Stern, M.J., Ames, G.F.L., Smith, N.H., Robinson, E.C. and Higgins, C.F. (1984) Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic Sequences A Major Component of the Bacterial Genome. Cell, 37, 1015-1026.
One proposed strategy for controlling the transmission of insect-borne pathogens uses a drive mechanism to ensure the rapid spread of transgenes conferring disease refractoriness throughout wild populations. Here, we report the creation of maternal-effect selfish genetic elements in Drosophila that drive population replacement and are resistant to recombination-mediated dissociation of drive and disease refractoriness functions. These selfish elements use microRNA-mediated silencing of a maternally expressed gene essential for embryogenesis, which is coupled with early zygotic expression of a rescuing transgene.. ...
article{221460, abstract = {The distribution of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and three classes of highly repetitive DNA in the chromatin of interphase nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied for the first time through non-isotopic in situ hybridization and luminescence digital imaging microscopy. Each of the three classes of highly repetitive DNA exhibited a characteristic hybridization pattern, and one class was seen to be primarily localized on two chromocentres, which would allow it to distinguish a particular chromosome. The rDNA was consistently localized on the two largest chromocentres and on one or two smaller chromocentres. A limited number of nuclei exhibited more than four labelled chromocentres, indicative of either polypoidy or differential amplification of the rDNA. In nuclei where the nucleolus could be clearly observed, the nucleolar associated chromocentres (NACs) were seen to be labelled by the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probe.}, author = {Bauwens, Serge and Van Oostveldt, ...
Higher eukaryotic genomes are typically large, complex and filled with both genes and multiple classes of repetitive DNA. The repetitive DNAs, primarily transposable elements, are a rapidly evolving genome component that can provide the raw material for novel selected functions and also indicate the mechanisms and history of genome evolution in any ancestral lineage. Despite their abundance, universality and significance, studies of genomic repeat content have been largely limited to analyses of the repeats in fully sequenced genomes. In order to facilitate a broader range of repeat analyses, the Assisted Automated Assembler of Repeat Families algorithm has been developed. This program, written in PERL and with numerous adjustable parameters, identifies sequence overlaps in small shotgun sequence datasets and walks them out to create long pseudomolecules representing the most abundant repeats in any genome. Testing of this program in maize indicated that it found and assembled all of the major repeats
Repetitive sequences are DNA sequences that occur many times in the genome. It has been experimentally shown that repetitive sequences can increase or decrease the expression levels of nearby genes by a variety of mechanisms and that the ability of repetitive sequences to alter gene expression depends on their epigenetic states. The epigenetic states of repetitive sequences depend on random epigenetic drift, stress, the genomic environment of the repetitive sequence, epigenetic inheritance, mutations in the genome, and other factors. Since repetitive sequences constitute approximately one half of the human and mouse genomes, the influence of repetitive sequences on gene expression in the mammalian genome is probably considerable. However, methods to detect and map such effects are lacking. These researchers have developed, and are continuing to develop, methods to associate gene expression changes with repetitive sequences. They use their associations to examine the epigenetic effects of ...
Scientists now know why it has been so difficult to sequence a region of the Y-chromosome linked to infertility. The AZFc region contains six massive and virtually identical stretches of repetitive DNA, according to a new study. The repeat elements were too large and too similar to be distinguished by conventional sequencing techniques. David C. Page, of the Whitehead Institute in Boston, and colleagues uncovered the regions details using a modified sequencing-mapping strategy. They identified 27 potential genes in the region, all of which are expressed predominantly or exclusively in the testis. Men with low or no sperm production frequently have deletions in the AZFc region, but the deletions do not seem to cause other health problems. The researchers propose that the repetitive structures in this region cause fertility problems by improperly binding to each other as the Y-chromosome reorganizes over time. DNA is either lost or misplaced. The repetitive elements, or amplicons, can form ...
The two methods of repair for DSBs are homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). In HR the nucleotide sequences of two sets of DNA are exchanged to repair the broken strands. For this to occur one of the sets of DNA must be undamaged. The 3 strand of the DSB invades the undamaged double stranded DNA and partially unwinds it for homologous pairing. The strands form branch migrations and Holiday junctions to restore the DNA with the DSB without any crossing over of the two sets 2. In NHEJ of a DSB, the broken pieces are ligated together (via the KU heterodimer) without the need of an undamaged, homologous set of DNA. However, there can be degradation at the ends of the break that can result in errors and the loss of DNA sequences2. DSBs caused from IR are usually repaired by this method4. DSBs can also be repaired by single-strand annealing (SSA) if the break occurs between two repeated sequences. The repeated sequences are extended on the ends and annealed to repair ...
nearly causes my machine to run out of memory (16G), takes a couple of days to run, and results in a blast output of 5.1G and 84 million rows--thats 84 million blast hits with an e-value below 0.001! By definition, that output is dominated by the repetitive elements. Repetitive elements are interesting, but in the case were we want to look at synteny, we have to wade through that 5.1G of stuff to find the very small chunk of data we need. This adds time to run the sequence comparison, time to parse, time to plot, time to analyze, and data to store, etc ...
