Adaptation and Maintenance: Buffel Pecos® Brand grass can tolerate droughts, heavy grazing and is a high seed producer allowing it to propagate easily. It response very good to fertilizer. Buffel Pecos® Brand has been tested and shown to be more cold tolerant than Buffel T-4464 and Buffel Laredo® Brand. However, Buffel Grass Seed Company, Inc. does not make any warranty as to Buffel Pecos® Brand cold tolerance ...
... - Cenchrus cilliaris Habit: Tussock forming perennial grass to 1m. Seed heads to 15cm long with bristly seeds. Spread: Seeds spread in the wind and can catch on clothing. One of the biggest problems with buffel grass is that it becomes scenescent an dries as large dominant swards. It becomes a fire hazard…
As much as accurate or precise position estimation is always desirable, coarse accuracy due to sensor node localization is often sufficient. For such level of accuracy, Range-free localization techniques are being explored as low cost alternatives to range based localization techniques. To manage cost, few location aware nodes, called anchors are deployed in the wireless sensor environment. It is from these anchors that all other free nodes are expected to estimate their own positions. This paper therefore, takes a look at some of the foremost Range-free localization algorithms, detailing their limitations, with a view to proposing a modified form of Centroid Localization Algorithm called Reach Centroid Localization Algorithm. The algorithm employs a form of anchor nodes position validation mechanism by looking at the consistency in the quality of Received Signal Strength. Each anchor within the vicinity of a free node seeks to validate the actual position or proximity of other anchors within its
These data were created using orthorectified Landsat Level L1T or L1G and ASTER (AST14DMO) imagery. Orthorectified images were received in UTM projection and converted to Polar Stereographic using Geographic Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) software. ASTER visible bands 1-3 were reduced to a single grayscale principle component image. The panchromatic band was used for Landsat 7 and 8. For Landsat 4 and 5 TM images, bands 2, 3, and 4 were reduced to a single grayscale principle component image. Velocity fields were constructed using images from the same sensor or combinations of Landsat 4, Landsat 5, Landsat 7, Landsat 8, and ASTER images. In most cases, only Landsat images from the same path/row were correlated to reduce the impact of terrain-dependent errors. To fill in temporal gaps in the 2016 coverage, cross path/row Landsat images were used. To this end, the MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Mapping Project (GIMP) Digital Elevation Model from GeoEye and WorldView Imagery data set and the ...
Farmers and researchers are aware of spatial variation in grain yield within farms or fields. Fertilizer management may be improved if techniques can be developed to identify grain yield variations in wheat fields. Aerial color infrared (CIR) photography was used to identify winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) canopy biomass variability in the Spring of the growing season. Low yielding areas identified from CIR photography were associated with shallow soil profiles consistent with soil forming factors of the region, and were significantly different from average and high yielding areas. The high yielding areas were located within a few meters of a drainage way, and were not significantly different than the average yielding areas except in one field with a deep soil profile and low variance. Fields with heterogeneous CIR photographs had high variances because of many dissimilar inclusions. CIR photography, although useful to distinguish vegetational differences, requires complex timing, ground ...
For the atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery obtained over Case I waters with the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument the method currently used to relax the black-pixel assumption in the near infrared (NIR) relies on (1) an approximate model for the nadir NIR remote-sensing reflectance and (2) an assumption that the water-leaving radiance is isotropic over the upward hemisphere. Radiance simulations based on a comprehensive radiative-transfer model for the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and measurements of the nadir remote-sensing reflectance at 670 nm compiled in the SeaWiFS Bio-optical Algorithm Mini-Workshop (SeaBAM) database are used to assess the validity of this method. The results show that (1) it is important to improve the flexibility of the reflectance model to provide more realistic predictions of the nadir NIR water-leaving reflectance for different ocean regions and (2) the isotropic assumption should be avoided in the retrieval of ocean color, if ...
OpenFoundry provides essential tools and services through its service platform for users to develop Open Source Software Projects, the operating funds comes from the National Science Council and the Research Center for Information Technology Innovation of Academia Sinica Taiwan.
