concept of signal disorders (Innes 2004) is useful in understanding negative perceptions of the risky aspects of neighbourhoods. Participants photographed physical disorders such as graffiti, isolated and unlit places, and evidence of drug use as representations of risk, which made them ...
Oct. 28, 2020 - Entire home/apt for $51. Welcome to the City of Joy! Our comfortable home-stay is in one of South Kolkatas most peaceful and preferred residential neighbourhoods. The...
Living near green spaces is associated with a wide variety of benefits, including a lower risk of obesity, improved attention capacity in children and slower physical decline in old age.
If the treatment team knows a patient comes from a socioeconomically deprived area and is at higher risk, they can help that patient stay connected with MD Anderson resources after returning home, Reitzel says. Knowing more about where a person lives can signal the need for more comprehensive recommendations and follow-up to prevent the development of second primary malignancies and increase overall survival.. Our next step is to do more research and determine what it is about these areas that contributes to negative clinical outcomes so we can better help these patients.. ...
In this paper, we have described one individual-level measure of exposure to the Well London programme: self-report participation at the time of trial outcome assessment survey; and three neighbourhood-level measures of exposure: neighbourhood prevalence of self-report participation (from survey); and project-contact event rate and the amount of project time delivered during the 3.5-year programme, calculated from programme monitoring data. The results from the adult household survey conducted at follow-up show a modest level of self-reported exposure and that individuals with lower levels of education, men who were in work or aged 35-54 years and women who were unemployed and seeking work, were less likely to report having taken part in the Well London programme. This indicates potential inequity of access for those who might benefit most from the intervention. At the neighbourhood level, there was correlation between the two programme monitoring-derived measures, but neither was correlated ...
A man arrested after a two-hour standoff at a home in a local neighborhood that started, police say, after he pointed a gun toward officers who responded to a domestic disturbance has been charged.
Green roofs have been recognized as an effective sustainable design tool to mitigate urban heat island (UHI) effects. Previous studies have identified green-roof benefits in cooling and energy-conservation at the building scale, with limited exploration of the wider influence on neighborhood microclimate and human thermal comfort (HTC). This paper investigated the impacts of community-scale green-roof installation on air temperature and HTC in five typical residential neighborhoods of subtropical Hong Kong. The microclimate models ENVI-met and RayMan permitted studies of two main green-roof scenarios, namely extensive (EGR) and intensive (IGR). Microclimatic monitoring data from a local experimental green-roof site validated the modeling methods. The results verified that green-roof cooling effects were not restricted to rooftops, but extended to the ground to improve neighborhood microclimate. EGR reduced pedestrian-level air temperature by 0.4-0.7 °C, and IGR by 0.5-1.7 °C, with maximum effect in
CiteSeerX - Scientific articles matching the query: Crow Search Algorithm Based on Neighborhood Search of Non-Inferior Solution Set
It has long been posited by scientists that we need to have a better understanding in the role that larger contextual factors -- like neighborhood quality and the built environment -- may have on the nations obesity crisis. This paper explores whether maternal perceptions of neighborhood quality affect childrens bodyweight outcomes, and whether racial and ethnic differences in such perceptions may explain any of the hitherto unexplained gap in bodyweight and obesity prevalence among Whites and minorities. The project uses data from the NLSY79 and the CoNLSY datasets. Results indicate that overall neighborhood quality is not significantly related to childrens bodyweight. However, one particular characteristic, namely whether or not the mother believes there is enough police protection in the neighborhood, is related. Lack of police protection has robust and significant effects on the BMI-percentile of the children, though it has less robust effects on the risk of becoming obese per se. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neighborhood Cohesion as a Buffer Against Hostile Maternal Parenting. AU - Silk, Jennifer S.. AU - Sessa, Frances M.. AU - Morris, Amanda Sheffield. AU - Steinberg, Laurence. AU - Avenevoli, Shelli. PY - 2004/3/1. Y1 - 2004/3/1. N2 - This study explored the moderating effects of childrens neighborhoods on the link between hostile parenting and externalizing behavior. Participants were 1st- or 2nd-grade children in an urban northeastern community. Children were administered the Parenting and Neighborhood scales of the Child Puppet Interview, and mothers completed questionnaires on neighborhood quality and parenting practices. Census tract measures of neighborhood quality and teachers reports of childrens externalizing behavior also were obtained. Results indicated that childrens and mothers perceptions of neighborhood involvement-cohesion buffered the link between hostile parenting and externalizing problems. Childrens externalizing behavior was unrelated to census tract ...
