OBJECTIVES: During head rotations, neuronal firing rates increase in ipsilateral and decrease in contralateral vestibular afferents. At low accelerations, this "push-pull mechanism" is linear. At high accelerations, however, the change of firing rates is nonlinear in that the ipsilateral increase of firing rate is larger than the contralateral decrease. This mechanism of stronger ipsilateral excitation than contralateral inhibition during high-acceleration head rotation, known as Ewalds second law, is implemented within the nonlinear pathways. The authors asked whether caloric stimulation could provide an acceleration signal high enough to influence the contribution of the nonlinear pathway to the rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex gain (rVOR gain) during head impulses ...
The horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) and vestibulo-collic reflex (HVCR) contribute to gaze stabilization during head movements in the horizontal plane (Baker et al., 1981; Berthoz, 1989)....
Seesaw nystagmus is characterized by cyclic eye movements with a conjugate torsional component and a dissociated vertical component. In the first half of the cycle, one eye elevates and intorts, whereas the other eye depresses and extorts. The pattern is reversed in the remaining half of the cycle. We describe a patient with a giant pituitary adenoma who developed pendular seesaw nystagmus. Disturbance in the visuovestibular system is postulated to contribute to this form of seesaw nystagmus. Lesions compressing the optic chiasm and the accessory optic system could interrupt the transmission of retinal error signals to the inferior olivary nucleus and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, thus interfering with the adaptive mechanism of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and leading to pendular seesaw nystagmus ...
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Unsteadiness in the elderly is a frequent complaint and a strong predictor of falls and psychological distress. Although there is a general consensus that it is a multifactorial condition, recent studies have focused on the role of aging of the vestibular system as a possible cofactor. The aim of our work was to assess horizontal canal function in the elderly. METHODS: We evaluated the gain of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) with a video head impulse test on a sample of 58 subjects aged ,70 years without lifetime episodes of vertigo and correlated the value with different clinical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, prior cardiovascular and vascular disorders of the central nervous system, and falls ...
Two sensory stimuli are required for significant adaptation of the VOR: vision and head motion. Traditionally, adaptation paradigms designed to enhance the gain of the VOR have been done with short-term (less than 1 hour) or long-term (greater than 1 day) time exposure. A number of VOR adaptation studies have demonstrated a robust capability for changing the normal VOR by coupling head motion with target motion. When the viewed targets move in such a manner that the image slips on the retina, the VOR is recalibrated. The direction of the recalibrated VOR (increased or decreased) depends on the direction of the target motion in relation with the head motion. During head rotation, visual following of targets that move at a velocity different from the head rotation will create an adaptation (change) in the gain of the VOR. This is commonly achieved by one of two means: (1) targets are viewed wearing lenses that maximize the visual world (increases target velocity) or minimize the visual world ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nonhuman primate vestibuloocular reflex responses to prosthetic vestibular stimulation are robust to pulse timing errors caused by temporal discretization. AU - Boutros, Peter J.. AU - Valentin, Nicolas S.. AU - Hageman, Kristin N.. AU - Dai, Chenkai. AU - Roberts, Dale. AU - Della Santina, Charles Coleman. PY - 2019/6/1. Y1 - 2019/6/1. N2 - Electrical stimulation of vestibular afferent neurons to partially restore semicircular canal sensation of head rotation and the stabilizing reflexes that sensation supports has potential to effectively treat individuals disabled by bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Ideally, a vestibular implant system using this approach would be integrated with a cochlear implant, which would provide clinicians with a means to simultaneously treat loss of both vestibular and auditory sensation. Despite obvious similarities, merging these technologies poses several challenges, including stimulus pulse timing errors that arise when a system must implement a ...
VORTEQ™ assesses the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR), including the video Head Impulse Test (VHIT), the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test and active head rotation.
Experiments were conducted on two male rhesus monkeys that had been trained to perform a visual fixation task (Wurtz, 1969) to obtain liquid reinforcement. Using methods that have been described previously, monkeys were anesthetized with isofluorane, and sterile procedure was used to implant bolts in the skull for restraining the head (Lisberger and Westbrook, 1985) and to implant a coil of wire on one eye for measuring horizontal and vertical eye position (Judge et al., 1980). In a second surgical procedure, a recording cylinder was cemented over a hole in the calvarium to allow access to the cerebellum for single-unit recording. The cylinder was placed stereotaxically at an angle of 26° (electrodes running in the sagittal plane from back to front) and aimed at the anteroposterior location of the ear bars, 11 mm lateral to the midline (Lisberger et al., 1994c).. During experiments, each monkey sat in a specially designed primate chair, to which his implanted head holder was secured. ...