Red edge refers to the region of rapid change in reflectance of vegetation in the near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chlorophyll contained in vegetation absorbs most of the light in the visible part of the spectrum but becomes almost transparent at wavelengths greater than 700 nm. The cellular structure of the vegetation then causes this infrared light to be reflected because each cell acts something like an elementary corner reflector.[citation needed] The change can be from 5% to 50% reflectance going from 680 nm to 730 nm. This is an advantage to plants in avoiding overheating during photosynthesis. For a more detailed explanation and a graph of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectral region, see Normalized difference vegetation index#Rationale. The phenomenon accounts for the brightness of foliage in infrared photography and is extensively utilized in the form of so-called vegetation indices (e.g. Normalized difference vegetation index). It is used in remote ...
Landsat images have been widely used for assessing forest characteristics and dynamics. Recently, significant progress has been made towards indepth exploration of the rich Landsat archive kept by the U.S. Geological Survey to improve our under standing of forest disturbance and recovery processes. In this study, we used Landsat images to map forest disturbances at biennial intervals from 1984 to 2007 for the State of Mississippi ...
As opposed to ground-based methods, remote sensing deciphers the reflected, instead of the transmitted radiation. The plant communities are full of chlorophylls, a set of pigments which absorb part of the solar radiation for photosynthesis. As a result, reflectance of radiation in different spectral bands, especially the two widely used infrared and red ones, is changed proportionally to the amount of green vegetation. Since large-area maps of LAI are needed for global land-surface modeling, plenty of empirical relationships (i.e., statistical correlations) have been proposed between satellite or airborne image reflectance and ground-based (in situ) estimations of LAI. There are many vegetation indices developed from radiances in a wide range of channels corresponding to spectral bands. LAI estimation from satellite data requires ground data for validation and testing for bias. Satellite data must be corrected for atmospheric effects, thus requiring additional information on the state of the ...
Urban growth is inevitable over the next two decades. The bulk of this growth will take place in less developed countries. This growth presents a formidable challenge for urban planners and managers. In this context, we consider some of the ways urban planners can make use of the recent developments in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote-Sensing (RS) technology to respond to this challenge. GIS projects were initiated in late 1980s in Turkey by both the public and private sectors. Currently, GIS and RS technology play very important roles for urban managers. At the present time, RS technologies are being continually improved; new satellites have been launched with imaging abilities enhanced by new techniques, allowing images to be obtained faster and at higher quality. Current applications use these imagery data for many purposes, among them automatic feature extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery. In this context, automatic and manual object extraction and GIS are the most
Sensor-based irrigation management holds great promise. NASA is a major collaborator with the USDA-ARS on GRAPEX (the Grape Remote sensing Atmospheric Profile & Evapotranspiration eXperiment). This hugely ambitious project seeks to develop a multi-scale remote-sensing ET toolkit for mapping water use and stress for irrigation scheduling and water management in vineyards in Californias Central Valley--a model system for regions with endemic periodic drought. USDA-ARS Bill Kustas, Martha Anderson and others shared their work on this project. The number and kind of sensor data being applied to irrigation management is mind-boggling. But ARS Kyle Knipper is working on an operational dashboard for irrigation scheduling, which will someday put the awesome power of this technology in growers hands. ...
Images taken by aircraft, intelligence-gathering satellites and commercial remote-sensing spacecraft are fueling an intensive study of the intriguing oddity. But whether the anomaly is some geological quirk of nature, playful shadows, a human-made structure of some sort, or simply nothing at all -- that remains to be seen ...
At ɸ-week 2019, Nuno Cesar De Sa, from the Institute of Environmental Sciences at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, talked about how he is using machine learning to combine remote-sensing data and in situ measurements to assess how herbivore grazing is affecting vegetation in a nature reserve.. ...
A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO), span between 1997 and 2012, and have a global distribution. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties and spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via the open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, ...