Repetitive sequences, primarily transposable elements form an indispensable part of eukaryotic genomes. However, little is known about how these sequences originate, evolve and function in context of
Note: Only deletions with sequenced breakpoints are included. Reported deletion junctions may be approximate due to the presence identical repeat sequences at the break points. Alternate junctions may be reported in the cited literature due to the inherent ambiguities of the direct repeats. Other reports of multiple deletions mapped within an individual have been published without specific sequence data for the deletion breakpoints. ...
While the main purpose of DNA is to code for proteins to be built in the cell, we know that a lot of DNA doesnt code for protein after all, such as the repeating region of the C9ORF72 gene. In healthy versions of the gene the repeated region (usually under 30 repeated units) is simply cut out of the RNA copy of the gene before the RNA is exported from the nucleus.. In C9ORF72-MND however, the repeated region is much larger - even up to a thousand repeated units and leads to a build up of the RNA repeats inside the nucleus but also, unexpectedly is made into abnormal toxic constituents in the cell cytoplasm called dipeptide repeat proteins. The discovery of dipeptide repeat proteins was puzzling to scientists as this type of non-protein coding RNA does not normally exit the nucleus to get to where protein can be made.. Dr Hautbergue and colleagues, who have developed expertise in the mechanisms of RNA nuclear export, looked to see how the pathological repeating precursor RNA molecules, that ...
Deutekom, J.C.T. van; Bakker, E.; Lemmers, R.J.L.F.; Wielen, M.J.R. van der; Bik, E.; Hofker, M.H.; Padberg, G.W.A.M. ; Frants, R.R. ...
Persistence of latent, replication-competent provirus in CD4+ T cells of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) is the main obstacle for virus eradication. Methylation of the proviral 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter region has been proposed as a possible mechanism contributing to HIV latency; however, conflicting observations exist regarding its relevance. We assessed 5′-LTR methylation profiles in total CD4+ T cells from blood of 12 participants on short-term ART (30 months) followed up for 2 years, and a cross-sectional group of participants with long-term ART (6-15 years), using next generation sequencing. We then looked for associations between specific 5′-LTR methylation patterns and baseline and follow-up clinical characteristics. 5′-LTR methylation was observed in all participants and behaved dynamically. The number of 5′-LTR variants found per sample ranged from 1 to 13, with median sequencing depth of 16270× (IQR 4107×-46760
The 72 kDa IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of a few viral regulatory proteins expressed immediately after infection of a host cell. Although it is now well-established that IE1 is a potent transcriptional activator of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat (LTR), the identity of the nucleotide sequence responsive to IE1 remains elusive and the molecular mechanism of this interaction is not well-understood. We have constructed various LTR mutants and tested them for their ability to be activated by IE1 using transient transfection assays. Mutations in the NF-κB sites, of either a few changes in the nucleotide sequence or a deletion of the entire region, abrogated IE1-driven transactivation. Deletion of the Tat-responsive element (TAR) had no significant effect on reporter expression. Mutations in the Sp1 sites or the TATA box significantly lowered LTR activity, but this is probably due to an effect on the general transcription system, as these elements are also
New enough and long enough for 5X expansion. Main hook seem ok, but the sources have not been quoted for any of the hooks as "strongly encouraged" to do. In particular, for ALT1, I see no claim in the article that sge can "can drive populations extinct", only that a theoretically possible route to do this exists. For ALT2, Im not seeing the claim that sge have "been found in virtually all species", and this seems an unlikely claim in any case. How many species have been tested? Certainly not virtually all of them. The copying from PLOS has been done under a compatible license and correctly recorded in edit summaries and on the talk page. However, the question arises of whether an article created and published outside Wikipedia can be considered "new". @BlueMoonset: is there any precedent for this? Relevant dates are: creation of the PLOS wiki page, 12:45, 22 June 2018‎; publication of the original paper, 15 November 2018. The image of the book covers is not acceptable. The authors of the ...