The broad objective of this project is to develop a three-dimensional neural network model for eye movements that are caused by stimulation of the motion and gravity sensors in the inner ear, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The VOR is one example of eye-head coordination, whereby the movement of the eyes serves to compensate for a head movement, thereby enabling one to fixate on a region of space or an object of interest even though the person is moving. The model will provide a theoretical framework to evaluate abnormalities of the VOR that are caused by inner ear disease or dysfunction of neural pathways and populations of neurons in the brainstem and cerebellum caused by the genetic family of neurodegenerative diseases, the spinocerebellar ataxias. The aims are: 1) to identify those neurons which might be involved in a disease process causing a specific pattern of abnormal behavior of the VOR; 2) to predict the extent to which the network could compensate for or adapt to the abnormal ...
The vestibulo-ocular reflex is obtained by having the patient visually fixate on an object straight ahead, then rapidly turning the patients head form side to side and up and down. The eyes should stay fixed on the object and turn in the opposite direction of the head movement. The first principle of neurologic diagnosis is regional or anatomical localization. In order to become skillful the student must understand how structure relates to function of the nervous system. The neurologic examinat ...
The vestibulo-ocular reflex is obtained by having the patient visually fixate on an object straight ahead, then rapidly turning the patients head form side to side and up and down. The eyes should stay fixed on the object and turn in the opposite direction of the head movement. The first principle of neurologic diagnosis is regional or anatomical localization. In order to become skillful the student must understand how structure relates to function of the nervous system. The neurologic examinat ...
Figure 1 from Case report of Petersen, Wichhmann and Weber, 2013. It was proposed by Petersen et al, in a case report (2013), that the CANVAS diagnosis requires poor VVOR. The evidence that Petersen et al presented was weak -- the figure shown above which is of a 75 year old woman (who presumably has no pursuit due to her age), and an analog type recording style. This is not quite the same as a rotatory chair test, with a formal VVOR paradigm, and including (lets say) 10 patients. Should one require very poor VOR -- i.e. rotating in a chair with the lights on, looking for no response ? Perhaps a reasonable value would be a gain of only 0.5 (normal is 0.9-1). We would say no. This criterion is imprecise and at least in our experience, never encountered. There is actually very little quantitative data about deficient VVOR in the literature, and if one thinks about this a little bit, it would be very hard for this to happen. The VVOR test should, in theory, be resilient because without a VOR, ...
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article{2fa90bd3-8499-4b42-9d3c-c05bbdf377b8, abstract = {,p,The effect of alertness on the time constant of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and the time constant of the slow rise of the optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) was studied in nine pigmented rabbits. When the rabbits were alerted by vibration, the time constant of the VOR was prolonged, and that of the slow rise in OKN was shortened, whereas the gain of VOR and OKN remained largely unaffected. These findings agree with the suggestion that the state of alertness affects the vestibular system by way of the so-called velocity storage mechanism.,/p,}, author = {Magnusson, M}, issn = {0196-0709}, keyword = {Algorithms,Animals,Arousal,Models, Biological,Nystagmus, Physiologic,Physical Stimulation,Rabbits,Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular,Time Factors,Vibration,Comparative Study,Journal Article,Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt}, language = {eng}, month = {09}, number = {5}, pages = {9--353}, publisher = {W.B. Saunders Ltd}, series = {American Journal of ...
Gaze evoked nystagmus, smooth pursuit, and saccade abnormalities were found in both MJD and non-MJD patients. However, in all seven MJD patients but in none of the non-MJD patients, sudden passively induced head thrust to both sides elicited pathological corrective catch-up saccades, indicating bilateral loss of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex. This was further confirmed in six MJD patients who had absent vestibular response to both a standard caloric test and ice water ear irrigation. Nystagmus was induced by standard caloric irrigation in all non-MJD patients examined. There was no correlation between the loss of vestibular function and the severity of cerebellar impairment ...