Two Landsat images, acquired in 1987 and 2008, were analyzed to evaluate deserti﫿cation processes in central North Kurdufan State (Sudan). Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) and multitemporal comparison techniques (change vector analysis) were applied to estimate the long-term deserti﫿cation/re-growing of vegetation cover over time and in space. Site-speci﫿c interactions between natural processes and human activity played a pivotal role in deserti﫿cation. Over the last 21 years, deserti﫿cation signi﫿cantly prevailed over vegetation re-growth, particularly in areas around rural villages. Changes in land use and mismanagement of natural resources were the main driving factors a﫿ecting degradation. More than 120,000 km2 were estimated as being subjected to a medium-high deserti﫿cation rate. Conversely, the reforestation measures, adopted by the Government in the last decade and sustained by higher rainfall, resulted in low-medium re-growth conditions over an area of about 20,000 km2. ...
Coffee is the second most valuable traded commodity worldwide. Brazil is the worlds largest coffee producer, responsible for one third of the world production. A coffee plot exhibits high and low production in alternated years, a characteristic so called biennial yield. High yield is generally a result of suitable conditions of foliar biomass. Moreover, in high production years one plot tends to lose more leaves than it does in low production years. In both cases some correlation between coffee yield and leaf biomass can be deduced which can be monitored through time series of vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. In Brazil, a comprehensive, spatially distributed study assessing this relationship has not yet been done. The objective of this study was to assess possible correlations between coffee yield and MODIS derived vegetation indices in the Brazilian largest coffee-exporting province. We assessed EVI and NDVI MODIS products over the period between 2002 and 2009 in the south of Minas
Biophysical crop simulation models are normally forced with precipitation data recorded with either gauges or ground-based radar. However, ground-based recording networks are not available at spatial and temporal scales needed to drive the models at many critical places on earth. An alternative would be to employ satellite-based observations of either precipitation or soil moisture. Satellite observations of precipitation are currently not considered capable of forcing the models with sufficient accuracy for crop yield predictions. However, deduction of soil moisture from space-based platforms is in a more advanced state than are precipitation estimates so that these data may be capable of forcing the models with better accuracy. In this study, a mature two-source energy balance model, the Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model, was used to deduce root zone soil moisture for an area of North Alabama, USA. The soil moisture estimates were used in turn to force the state-of-the-art Decision
Fast and efficient coding techniques are being increasingly required to meet the complexity restrictions of on-board satellite compression. The recently pr
The therapeutic efficacy of an early treatment protocol with an infection-stage adjusted fluoroquinolone regimen was evaluated in a field study on Young Bulls (YB) presenting signs of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). A total of 195 YB (Charolais, Limousin and Rouge-des-Prés breeds) from 6 farms implementing or not prophylactic antimicrobial treatments (PROPHY or absence) were randomly assigned to one of two experiment groups based on time of detection of BRD and first line marbofloxacin regimen, early adjusted dose (E2) or late standard dose (L10). Each YB was administered orally a reticulo-rumen bolus, allowing continuous monitoring of ruminal temperature. In the E2 group, YB presenting early signs of BRD, i.e. an increase in ruminal temperature over 40.2 °C and persisting more than 12h, confirmed by a clinical examination showing no or mild signs of BRD, were given 2 mg/kg of marbofloxacin. In the L10 group, YB presenting moderate or severe signs of BRD at visual inspection, confirmed at clinical
Landsat ARD significantly reduces the magnitude of data processing for application scientists, who currently have to download and prepare large amounts of Landsat scene-based data for time-series investigative analysis.U.S. Landsat ARD is available for the conterminous United States (CONUS), Alaska and Hawaii using the following Landsat Collection 1 Level-1 products:
Crop yield forecasting plays a vital role in coping with the challenges of the impacts of climate change on agriculture. Improvements in the timeliness and accuracy of yield forecasting by incorporating near real-time remote sensing data and the use of sophisticated statistical methods can improve our capacity to respond effectively to these challenges. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the use of derived vegetation indices for the yield forecasting of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at the ecodistrict scale across Western Canada with the Integrated Canadian Crop Yield Forecaster (ICCYF); and (ii) to compare the ICCYF-model based forecasts and their accuracy across two spatial scales-the ecodistrict and Census Agricultural Region (CAR), namely in CAR with previously reported ICCYF weak performance. Ecodistricts are areas with distinct climate, soil, landscape and ecological aspects, whereas CARs are ...
