The present study examined in 8-hour sessions the effects of d-amphetamine (1.0, 5.6, and 10 mg/kg) on the acquisition of lever-press responding by rats exposed to procedures in which water delivery was delayed by 0, 8, or 16 seconds relative to the response that produced it. Although neither shaping nor autoshaping occurred, substantial levels of operative-lever responding developed whenever responses produced water. Rats that did not receive water and yoked-control rats that received response-independent water emitted relatively few responses. The lowest dose (1.0 mg/kg) of d-amphetamine either had no effect on or enhanced rates of operative-lever pressing, whereas higher doses typically produced an initial reduction in lever pressing. Nonetheless, overall rates of operative-lever pressing at these doses were as high as, or higher than, those observed with vehicle. Thus, response acquisition was observed under all reinforcement procedures at all drug doses. In the absence of drug, stimulus control of
Abstract: During behavioral interventions, practitioners commonly use a variety of reinforcers to maintain behaviors. Despite the ubiquity of this practice, few studies have compared the effects of varied and constant reinforcers on responding. Furthermore, the studies yielded mixed results. Varied reinforcers do not consistently maintain higher relative response rates. The origin of such mixed results could be the interaction among the stimuli used as reinforcers (the degree of substitutability).The effects of varied versus constant reinforcers on response rates and choice were determined in the present study. Two experiments were conducted with either human participants or rats as subjects. In both experiments, the degree of substitutability between pairs of stimuli was determined using concurrent operant arrangements. After identifying pairs of substitute and complementary reinforcers, the effects of constant versus varied reinforcers on response rates was determined using multiple schedules ...
A differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule (DRL) delivers reinforcement only when the interresponse time (IRT) exceeds a fixed time interval, thereby shaping rats to discriminate the timing of their responses. However, little is known about th
The PK interaction between Doc and Cab was expressed by adding the effect of Cab on the clearance of Doc in PK model. And the PD interaction between the two drugs was demonstrated by the developed PK/PD model through combination index ph. Our results showed that the concurrent therapy and Doc followed by Cab (Doc ~ Cab) sequential therapy exhibited better tumor inhibitory efficacy than monotherapy. The Cab followed by Doc (Cab ~ Doc) sequential schedule was less effective than monotherapy, and the interval therapy did not enhance the anti-tumor efficacy compared with the concurrent therapy. Parameter ph estimated from the PK/PD model quantitatively characterized the action between Doc and Cab. There was no significant PD interaction between Doc and Cab in both concurrent schedule and interval schedule, while the effect of the two drugs in Doc ~ Cab and Cab ~ Doc sequential schedule was synergistic and antagonistic, respectively.". According to the news editors, the research concluded: ...
Four pigeons responded under a progressive-delay procedure. In a signaled-delay condition, a chained variable interval (VI) 30-s progressive time (PT) 4-s schedule was arranged; in an unsignaled-delay condition, a tandem VI 30-s PT 4-s schedule was arranged. Two pigeons experienced a signaled-unsignaled-signaled sequence; whereas, two pigeons experienced an unsignaled-signaled-unsignaled sequence ...
The cannabinoid and serotonin systems modulate feeding behavior in humans and laboratory animals. The present study assessed whether a cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor antagonist and a serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor agonist alone and in combination attenuate motivation for the liquid nutritional drink Ensure as measured by a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement in male C57BL/6 mice. Pretreatment (15 min i.p.) with either the CB1 receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboximide hydrochloride (SR141716) (SR; Rimonabant or Acomplia) or the 5-HT2C receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) dose-dependently decreased the maximum ratio completed under the PR schedule (break point) in mice. ED25 values for SR and mCPP to decrease break point were determined, and the relative potency of each drug alone was quantified. Fixed dose-ratio pairs of SR/mCPP based on their relative potency were then administered. Dose-addition analysis ...
The Schedules Information Standards Committee (SISC) is responsible for the development of standard schedules data procedures and formats for the exchange of schedules information, maintained within the Standards Schedules Information Manual (SSIM)
Full list of GSA Schedules, learn what GSA Schedule is best for your company from our GSA List. What GSA Schedule does your company fit into?
Detailed session schedules will be posted on the web site beginning in late March. Once the schedules are made available to us by the organizers, we will post them as quickly as possible ...
On a second-order schedule, a subject responds according to one schedule (the unit schedule) for a brief presentation of a stimulus such as a light. Responding ...