TBI patients may experience visual-vestibular dysfunctions characterized by dizziness, vertigo, nausea, balance problems, photophobia in fluorescent lighting and increased motion sensitivity.4,10,29 Words may seem to move around while reading and computer tasks may be problematic due to monitor light flicker or sensitivity to scrolling motions. Visual-vestibular disorders likely occur due to abnormal function of the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) that controls gaze stabilization. The VOR stabilizes images on the retina during head movements by producing eye movements opposite that of the head movements.4,12,16,29-32 Dysfunction of the VOR may occur with damage to the semicircular canals in the ears, the oculomotor nerve (CNIII), the abducens nerve (CNVI), the acoustic nerve (CNVIII), or any neurological structures integrating these components.4,10,15,16,22,31,32 Detailed questioning regarding related symptoms in the patient history is especially useful in identifying and addressing potential ...
Cerebellar Purkinje cells mediate accurate eye movement coordination. However, it remains unclear how oculomotor adaptation depends on the interplay between the characteristic Purkinje cell response patterns, namely tonic, bursting, and spike pauses. Here, a spiking cerebellar model assesses the role of Purkinje cell firing patterns in vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation. The model captures the cerebellar microcircuit properties and it incorporates spike-based synaptic plasticity at multiple cerebellar sites ...
A baby can also experience sensations of hot and cold as it crawls towards a heating duct, woodstove, or a cooler area of the room. Proprioceptors, specialized sensory organs located on nerve endings within the babys muscles, tendons, and joints, tells the brain information about the babys body positioning and movement changes as it crawls. A babys developing visual system is stimulated and challenged while crawling, alternating between near and far point distances. As the babys gaze shifts from the floor to objects a few feet away, the eye muscles coordinate with the occipital lobe of the brain (primary visual area) to identify and focus on objects in front of the baby, or a parent on the other side of the room. The visual system is also challenged as it communicates with the vestibular system located within the inner ear in order to maintain focus on an object as the head moves in different directions. One such reflex, the Vestibulo-Ocular reflex stabilizes an image on the retina as the ...
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Because Microsofts Kinect for Windows is now able to detect and capture head rotation, you can activate the feature to receive head-rotation data from the sensor to transfer to iClone through the Mocap Device Plug-in.. Please note that if you activate this feature, you will need to trade it off for around 10% ~ 20% of the capture frame rate.. ...
poseBoneMatrix = poseBoneMatrix * boneMatrix.inverted() rotation = poseBoneMatrix.to_euler("XYZ") y = rotation.y x = rotation.x rotation.y = x rotation.x = -rotation.z rotation.z = -y m = rotation.to_matrix().to_4x4() m.translation = poseBoneMatrix.to_translation() trans = poseBoneMatrix.to_translation() m.translation = mathutils.Vector((trans[2], trans[0], -trans[1])) poseBoneMatrix = ...
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To develop a dexterous robot hand is one of the most important subjects in the robotics research field. The purpose of this paper is to achieve skillful manipulation by a multi-fingered robot hand with fingertip rotation axes. First, the kinematic relationship between the fingertip rotation and the rotation of a grasped object is proposed. Secondly, based on the kinematics, a new rotation control method of a grasped object is proposed. This controlmethod uses the rolling contacts between the fingertips and the object. As the target, a sphere and a cube were used.. ...
Snitplansmetoden (engelsk: cutting plane method) er en metode som benyttes til iterativt at styrke en matematisk formulering af et problem ved hjælp af lineære uligheder. Disse uligheder kaldes snit (engelsk: cuts) idet de snitter noget af det brugbare område af. Snitplansmetoden er oftest brugt i forbindelse med heltalsprogrammering hvor en funktion ønskes minimeret/maksimeret over heltallene i en given mængde. Metoden bruges inden for disciplinen matematisk optimering eller matematisk programmering.. Metoden er som nævnt en iterativ proces, hvor man i en given iteration løser en såkaldt lineær relaksering (engelsk: linear relaxation) af det givne heltalsprogram. Teorien bag lineær programmering (engelsk: linear programming) fortæller os, at givet at det lineære program har en optimal løsning og at det brugbare område ikke indeholder en linje, så kan en optimal løsning findes i et hjørnepunkt af det brugbare område[1]. Når en optimal løsning til det lineære program er ...
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