Comparative analysis of SPOT, Landsat, MODIS, and AVHRR normalized di﫿erence vegetation index data on the estimation of leaf area index in a mixed grassland ...
There are several Landsat data products that are useful for science applications and land use/land change studies:Landsat Collections Level 1 - Ensures that the data in the Landsat Level-1 archive are consistent in processing and data quality to support time-series analyses and data stacking. Each Level-1 data product includes individual spectral band files, a metadata file,
Abstract. Solar-Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) has been shown to be a powerful proxy for photosynthesis and gross primary productivity (GPP). The recently launched TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) features the required spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio to retrieve SIF from space. Here we present an oversampling and downscaling method to obtain 500-m spatial resolution SIF over California. We report daily values based on a 14-day window. TROPOMI SIF data show a strong correspondence with daily GPP estimates at AmeriFlux sites across multiple ecosystems in California. We find a linear relationship between SIF and GPP that is largely invariant across ecosystems with an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. Measurements of SIF from TROPOMI agree with MODIS vegetation indices (NDVI, EVI, and NIRv) at annual timescales but indicate different temporal dynamics at monthly and daily timescales. TROPOMI SIF data show a double peak in the seasonality of ...
Guest Post By Willis Eschenbach Anthony pointed out the selling of overhyped claims of the dramatic thinning of Arctic ice here. The title of the underlying scientific study is much more prosaic, Response of ice cover on shallow lakes of the North Slope of Alaska to contemporary climate conditions (1950-2011): radar remote-sensing and numerical modeling…
Using sensor, mobile, and remote-sensing tech to measure social phenomena. Collecting the shared wisdom of psychology, development engineering, public policy, and more.
Traditionally, farmers irrigate by the calendar, but that can be wasteful-at times giving crops more water than they need. Doug Hunsaker, an ag engineer at the USDA-Agricultural Research Services Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center in Maricopa, Ariz., is using remote-sensing technologies to conserve water by estimating crop needs at specific sections within fields, rather than assuming those needs are the same across the field ...
The EUropean Facility for Airborne Research (EUFAR) brings together infrastructure operators of both instrumented research aircraft and remote-sensing instruments with the scientific user community, both expert and early-stage researchers, other data users and stakeholders.
Fig. 2.. The different types of approaches to combine empirical information and agent-based modeling (sources: top-left figure is an adapted version of a remote-sensing image of Monroe County, Indiana, USA created by Cynthia Croissant, Laura Carlson, Glen Green, Tom Evans, Shanon Donnelly, and Charles Winkle; top-right figure is based on Fig. 1 of Cederman (2002); bottom-left photo is provided by Francois Bousquet; and bottom-right photo is provided by James Russell of the Interdisciplinary Experimental Laboratory at Indiana University.) ...
The image data can be used easily with any software that recognizes GeoTIFF files. Each scene also includes metadata in an accompanying text file.. To help locate data of interest, an index CSV file of the Landsat data is available. This CSV file lists basic properties of the available images, including their acquisition dates and their spatial extent as minimum and maximum latitudes and longitudes. The file is found in the Landsat Cloud Storage bucket:. gs://gcp-public-data-landsat/index.csv.gz. Alternatively, this index data is available in BigQuery for you to easily query using SQL. Note that to use BigQuery, you must have a Google account and create a GCP project.. ...
Pregabalin Confers No Added Benefit to a Non-steroid Anti-inflammatory Drug and Acetaminophen Regimen in Outpatient Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial Abstract.
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WISE-2410 is a LoRaWAN wireless conditional monitoring sensor integrated with ARM Cortex-M4 Processor, LoRa transceiver, 3-axis accelerometer and temperature sensor. Battery life cycle is 2 years with IP66 enclosure.
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In this activity, students produce a land cover map of a 15 km x 15 km GLOBE study site from hard copies of Landsat satellite images. Students place clear transparencies over the Landsat TM images and use markers to outline and classify areas of different land cover using the MUC System ...