FRIDAY, Sept. 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Growing up in a poor neighborhood significantly increases kids odds of becoming obese adults, and the risk is highest among teens, a new study says.. It found that children from poor neighborhoods had 31% higher odds for adult obesity, and the risk was much higher (29%) among 11- to 18-year-olds than for younger children (13%).. Growing up in a disadvantaged neighborhood sticks with you, and can have a negative impact on ones health through increasing ones chance of obesity in adulthood, said lead author Steven Alvarado, a professor of sociology at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y.. Disadvantaged neighborhoods were defined by seven factors, including median income and home values, and the percentage of residents who were living in poverty, unemployed or had earned bachelors degrees.. To account for other factors that can influence a childs obesity risk -- such as genes and their parents behaviors -- Alvarado compared siblings.. Siblings largely ...
Social disorganization theory is one of the most enduring place-based theories of crime. Developed by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay, this theory shifted criminological scholarship from a focus on the pathology of people to the pathology of places. Shaw and McKay demonstrated that delinquency did not randomly occur throughout the city but was concentrated in disadvantaged neighborhoods in-or adjacent to-areas of industry or commerce. These impoverished neighborhoods were in a constant state of transition, experiencing high rates of residential mobility. They were also home to newly arrived immigrants and African Americans. In these areas children were exposed to criminogenic behavior and residents were unable to develop important social relationships necessary for the informal regulation of crime and disorder. Social disorganization theory held a distinguished position in criminological research for the first half of the 20th century. Although the theory lost some of its prestige during the 1960s ...
ObjectivesFew studies have examined whether social characteristics of the residential environment are associated with blood pressure after controlling for individual sociodemographic characteristics. Even less is known about the processes by which these associations operate. Therefore, we examined w
Abstract: Background: Social features of neighbourhood environments may influence smoking by creating a stressful environment or by buffering stress through social cohesion. However, the association of the overall neighbourhood social environment (NSE) with smoking, and the association of specific neighbourhood social factors with change in smoking behaviour over time, has rarely been examined. Methods: This study included 5856 adults aged 45-84 years from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012, average follow-up: 7.8 years). Outcomes included current smoking status and smoking intensity (average number of cigarettes smoked per day among baseline smokers). NSE was assessed as a composite score composed of aesthetic quality, safety and social cohesion scales (derived from neighbourhood surveys). Generalised linear mixed models evaluated the association of baseline NSE (composite score and individual scales) with current smoking (modified Poisson models) and smoking intensity ...
Voorhees, C., Catellier, D., Ashwood, S., Cohen, D., Rung, A., Lytle, L., & et al, . U. (2009). Neighborhood socioeconomic status and non school physical activity and body mass index in adolescent girls. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 6(6), 731 - 740 ...
Background: Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded) and subjective (resident-perceived) measures of neighbourhood crime on residents smoking behaviours.. Methods: Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F ...
This paper aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of drug-related police interventions and the neighborhood characteristics influencing these spatial patterns. To this end, police officers ranked each census block group in Valencia, Spain (N = 552), providing an index of drug-related police interventions. Data from the City Statistics Office and observational variables were used to analyze neighborhood characteristics. Distance to the police station was used as the control variable. A Bayesian ecological analysis was performed with a spatial beta regression model. Results indicated that high physical decay, low socioeconomic status, and high immigrant concentration were associated with high levels of drug-related police interventions after adjustment for distance to the police station. Results illustrate the importance of a spatial approach to understanding crime.
In this study, we investigated the association of individual and neighbourhood SES with PA and ST among seventh grade school students. The individual SES of the students in our study sample, measured with the FAS, was significantly associated with ST. Students with lower SES were more likely to spend more than 2 hours per day viewing screen devices. Compared with high SES, low SES was more strongly associated with ST than middle SES. Similar results were found in other studies.16 46 47 Potential reasons for these findings are that parents with better education and higher statuses may be more aware of the health consequences of excessive ST and thus have stricter rules regarding ST behaviour.48 Children from families with lower SES may also more often have a TV in their room, which has been shown to be associated with higher ST levels.49 Moreover, it is well known that parents have an important role-modelling function, which influences childrens behaviours, such as screen viewing.50 Since ...
Neighborhood characteristics partially diminish racial differences in obesity. Weight management for the SCI population should target those who are Hispanic and living in the disadvantaged neighborhoods.
The obesity phenomenon in Malaysia is becoming increasingly worrying as it is closely linked to deteriorating health consequences. There has in fact been a significant growth in the literature identifying neighbourhood-level environment concerning food and built environment as influential factors of health-related outcomes. However, both of the environmental attributes mentioned have been rarely explored collectively in Malaysia to explain health behaviours and outcomes. Additionally, past studies tended to be based on objectively-measured data while ignoring subjectively-measured ones through self-reported perception of the environment. Self-reported perceptions were found to be as influential as objectively-gathered field data in studies of public health. As such, this study aimed to explain the obesity phenomenon through perceived neighbourhood environmental factors, health behaviours and Body Mass Index (BMI). Participants of the study comprised of 256 adults above the age of 18 years old in ...