Small direct repeats, which are frequent in all genomes, are a potential source of genome instability. To study the occurrence and genetic control of repeat-associated deletions, we developed a system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that was based on small direct repeats separated by either random sequences or inverted repeats. Deletions were examined in the LYS2 gene, using a set of 31- to 156-bp inserts that included inserts with no apparent potential for secondary structure as well as two quasipalindromes. All inserts were flanked by 6- to 9-bp direct repeats of LYS2 sequence, providing an opportunity for Lys+ reversion via precise excision. Reversions could arise by extended deletions involving either direct repeats or random sequences and by -1-or +2-bp frameshift mutations. The deletion breakpoints were always associated with short (3- to 9-bp) perfect or imperfect direct repeats. Compared with the POL+ strain, deletions between small direct repeats were increased as much as ...
Davison, A.J., Marsden, H.S. and Wilkie, N.M. (1981) One functional copy of the long terminal repeat gene specifying the immediate-early polypeptide IE 110 suffices for a productive infection of human foetal lung cells by herpes simplex virus. Journal of General Virology, 55(1), pp. 179-191. (doi:10.1099/0022-1317-55-1-179) ...
Summary All levels of life entail cooperation and conflict. Genes cooperate to build up a functional genome, which can yet be undermined by selfish genetic elements. Humans and animals cooperate to build up societies, which can yet be subverted by cheats. There is a long-standing interest among biologists to comprehend the tug-of-war between cooperation and conflict. Recently, research on bacteria was successful in identifying key factors that can tip the balance in favour or against cooperation. Bacteria cooperate through the formation of protective biofilms, cell-to-cell communication, and the secretion of shareable public goods. However, the advantage of bacteria being fast replicating units, easily cultivatable in high numbers, is also their disadvantage: they are small and imperceptible, such that measures of cooperation typically rely on averaged responses across millions of cells. Thus, we still know very little about bacterial cooperation at the biological relevant scale: the individual ...
Purpose: Unless clones derived from genomic human DNA are known to be single copy, they can be assumed to contain highly repetitive sequences such as Alu. Hybridizing a probe withrepeats to a human DNA Southern blot will result in a signal in each human lane that looks very much like the ethidium bromide stained pattern: a continuous smear with little or no additional signal from the unique sequences on the probe. To reduce or eliminate the lane background due to the repetitive sequences, we add a large amount of unlabeled human DNA (sonicated to an average size of 400-700 bp for highest efficiency) to the labeled probes immediately before the denaturing and hybridizing steps. The excess number of repeat sequences in the human genomic DNA competes with the probe sequences for those on the blot, effectively reducing the lane background by preventing the probe repeats from hybridizing to the blot. With some probes, this treatment is not sufficient to reduce the lane background. If this is the ...
This invention provides a method, and apparatus for performing the method, for reducing the power consumption of a radiotelephone. The method includes the steps of (a) receiving with a receiver of a radiotelephone at least a Word Synchronization pattern from a frame that is transmitted over a control channel; (b) receiving a first repeat of a control message that follows the Word Synchronization pattern within the frame; and (c) determining if the first repeat was correctly received. If the first repeat was correctly received, the method includes a further step of (d) determining if at least one reception-related criteria is met. If the reception-related criteria is determined to be met, the method includes a further step of (e) selectively removing operating power from one or more portions of the radiotelephone receiver for a predetermined time period during a remainder of the frame. The at least one reception-related criteria is a Message Error Rate (MER) that indicates a number of correctly received
As relatively badly as Greys Anatomy does in repeats, last nights FlashForward repeat had only a preliminary 1.0 rating, and so next weeks FF repeat is off the schedule and replaced by a Greys repeat. At this time abc.com still shows the FF repeat on the schedule.
Partially fluorinated ionic compounds are prepared. They are useful in the preparation of partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic.
I am selecting some data from a MySQL database to display in rows on a page using Dreamweavers repeat region function. For some reason that I cannot fathom, the repeat region function is...
One last thought: As I embark on my hiatus from blogging so as to focus on specific tasks at hand and to seek balance in my life, I know I cant achieve anything of lasting value on my own. Im going to need the support of family and friends - support Im already receiving and for which Im incredibly thankful. I also know that in seeking the balance I long for I must make time to feel and respond to the loving and guiding presence of God, my soul-dancing partner. I long to feel myself held, guided and lifted by his touch. This seems particularly important to me - essential, in fact - if I am to do all that I feel called to do. And that includes, at some future time, resuming this blog. ...
Fantastic news!!! I had my first repeat blood testing after the ones in February that came back positive. My Scl 70 and Ku were negative!!!! My thyroid ...