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Animal Rescue League Dakar is working hard to alleviate the suffering of cats and dogs trying to survive on the streets in Dakar, Senegal.
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Heart Rate Monitors (HRMs) have become widely used since the last two decades. It used as training aid for various types of sports. And the development of new HRMs has evolved rapidly. Thus, in order to determine the exercise intensity of training session or race, HRMs are mainly used. Compared to the other indication of exercise intensity, Heart rate is easy to monitor, compatible to use in most situation and relatively cheap. Thus, it is most beneficial if wireless sensor network can be implementing into the system. Other than monitored their condition by themselves, this system may allowed a number of athletes being monitored simultaneously. Arduino-Nano board was used to interface with nRF24AP1 and XBee. The wireless sensor network consists of a microcontroller on Arduino-Nano board, nRF24AP1 and the XBee wireless communication module which is based on the IEEE 802.15.4. This system will involve peer to peer communication of ANT+ and mesh networking among the XBee ...
Wireless sensor networks are deployed for the purpose of sensing and monitoring an area of interest. Sensor measurements in sensor networks usually suffer
Data aggregation is an essential operation to reduce energy consumption in large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A compromised node may forge an aggregation result and mislead base station into trusting a false reading. Efficient and secure aggregation scheme is critical in WSN applications due to the stringent resource constraints. In this paper, we propose a method to build up the representative-based aggregation tree in the WSNs such that the sensing data are aggregated along the route from the leaf cell to the root of the tree. In the cinema of large-scale and high-density sensor nodes, representative-based aggregation tree can reduce the data transmission overhead greatly by directed aggregation and cell-by-cell communications. It also provides security services including the integrity, freshness, and authentication, via detection mechanism in the cells.
One of the major challenges in deployed wireless sensor networks (WSN) is to curb down congestion in networks traffic without compromising the energy consumption of the sensor nodes. Congestion disrupts the continuous flow of data, increases loss of information, delays data delivery to the destination and significantly and unnecessarily increases energy consumption in already energy-strapped nodes. Obviously, in healthcare WSN applications, particularly those that cater to medical emergencies or monitor patients in critical conditions, it is desirable to prevent congestion from occurring in the first place. In this work, the authors address the problem of congestion in the nodes of healthcare WSN using a learning automata (LA)-based approach. The primary objective is to adaptively equate the processing rate (data packet arrival rate) in the nodes to the transmitting rate (packet service rate), so that the occurrence of congestion in the nodes can be avoided.
This dissertation research proposes embedding artificial neural networks into wireless sensor networks in parallel and distributed processing framework to implant intelligence for in-network processing, wireless protocol or application support, and infusion of adaptation capabilities. The goal is to develop in-network "intelligent computation" and "adaptation" capability for wireless sensor networks to improve their functionality, utility and survival aspects. The characteristics of wireless sensor networks bring many challenges, such as the ultra large number of sensor nodes, complex dynamics of network operation, changing topology structure, and the most importantly, the limited resources including power, computation, storage, and communication capability. All these require the applications and protocols running on wireless sensor network to be not only energy-efficient, scalable and robust, but also "adapt" to changing environment or context, and application scope and focus among others, and ...
In wireless sensor network the most challenging task is to reduce energy consumption. Due to resource restricted sensor nodes, it is valu...
The global industrial wireless sensor network market size was valued at USD 3,282.2 million in 2018 and is expected to reach USD 8,669.8 million by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 15.2% from 2019 to 2025. IWSN is a network infrastructure that enables connectivity between sensor nodes and gateways without fiber cables
Wireless Sensor Networks will open the floodgates to the wireless revolution. But building a practical wireless network can be a daunting challenge unless the concepts are kept simple.
A system and method for implementing a wireless sensor network. The system comprises a plurality of motes, each mote having a sensor and a wireless communication system for communicating with neighboring motes; a distributed routing table distributed amongst each of the plurality of motes; and an update system for periodically updating the distributed routing table.
Algorithms for Spatial Partitioning in Wireless Sensor Network: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4038-2.ch006: Recent interest in integrated electronic devices (sensors) that operate wirelessly creates a wide range of applications related to national security