The US Census Bureau defines rural areas as those that are not urban and at its most refined level of granularity is the Census block. Specifically, rural is defined as all territory, population, and housing units located outside of urban areas (UA) or urban clusters (UC; ref. 6). The UAs and UCs are determined by population density in census areas (i.e., population of ≥50,000 individual/square mile and population ≥10,000 individual/square mile, respectively). Core census block groups or census blocks that have a population density of at least 1,000 individuals/square mile and surrounding census blocks that have an overall density of at least 500 individuals/square mile are considered urban. While this seems straight forward, given that census blocks and core census block groups are smaller components of the larger spatial measure of census tract, there are situations where a single census tract may be composed of both urban and non-urban (i.e., rural) core census block groups or census ...
In this population-based cohort of older adults, greater neighborhood-level social cohesion was associated with significantly reduced risk of stroke mortality but not incident stroke. The association with stroke mortality was independent of known stroke risk factors and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status and was not attenuated by the control for individual-level measures of social network and engagement. Findings suggest that aspects of the neighborhood social environment may affect stroke risk among older adults, a demographic group in which neighborhood effects may be particularly salient.11. The observed protective effect of neighborhood cohesion on stroke mortality is consistent with previous studies. Neighborhood-level cohesion has been linked to heart disease,24 all-cause mortality,25 self-rated health,26,27 smoking,28 physical activity,29,30 hypertension,31 and measures of mental health.26,32 The findings of this study are also consistent with the overlapping literature on the health ...
Radioactive CesiumWith the exception of some very low California readings, all measurements of wood ash with fallout cesium exceeded - some by 100 times or more - the levels of radioactive cesium that may be released from nuclear plants (about 100 picocuries per kilogram of sludge). Wood ash cesium levels were especially high in the Northeast. [Science News, 1991]. Carcinogens Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH): Residential wood burning is the source of 50% of airborne Polynuclear Organic Material (POM) in the U.S. POM contain a group of compounds (PAH) which include many Class A carcinogens, the most carcinogenic materials known to exist. Air pollution measurements in a residential neighborhood on Christmas Day (the most wood smoke polluted day) showed early morning background levels of PAH of 20 ng/m3. The level increased as wood burning began, peaking at over 2000 ng/m3. The U.S. EPA estimates that the cancer risk from wood smoke is twelve times greater than from equal amounts of ...
In the study, researchers sought to test whether there are social factors that can buffer children from the negative effects of difficult neighborhood conditions, focusing on one particular factor they thought would be important in the lives of children - whether they had positive and supportive family relationships. We found significant interactions between neighborhood conditions and family relationship quality predicting clinical asthma outcomes, said Edith Chen, professor of psychology in the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, faculty fellow at the Institute for Policy Research at Northwestern and lead author of the study. When children lived in neighborhoods that were high in danger and disorder, the better their family relationships, the fewer symptoms and activity limitations they had, and the better their pulmonary function.. In contrast, Chen said, when children lived in neighborhoods that were lower in danger and disorder, their symptoms, activity limitations and pulmonary ...
Pet owners in Seattle are furious over the actions a property manager has taken to keep dogs off her lawn. Cayenne pepper was intentionally dumped all over the
Google Street View has often been the subject of controversy. The latest: Google and Apple are facing a patent lawsuit for Street View technology used on the
Google Street View is the inspiration for a colon scope in development at McMaster University that would help detect signs of cancer.
Results corroborate previous studies that exposure to long-term PM2.5 is a risk factor for CVD, and this association cannot be explained by confounding by individual-level SES or NSES. Furthermore, the association was stronger for women residing in lower-SES neighborhoods.. Our results of effect modification by NSES are consistent with the hypothesis that those with low SES may be disproportionately affected by the adverse health effects of air pollution. Researchers documented that individuals with low SES and racial minorities experience higher exposure to air pollution (Hajat et al. 2015) and also suffer from worse health outcomes resulting from poverty and psychosocial stress in poor communities (Diez Roux et al. 2004). The combination of greater exposure to air pollution, poorer health, and fewer resources to cope with the effects of air pollution may result in increased susceptibility to air pollution-related health outcomes (ONeill et al. 2003). We see stronger effect modification for ...