Consistency is Key Horses thrive on consistency, but theres nothing consistent about competition: performance schedules are anything but predictable, new ...
Course descriptions and class schedules are available in the Berkeley Academic Guide. The course offerings may be subject to change.. ...
Pediatrician told me I can allow my son to now go 5 hours without a feeding at night. I feed every 3 hours. My schedule has been as follows 3,6,9,12 both in day and nights. i did 8 feedings per day. now how do i adjust the schedule to accomodate a longer stretch?
An addition to Sidetiq to make it easier to declare the workers schedules timezone. Assumes ActiveRecord::TimeZone is available. - sidetiq_schedule_time_zone_additions.rb
My Schedule - Tijdelijk in de studio aanwezig een fantastische Neukmachineom deze machine te proberen NU 50 euro. Maak je fantasie waar.Aanwezig op:MaandagDinsdagWoensdagDonderdagVrijdagZaterdagZondag,My Schedule -
Abilify medication schedule - Free delivery Worldwide. Over the Counter. We accept Bitcoin. We work 15 years. Delivery to All Countries - from 3 to 14 Days.
Wondering how long to water your yard? Get a custom watering schedule specific to your systems watering performance and where you live.
See below to find local honeymoon planners in Youngstown, OH that give access to honeymoon schedule organizing, honeymoon cruises, honeymoon adventures, honeymoon packages, honeymoon destination recommendations, honeymoon bridal registries, and destination weddings, as well as advice and content on honeymoon planning.
See below to find local honeymoon planners in Chattanooga, TN that give access to honeymoon schedule organizing, honeymoon cruises, honeymoon adventures, honeymoon packages, honeymoon destination recommendations, honeymoon bridal registries, and destination weddings, as well as advice and content on honeymoon planning.
Codebase is frozen for new features. Only bugfixes are allowed. (Exception: Features in Wayland-only codepaths, decided by Martin Grässlin). All translated messages (GUI strings) are frozen on this date. Only previously untranslated strings or clear errors in strings can be fixed. No major new strings changes should be done. You cannot add new strings, if you really need one ask kde-i18n-doc for an exception. It is ok to remove strings. ...
Codebase is frozen for new features. Only bugfixes are allowed. (Exception: Features in Wayland-only codepaths, decided by Martin Grässlin). All translated messages (GUI strings) are frozen on this date. Only previously untranslated strings or clear errors in strings can be fixed. No major new strings changes should be done. You cannot add new strings, if you really need one ask kde-i18n-doc for an exception. It is ok to remove strings. ...
The schedule followed by GO for GATE2020 Please do not listen to what random people say about the ... /course/view.php?id=10 Revision, Solving tests
For more information about a SPEC meeting, please contact the SPEC office. Meeting Schedule Archive: [ 2001 ] [ 2002 ] [ 2003 ] [ 2004 ] [ 2005 ] [ 2006 ] [ 2007 ] [ 2008 ] [ 2009 ] [ 2010 ] [ 2011 ] [ 2012 ] [ Current ] ...
Service-sector employees are often scheduled on a week-to-week basis. Thats not sustainable for them, or for the companies paying them.
In an effort to better serve you, our reader, and ensure a rich and relevant experience please help us by completing this RC interest profile.. ...
13 Sep (week 3): project 1 due. 20 Sep (week 4): quiz 1. 23 Sep (week 4): project 2 due. 27 Sep (week 5): test 1. 11 Oct (week 7): no class (Mid-Semester Break). 21 Oct (week 8): project 3 due. 25 Oct (week 9): quiz ...
In the supported status table 5.19 is still listed as future work, while already released. Given this is somewhat important information I am not sure whether it is appropriate for me to just change it (would have changed it to just "Currently supported"). ...
16th September 2020 11:30am - 12:15pm - Naeem Hasmi is a renowned thought leader and author with decades of experience in designing innovative large scale...
If you miss a dose of Flomax , take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once. If you miss more than 2 dose of Flomax , contact your doctor for instructions ...
If you miss a dose of Motrin then take it as soon as you remember and space out the remaining doses accordingly. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the one you missed and go back to your regular schedule. But never take 2 doses at the same time ...
If you miss a dose of this medicine, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule ...
Use the ScheduleDefinition class with the Definition property of the Schedule class.. A ScheduleDefinition object is returned as output by the GetExecutionOptions and GetReportHistoryOptions methods and is passed as input to the CreateSchedule, SetExecutionOptions, SetReportHistoryOptions, and SetScheduleProperties methods. ...