Join Deke McClelland for an in-depth discussion in this video 097 Creating type that inverts anything behind it, part of Dekes Techniques
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec;85(23):8850-4. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction between human tRNA synthetases involves repeated sequence elements. AU - Rho, Seung Bae. AU - Lee, Kyoung Hoa. AU - Kim, Jung Woo. AU - Shiba, Kiyotaka. AU - Jo, Yeong Joon. AU - Kim, Sunghoon. PY - 1996/9/17. Y1 - 1996/9/17. N2 - Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (tRNA synthetases) of higher eukaryotes form a multiprotein complex. Sequence elements that are responsible for the protein assembly were searched by using a yeast two-hybrid system. Human cytoplasmic isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase is a component of the multi-tRNA synthetase complex and it contains a unique C-terminal appendix. This part of the protein was used as bait to identify an interacting protein from a HeLa cDNA library. The selected sequence represented the internal 317 amino acids of human bifunctional (glutamyl- and prolyl-) tRNA synthetase, which is also known to be a component of the complex. Both the C-terminal appendix of the isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase and the internal region of bifunctional tRNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the telomere of chromosome 21q reveals a significant difference between male and female rates of recombination. AU - Blouin, J. L.. AU - Christie, D. H.. AU - Gos, A.. AU - Lynn, A.. AU - Morris, M. A.. AU - Ledbetter, D. H.. AU - Chakravarti, A.. AU - Antonarakis, S. E.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - We have used a half-YAC containing the human chromosome 21 long-arm telomere to clone, map, and characterize a new dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (D21S1575) close to 21qter. This marker is AB - We have used a half-YAC containing the human chromosome 21 long-arm telomere to clone, map, and characterize a new dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (D21S1575) close to 21qter. This marker is UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029013276&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029013276&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7668265. AN - SCOPUS:0029013276. VL - 57. SP - 388. EP - 394. JO - American Journal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization and preliminary investigations on a telomeric repeat sequence C(4)A(2)C(4)A(2). AU - Savitha, G. AU - Leonidas, D. AU - Acharya, K R. AU - Viswamitra, M A. N1 - ID number: ISI:000169533300019. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. M3 - Article. VL - 57. SP - 873. EP - 875. JO - Acta Crystallographica Section D-Biological Crystallography. JF - Acta Crystallographica Section D-Biological Crystallography. SN - 0907-4449. ER - ...
Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein with reverse transcriptase activity, enables human cells to maintain chromosomal stability and to proliferate without limits. Various stud..
This line was derived from an AtT-20ins cell line in which the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat was used for directing insulin cDNA expression.
In this study we demonstrated that Alu repetitive elements can function as inducers of A-to-I editing in adjacent sequences, affecting the expressed proteome. Alu repeats are primate specific and vary also in abundance within primates. Our observation therefore points to a human- or primate-specific phenomenon that cannot be explained by the sequence at the site of editing.. It has previously been speculated by Li and co-workers that non-Alu A/I editing sites are dependent on nearby edited Alu sequences in the human transcriptome [20]. Their theory was based on the fact the two classes of editing are often found within close proximity in the same transcripts. We were able to confirm their hypothesis, and show that editing in non-repetitive elements often depends on nearby repetitive Alu elements. Our previous analysis showed that induction of site-selective editing at the I/M site of Gabra-3 by a long intronic hairpin structure is independent of editing, and instead depends on the ...
Eukaryotic genomes contain a large proportion of repetitive DNA sequences, mostly transposable elements (TEs) and tandem repeats. These repetitive sequences often colonize specific chromosomal (Y or W chromosomes, B chromosomes) or subchromosomal (te
Looking for Repetitive DNA? Find out information about Repetitive DNA. see nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the... Explanation of Repetitive DNA
We isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains that are able to carry out the second fermentation of sparkling wine from spontaneously fermenting musts in El Penedès (Spain) by specifically designed selection protocols. All of them (26 strains) showed one of two very similar mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction patterns, whereas their karyotypes differed. These strains showed high rates of karyotype instability, which were dependent on both the medium and the strain, during vegetative growth. In all cases, the mtDNA restriction pattern was conserved in strains kept under the same conditions. Analysis of different repetitive sequences in their genomes suggested that ribosomal DNA repeats play an important role in the changes in size observed in chromosome XII, whereas SUC genes or Ty elements did not show amplification or transposition processes that could be related to rearrangements of the chromosomes showing these sequences. Karyotype changes also occurred in monosporidic diploid ...