Une excellente utilisation des photos et des captations de la plateforme Google Street View, par lartiste Aaron Hobson. Sa série « Cinemascap
Dulwich: Dulwich, fashionable residential neighbourhood in the Greater London borough of Southwark, part of the historic county of Surrey. It lies in the southern part of the borough
Berki Ashcrafts framework, which recognized direct insurance policy characteristics and delivery process characteristics because the most significant features that influence customer decision when purchasing insurance, provided a complementary framework for comprehending individuals wellness insurance coverage choice habits. 3. Present legislations and policy documents on health insurance in SSA and empirical literature on neighborhood perceptions about MHI solution traits, and their romance to enrolment in MHI in SSA, provided evidence on how MHI is at present currently being implemented inside of SSA. and four. Attributes and attribute ranges employed in previous DCEs on customer preferences for overall health insurance coverage also gave insights into what characteristics of well being insurance can potentially be implemented within a DCE.. Guided by these insights from the literature, 3 of your authors derived a comprehen sive list of conceptual attributes and prospective attribute amounts ...
Ravenna is a neighborhood in northeastern Seattle, Washington named after Ravenna, Italy. Though Ravenna is considered a residential neighborhood, it also is home to several businesses, many of which are located in the University Village, a shopping mall. Ravenna-Cowen Park, located near University Village and the walking or biking route connecting Green Lake to Burke-Gilman Trail, is a popular feature of the neighborhood. What is now Ravenna has been inhabited since the end of the last glacial period (c. 8000 BCE-10,000 years ago). The Native American Duwamish (before contact, the DkhwDuwAbsh, the People of the Inside) tribe of the Lushootseed (Skagit-Nisqually) Coast Salish nations had the prominent village of SWAH-tsoo-gweel (portage) on then-adjacent Union Bay, and what is now Ravenna was their backyard before the arrival of White settlers. The Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway was built c. 1886 along what is now the Burke-Gilman Trail, following what was the shoreline past where ...
Vermont Neighborhoods Program * * *. Sec. 2. 24 V.S.A. § 2791(15) is added to read:. (15) Vermont neighborhood means an area of land that is in a municipality with an approved plan, a confirmed planning process, zoning bylaws, and subdivision regulations, and is in compliance with all the following: (A) Is located in one of the following:. (i) a designated downtown, village center, new town center, or growth center; or. (ii) an area of land that is within the municipality and outside but contiguous to a designated downtown, village center, or new town center and is not more than 100 percent of the total acreage of the designated downtown, 50 percent of the village center, or 75 percent of the new town center.. (B) Contains substantially all the following characteristics:. (i) Its contiguous land, if any, complements the existing downtown district, village center, or new town center by integrating new housing units with existing residential neighborhoods, commercial and civic services and ...
This article examines the longitudinal relationship between moving to more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and weight gain as a cardiovascular risk factor.
Just what America needs -- more comprehensive collaboration among federal agencies, not to mention their partners. This is needed, naturally, in the name of protecting all Americans, no matter what community they call home. Implication: specific, collaborative, comprehensive steps will be taken to ensure that in the future, America will no longer be a nation that protects only wealthy whites. In other words, America is racist down to its lungs, and only a comprehensive liberal agenda can combat it -- it, in this case, being America.. Note the added flourish of leftist economic determinism entailed in that quaint phrase, no matter what community they call home, used to refer to poor inner city neighborhoods. A tidy residential neighborhood in the suburbs is a community you call home. A farming village with two churches and a general store is a community you call home. An apartment complex overlooking the park adjacent to a university campus is a community you call home. A ...
Los Angeles, CA)- Mayor Antonio R. Villaraigosa recently completed his appointments to the South Valley and East Los Angeles Area Planning Commissions.. The South Valley and East Los Angeles Area Planning Commissions provide land use guidance and the highest level of technical service to achieve safe and healthy residential neighborhoods and a secure business climate that fosters sustained economic growth.. My appointees have diverse backgrounds and professional experiences and will bring a balanced approach to our citys planning efforts while working with communities to protect the interests of our neighborhoods, said Mayor Villaraigosa. I am expecting great energy and a spirit of collaboration from these commissioners, to tackle our planning and development issues.. Commissioners hear and make determinations on quasi-judicial and legislative actions. In addition, members of the commission give advice and make recommendations to the mayor, city council, director of planning, municipal ...
Downloadable! This paper sets out to critically examine the adoption of a partnership approach to urban regeneration at neighbourhood level across eight European cities. While all of the cities were committed to the idea of the socially integrated city, significant differences emerged in the conceptualisation and practice of partnership at neighbourhood level. This paper draws on case studies assembled in the course of an EU funded thematic network (ENTRUST) to illustrate, in particular, the challenges associated with (1) mobilising the private sector and (2) engaging the local population in the process. The paper concludes that the experience of partnership at neighbourhood level is largely determined by contextual factors such as local and national institutional structures, political culture and the relative power of potentially competing actors within the urban regeneration system.