We are conveniently located at two locations and offer convenient hours to meet your needs. Kindly contact us at 978-531-0800 in order to accommodate your schedule ...
Remember • Operant conditioning extinction differs from classical conditioning extinction • Responds decreases to near zero for both • Operant conditioning: - Transient increase - Extinction induced aggression Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect: PREE • Extinction occurs at different rates depending on the schedule: - Continuous reinforcement: FAST extinction - Partial reinforcement schedules: SLOWER extinction - Variable schedules show slower extinction than fixed (rate or time) schedules. • PREE used to describe greater persistence in instrumental responding during extinction after partial (or intermittent) reinforcement training - Faster extinction after continuous reinforcement training. • Partial reinforcement schedules show RESISTANCE TO EXTINCTION Other Extinction Effects • magnitude reinforcement extinction effect - Less persistence of instrumental behavior in extinction following training with a large reinforcer - More persistance of responding with a small or moderate ...
Abstract: In behavioral pharmacology, overall response rate is the measure most often used to study the effects of drugs on an animals ongoing operant behavior. However, it has been argued that an overall measure of response rate may not provide the most valid description of behavior and, thus, a more detailed analysis might prove beneficial in classifying drug effects. The purpose of the present research was to (1) study effects of methamphetamine on schedulecontrolled responding, (2) determine if a log-survivor analysis recently used to study nose-poke responding in rats could be extended for use with key-pecking in pigeons and (3) examine microproperties of pigeon responding using an IRT analysis. Pigeons were trained to peck a lighted key under a multiple random-interval (RI) 1-min, RI 4-min schedule. Interresponse times (IRTs) were collected and then analyzed via log-survivor plots and an analysis described by Blough (1963) and used in greater detail by Palya (1992). Log-survivor plots ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-administration of cocaine increases the release of acetylcholine to a greater extent than response-independent cocaine in the nucleus accumbens of rats. AU - Mark, Gregory. AU - Hajnal, Andras. AU - Kinney, Anthony E.. AU - Keys, Alan S.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Rationale: The neurochemical effects of psychostimulant exposure may depend on how these drugs are encountered. A useful method for examining this issue is to compare neurotransmitter release following response-dependent, or self-administered, drug exposure and response-independent exposure. Objectives: This experiment examined the effect of active and passive cocaine administration on acetylcholine (ACh) efflux in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in rats. Methods: One group of rats (CSA: cocaine self-administration) was trained to lever-press for intravenous infusions of cocaine (0.42 mg/kg per infusion) on a fixed-ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine infusions were accompanied by the onset ...
The psychology term superimposed schedules of reinforcement refers to a structure of rewards where two or more simple schedules of reinforcement operate simultaneously. Reinforcers can be positive, negative, or both. An example is a person who comes home after a long day at work. The behavior of opening the front door is rewarded by a big kiss on the lips by the persons spouse and a rip in the pants from the family dog jumping enthusiastically. Another example of superimposed schedules of reinforcement is a pigeon in an experimental cage pecking at a button. The pecks deliver a hopper of grain every 20th peck, and access to water after every 200 pecks.. Superimposed schedules of reinforcement are a type of compound schedule that evolved from the initial work on simple schedules of reinforcement by B.F. Skinner and his colleagues (Skinner and Ferster, 1957). They demonstrated that reinforcers could be delivered on schedules, and further that organisms behaved differently under different ...
Now lets combine these four terms. A fixed interval reinforcement schedule is when behavior is rewarded after a set amount of time. For example, June undergoes major surgery in a hospital. During recovery, she is expected to experience pain and will require prescription medications for pain relief. June is given an IV drip with a patient-controlled painkiller. Her doctor sets a limit: one dose per hour. June pushes a button when pain becomes difficult, and she receives a dose of medication. Since the reward (pain relief) only occurs on a fixed interval, there is no point in exhibiting the behavior when it will not be rewarded.. With a variable interval reinforcement schedule, the person or animal gets the reinforcement based on varying amounts of time, which are unpredictable. Say that Manuel is the manager at a fast-food restaurant. Every once in a while someone from the quality control division comes to Manuels restaurant. If the restaurant is clean and the service is fast, everyone on that ...