1PGZ: Structure-based incorporation of 6-methyl-8-(2-deoxy-beta-ribofuranosyl)isoxanthopteridine into the human telomeric repeat DNA as a probe for UP1 binding and destabilization of G-tetrad structures
To me its always been very confusing why you would break your genome. Its your blueprint," says Hochwagen. "Obviously, it helps you make new variations and combinations of genes, but its incredibly dangerous and you really need to make sure that it happens the right way.". In repetitive DNA, this system of breaking and swapping is particularly hazardous, as there are many options that a section of repeat DNA could be swapped with. If the wrong repeat is chosen, a chromosome can gain or lose a large chunk of DNA. In humans, such mistakes have been linked to genetic neurological and developmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.. By studying the highly repetitive DNA that makes up yeasts ribosomal DNA (rDNA), Gerben Vader and Hannah Blitzblau, first authors of the Nature paper and postdoctoral researchers in Hochwagens lab, have determined that yeasts rDNA is protected from inappropriate recombination by two mechanisms. It was previously shown that ...
This institute contributes to the education of students in Graduate School for Environmental and Life Science (Masters and Doctors Degree Course of Okayama University).
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Mycobacteriophages--viruses of mycobacterial hosts--are genetically diverse but morphologically are all classified in the Caudovirales with double-stranded DNA and tails. We describe here a group of five closely related mycobacteriophages--Corndog, Catdawg, Dylan, Firecracker, and YungJamal--designated as Cluster O with long flexible tails but with unusual prolate capsids. Proteomic analysis of phage Corndog particles, Catdawg particles, and Corndog-infected cells confirms expression of half of the predicted gene products and indicates a non-canonical mechanism for translation of the Corndog tape measure protein. Bioinformatic analysis identifies 8-9 strongly predicted SigA promoters and all five Cluster O genomes contain more than 30 copies of a 17 bp repeat sequence with dyad symmetry located throughout the genomes. Comparison of the Cluster O phages provides insights into phage genome evolution including the processes of gene flux by horizontal genetic exchange ...
Scientists of the German Cancer Research Center have discovered an alternative mechanism for the extension of the telomere repeat sequence by DNA repair enzymes.
The presence of certain types of repetitive elements in a sequence may sometimes distort the results of GENSCAN. In particular, L1 elements are often predicted as genes. To avoid this potential problem, you may wish to pre-screen for repetitive elements with a program like RepeatMasker or censor which replace sequence segments matching any of a set of elements common to your organism (e.g., Alu, L1, etc.) by the same number of asterisks or `Ns. (To get instructions for the censor email server, send mail to [email protected] with the word "help" in the body of the message.) Note that GENSCAN does accept sequences containing Ns or asterisks and that long stretches of such symbols are interpreted as probable repetitive elements (i.e. non-coding DNA). For large-scale sequencing efforts, other repeat-screening methods are also available, e.g., masking repeats detected by BLASTN or TBLASTN using the XBLAST procedure (Claverie, J.-M. (1994) In Automated DNA Sequencing and Analysis Techniques, M. ...
The repetitive structure of genomic DNA holds many secrets to be discovered. A systematic study of repetitive DNA on a genomic or inter-genomic scale requires extensive algorithmic support. The REPuter program was designed to serve as a fundamental tool in such studies. Efficient and complete detection of various types of repeats is provided together with an evaluation of significance and interactive visualization.. ...
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
If you absolutely are convinced that the workouts are too easy, instead of increasing the intensity by going faster, do more repeats. The extra volume will make you stronger while keeping you from getting too fit too soon. Enjoy. Notes About the Workouts. Workouts with a range of numbers (ie, 2-3A) suggest the minimum number of miles or minutes for 800m runners to the maximum for 3,200m runners. They are not fixed, but rely on your judgment based on your current fitness and years of experience. This plan contains a variety of workouts that will require efforts ranging from stride speed to threshold pace. Workouts B, C, E and F are samples of "aerobic speedwork." Workouts B and C can be run at stride pace - fast, but well short of a full sprint. The short repeat Interval workouts E and F can be run at the pace of your fastest 5K XC race during the fall. That pace will be fairly easy so shorten the recovery intervals if you find that length of the jogs is too long. At any time, your perceived ...
The entire chromosome consists of DNA. However, less than 3% of the DNA actually consists of genes. There are thought to be about 30,000 genes in humans. Less than 3% of human DNA codes for proteins. Most of the DNA in eukaryotic chromosomes consists of repetitive sequences that never get transcribed.. ...
AncestryDNA and Quest are collaborating to provide in-home DNA testing to users who wish to know about their family heritage and identify possible relatives.
Join Gini von Courter for an in-depth discussion in this video Demonstrating controls that repeat data , part of Word 2010: Forms
When I have trained my best, when this imperfect physical-mental-spiritual machine has reached its racing peak, there are still five ways in which I may improve my racing performance.