Drug effects on operant behavior are often characterized by their effects on rate of responding, usually expressed as the number of responses per unit of time. The time between two consecutive responses constitutes an interresponse time (IRT), and this measure has been used also to characterize the effects of drugs on operant behavior. IRTs which occur during a session can be classified on a statistical basis as: 1) short-IRT, an IRT(s) of short duratio generated by high-frequency responses; 2) pause, an IRT of long duratio generated by low-frequency responses; and 3) post-reinforcement pause, an IRT which immediately follows reinforcement. This investigation used three schedules of water reinforcement (fixed-ratio 20, fixed-interval 90-seconds and variable-interval 20-seconds) to examine how these IRT classes are influenced by changes in water deprivation conditions or amphetamine administration. Base-line IRT distributions depended upon the schedule of reinforcement. Changes induced by doses ...
After training under a fixed-interval 60 sec schedule of food presentation in the presence of a water tube (to permit schedule-induced licking), groups of rats received either 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA)(8 micrograms base/2 microliters) or 0.2% ascorbate-0.9% saline vehicle bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens. 6-OHDA produced greater than 80% depletion of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine and the dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle, but nonsignificant depletions in the corpus striatum. The behavior of the groups treated with 6-OHDA ("lesion") and vehicle ("sham") was assessed for up to 58 days postoperatively. In the first few days after 6-OHDA, the lesion group showed reductions in high rates of responding toward the end and in high rates of licking at the beginning of the fixed-interval. However, licking was increased during later portions of the fixed interval in the lesion group. d-Amphetamine (0.25-2.0 mg/kg) ...
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Reinforcement Learning tasks are learning problems where the desired behavior is not known; only sparse feedback on how well the agent is doing is provided. Reinforcement Learning techniques include value-function and policy iteration methods (note that although evolutionary computation and neuroevolution can also be seen as reinforcement learning methods, they are presented separately in this area hierarchy ...
Abstract: The effects of extinction have been demonstrated in community dwelling older adults (Plaud, Plaud, & Duvillard, 1999), but to date, the effects of extinction have not been empirically demonstrated for older adults with neurocognitive disorder. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine whether withdrawal of a reinforcer from a previously reinforced behavior would result in behavior change for this population. Preferred stimuli (pictures) were identified prior to implementation through use of a preference assessment followed by reinforcer assessment. The effects of the schedules were assessed with a computer program on a tablet PC. Conditions were signaled by the presentation of various shapes along with the buttons. The effects of reinforcement were compared with extinction and/or non-contingent reinforcement schedules. The experimental arrangement consisted of a presentation of two buttons that (a) would activate a preferred picture; (b) produce nothing (in the extinction ...
Most concrete used for construction is a combination of concrete and reinforcement that is called reinforced concrete. Reinforcement for concrete is provided by embedding deformed steel bars or welded wire fabric within freshly made concrete at the time of casting. The purpose of reinforcement is to provide additional strength for concrete where it is needed. The steel provides all the tensile strength where concrete is in tension, as in beams and slabs; it supplements the compressive strength of concrete in columns and walls; and it provides extra shear strength over and above that of concrete in beams.
Reinforcement components for structural members are disclosed. The reinforcement components have expansible reinforcement material that adheres to and reinforces structural members following activation. Methods of reinforcing are disclosed. Reinforced structural members are described.
[117 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Reinforcement Materials Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Reinforcement Materials market is valued...
Using a standard two-lever operant paradigm, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 1.5 mg/kg N-methyl-1(3,4-methylenedioxyph enyl)-2-aminopropane (MDMA) from saline using a variable-interval 15-s schedule of reinforcement for food reward. Tests of stimulus antagonism were conducted t...
A Nifty Notespeller. By Sharon Kaplan. Piano Book. Notespelling takes on a whole new look in this delightful book! Students identify the notes, each with a specified color, and then color in the designated area, creating a pretty picture. Notes are added in a logical sequence, with continuous reinforcement of reading in both clefs.
Charles Murray is a publicity genius, and the publication of his and Richard Herrnsteins book, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in Ame ...
The invention provides an expandable double-walled sleeve whose space between the walls is filled with curable material and which is designed for the local support and/or reinforcement of a body vessel, absorbent material being provided between its walls which are fabricated from an essentially non-extensible material. This achieves the advantage that the curable material remains uniformly distributed between the walls of the sleeve even if the sleeve is rolled around a still unexpanded PTA balloon in order to be brought to the desired position by means of said balloon.